Entering a third decade: Ahfad University for Women--Iowa State University sustainable linkage model.
Launched in 1983, the Ahfad University for Women (AUW)--Iowa State University (ISU) Linkage enters its third decade as an educational and humanitarian collaboration addressing curriculum, research, outreach, and faculty development. As an equity model of collaboration and reciprocity, it focuses on shared values that are mutually beneficial and are related to each institution's mission to increase international understanding and advance program excellence, while making prominent the preparation of women as change agents. Through faculty exchanges, grants, graduate assistantships, a Fulbright Scholar Award, and shared expertise, individuals can advanced degrees, curriculum and programs are substantially enhanced, valuable research and faculty development opportunities are available in unique world settings, and improvement of the human condition is realized.
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Early in 1983, Ahfad University College for Women in Omdurman, Sudan, and Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, USA, had the unusually good fortune to be invited to consider an educational and humanitarian linkage between the two institutions. Drs. Lee Burchinal and Edith Grotberg, on behalf of Ahfad University for Women (AUW), introduced the idea of institutional cooperation to Dr. Donna Cowan, Associate Dean and Coordinator of International Affairs, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, Iowa State University.
At Ahfad, Dr. Burchinal was teaching classes in statistics and in social research methods and directing student research projects. Dr. Grotberg was teaching and conducting research in psychology and early childhood development. They served as liaisons with Professor Cowan, and together they explored the prospective benefits of collaborating in areas of mutual interest. The idea of a linkage project between ISU and AUW came just at the time when ISU was seeking to 'internationalize' programs across its colleges and to further research and faculty development in the global arena.
Ahfad University College for Women, under the leadership of Professor Yusuf Badri, Chairman, Board of Trustees, and Dr. Gasim Badri, Principal, was interested in evaluating and enhancing its curriculum and in assisting faculty members to pursue post graduate education. With this combination of interests, AUW and ISU established and have maintained a continuing working relationship for the benefit of both institutions as well as the citizens of their respective countries.
AHFAD UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN--IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY LINKAGE FORMALIZED
By July of 1983, Iowa State University and the Ahfad University College for Women, later to become Ahfad University for Women (AUW), had entered into a five-year Memorandum of Understanding based on partner commitments to reciprocal contributions related to teaching, research, extension, and faculty development, endorsed by Robert Parks, ISU President, and George Christensen, ISU Vice President of Academic Affairs, and Gasim Badri, AUW Principal. Initially, AUW participating units were the School of Family Sciences and Community Extension and the School of Psychology and Pre-school Education. ISU primary units were the College of Family and Consumer Sciences and the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, chaired by Gerald Konglan, in the College of Sciences and Humanities.
At the time, no linkages existed between an American university and any Sudanese institution in the social sciences. Even professional contacts between the two countries were limited; Sudanese faculty members and students seeking advanced degrees seldom came to the United States, and few American scholars did professional work in Sudan. The partnership was a unique affiliation bringing together a small, four-year, independent, private college for
The Ahfad Journal Vol. 21. No. 2 December 2004 women in an African, Muslim-oriented society, offering baccalaureate degrees, with a large, public, co-educational, land grant institution offering baccalaureate through doctorate programs located in the Western world.
AUW-ISU UNIVERSITY AFFILIATIONS PROGRAM: AN EQUITY MODEL
The two affiliate members meshed their visions and missions for the purpose of improving education and for encouraging women to become effective change agents in their communities and countries. Four areas were selected for joint activities: curriculum, research, outreach, and faculty development; within each area, institution needs were identified. While this was being accomplished, participants recognized the realities of supporting international affiliations and exchanges with financial and in-kind resources. The proposal, "University Affiliations Program, Iowa State University and Ahfad University College for Women--Sudan" was forwarded to the United States Information Agency (USIA) in March 1984 and funded in July 1984. The goals of the project were:
* To develop an overall integrated curriculum at AUW emphasizing the preparation of women as change agents,
* To increase the competency of the faculty at AUW in preparing women as change agents,
* To enrich programs and research at ISU with expansion of the international dimension focused on preparation of women as change agents, and
* To increase international understanding and program excellence at both institutions.
Goals were organized to integrate the needs of each institution and give direction to the specific projects and areas of activity to be developed. The result became known as the Linkage Equity Model (Cowan, 1985).
The Linkage Equity Model is based on collaboration, shared values, partner-identified needs, and reciprocity in providing mutual benefits to both institutions. This combination resulted in a sustained linkage program that continues to this day. During the span of over twenty years, significant projects have been undertaken, and accomplishments have been realized in each of the designated areas.
CURRICULUM COMPONENT OF THE LINKAGE
Drs. Sally Williams, Donna Cowan, Al King, Mrs. Barbara Rougvie, and Dr. Alyce Fanslow and her graduate student L. Hevi-Yiboe, all of ISU, along with Dr. Amna Badri from AUW, served as a team for curriculum assessment and implementation at ISU. This team, along with Drs. Babiker Badri, Gasim Badri, Edith Grotberg, Lee Burchinal, and others at AUW, developed a curriculum assessment instrument. This enabled AUW to evaluate, develop, and implement an integrated curriculum emphasizing preparation of women as change agents. New classes, focused on the equity of women and women in leadership, were developed. Programs and classes in child development and nutrition education were modified and strengthened. Programs in family science, child development, and nutrition were reorganized in scope and sequence. An interdisciplinary women's study program was developed, emphasizing the expansion of the role of women in Sudan. This program was the first of its kind in higher education institutions in Sudan which has strengthened the capabilities of both faculty and students in integrating women's perspectives into their areas of specialization. The curriculum development and teaching methods workshop presented at AUW by an ISU-faculty members, "Communication/Arts Instructional Methodology," introduced various teaching approaches to AUW faculty members. An audiovisual center was established at AUW as a result of the workshop.
AUW faculty members studying at ISU, both male and female, participated as Foreign Respondents, under the leadership of Dr. Charlotte Brunner, in the cultural perspectives classes in the Foreign Languages Department, College of Sciences and Humanities at ISU. The Sudanese participation in curriculum development at ISU infused global concepts into classes and programs. Another result was a heightened sense of global awareness, which served to energize study-abroad programs and international faculty exchanges. Appropriate international, intercultural, and global concepts were identified and integrated into curriculum. Extended study and teaching by Sudanese faculty members at ISU enriched programming and greatly enhanced international and intercultural understanding on the ISU campus. Reflecting the new international emphasis, ISU also required that students demonstrate an enhanced level of international and cultural competency as a requirement for the fulfillment of the ISU baccalaureate degree. During the term of this partnership, a record number of ISU study-abroad programs were developed, and the number of students studying abroad continues to increase dramatically, placing ISU in the top ten percent of American Universities for student participation in study abroad.
Faculty members from AUW were awarded graduate assistantships and studied at Iowa State University, two years for a master's degree and three years for a doctorate degree. Assistantships were supported by the ISU Graduate College, Dr. Daniel Zaffarano, Dean; the World Food Institute, Dr. Charlotte Roderick, Director; and Deans Deacon and Crabtree, College of Family and Consumer Sciences. Four AUW faculty members received Master's degrees: Badria Bedri in community nutrition education; Babiker Obeid and Azza Habib in child development; and Sidahmed Alfadl in nonverbal communications, media and art. Further, Sidiga Washi earned her Ph.D. in nutrition education. Awatif Halim was a visiting scholar studying university administrative procedures in registration and scheduling. Haram Badri, Nahid Abdel-Mageed, and Mary Asfaw continued studies in child development; nutrition and food science; and hotel, restaurant, and institution management, respectively. Graduates returned to AUW to hold responsible leadership positions. Not only were university programs improved, but faculty members were enriched by opportunities for international faculty exchanges. Drs. Anma Badri of AUW and Al King of ISU team-taught and participated in classes at the host institutions and conducted collaborative research. Drs. Sally Williams, Donna Cowan, Rosalie Amos, and Dale Terry likewise benefited from collaboration in education, international linkage development, and nutrition education.
RESEARCH AND SCHOLARLY WORK
AUW and ISU faculty members participated in research projects related to cross-cultural patterns, sex roles, music and art in children, child development, nutrition education, rural development, and curriculum development. Drs. Al King and Edith Grotberg launched the first longitudinal child development research study of its kind in the region, "Developmental Intervention Longitudinal Study in the Sudan." ISU and AUW faculty members shared expertise, resources, and technical assistance for designing research projects, as well as for analyzing data and preparing articles for publication. AUW provided the environment for ISU researchers to develop research projects and to collect data in a unique, international setting. Manuscripts were published, and handbooks were developed for classroom and community agency use. Results from research were made available nationally and internationally. See Appendix A.
Dr. Dale Terry worked at AUW as a visiting scholar, providing expertise in community nutrition and nutrition research. Interviews of AUW graduates at work in Khartoum Hospitals, Ministries of Education and Health, Red Crescent, and other locations provided perspectives for outreach and program development to serve the needs of rural and urban citizens of Sudan. Dr. Cowan contributed to curriculum implementation, linkage management, and exploration of community service projects at Ahfad and ISU. Sidahmed Alfadl's program in education and visual arts provided a significant contribution to non-verbal communication suitable for education in rural Sudanese communities. "The White Nile Water Project: A Source of Food and Health" was a major outreach activity in providing water to rural villages.
SUSTAINING THE LINKAGE
The initial USIA grant provided the base for development of this historic linkage. The partnership was expanded in 1989 with a USA for Africa grant to refurbish water wells in the White Nile Province. Communities in the White Nile area identified the availability and use of potable water as their most urgent priority. This project, like the original affiliation project, was interdisciplinary, combing faculty members from community nutrition, education, water resources, and food and nutrition from both ISU and AUW. The resulting project, which became known as "The White Nile Water Project: A Source of Food and Health" was designed cooperatively to further improve food security and health care through on-site water projects and educational activities. The White Nile initiative focused on providing well heads and water handling equipment and installing water diversion methods for irrigation of kitchen gardens. Designed by a Sudanese-American team, the program set out to accomplish the following major objectives: (1) to provide water for human consumption, personal use, and food production; and (2) to educate villagers in handling and use of water.
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Two water wells were to be dug and fitted with hand pumps. A local missionary agreed to dig the wells. In addition, he was interested in applying wind energy to water wells and proposed that he would dig two wells for the cost of one if the project agreed to fit one with a windmill. Historically, America has relied heavily on windmills to pump water on farms and ranches in rural areas. A Dexter windmill was procured from an American manufacturer in Nebraska and shipped to Port Sudan, from where it was then transported by lorry to the Sudan location. Mr. Ken Choquette of the State of Iowa Water Division, Dr. Al Austin of ISU Water Resources, and Operations Manager Art Jenison of Todd and Sargent, Ames, Iowa, served as consultants on the project. Mr. Choquette supervised the entire well drilling and pump placement operation on site, including the erection of the windmill. Mr. Salih Taha, from AUW helped the team in acquiring official permission from relevant authorities.
Staff from the Ahfad University for Women, led by Dr. Shadia Abdel-Rahim Mohamed from the Rural Development Program trained village and community leaders to promote self-sufficiency. They worked cooperatively with concerned NGOs to improve water accessibility and quality, food production and nutrition, income generation, and women's and children's health. ISU provided expertise related to food, nutrition, health care, and community development.
ADDITIONAL UNEXPECTED DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
The USIA and USA for Africa grants laid the ground work for the continuation of the AUW-ISU linkage program. These grants also energized the participants to provide additional resources for mutual activities. AUW and ISU continued to invest additional resources of faculty time, curriculum and research expertise, computer facilities, and funded research assistants. Memorandums of agreements were renewed periodically, and by the early 1990s, the affiliation was being recognized as a model international arrangement. Faculty exchanges have continued. Dr. Amna Badri was a visiting international scholar at ISU on three separate sabbaticals. On one of these occasions, 1998, Dr. Badri was a Fulbright Scholar, accompanied by Shahira Osama, an AUW teaching assistant. As a Fulbright Scholar and participant in the AUW-ISU partnership, Dr. Badri made extensive use of the ISU Library, local researchers, and the ISU Statistical Laboratory. She completed the collection, analysis of data, and writing of the study, "Assessing the Quality of Health Care in Umbadda Province." Presenting international lectures and programs to scholarly and community groups at Iowa State University, University of Iowa, and Vassar College dramatically expanded the intended objective of increasing world understanding. These programs included seminars on women's roles and international education, a lecture on "The Push for Change ... The Pult of Tradition," and a presentation on women's education in Sudan. As a University administrator and leader, she participated in workshops related to accreditation, strategic planning, and student outcomes assessment. While this was a constructive experience for Dr. Badri, both Ahfad University for Women and Iowa State University prospered greatly by the interactions of mutuality benefiting the greater good.
Continuing through the duration of this linkage, faculty members from both institutions sustain collaborative research and professional affiliations. As recently as 2002, Professor Cowan, ISU International Affairs, and in 2004, Professor. Gasim Badri, President of AUW, exchanged professional coordinating visits to Ahfad University for Women and Iowa State University, respectively. Faculty members from both AUW and ISU have produced scholarly papers and were involved in numerous presentations locally and world-wide. (See Appendix A). Papers were accepted at professional meetings including Decade for Women in Nairobi, Kenya; Women in Development and National Association of State Universities and LandGrant Colleges in Washington, DC; International Conference in Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt; National World Studies Conference in Omaha, USA; International Federation for Home Economics meetings in Accra, Ghana and Hanover, Germany; and Conference on Women in Africa and the African Diaspora in Nsukka, Nigeria. Additional papers were presented in Australia, Sudan, France, and Finland, and reports and manuals were prepared for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Work continues on the compendium of manuscripts related to women as change agents and includes the contributions of writers from several countries on the topic of women as change agents focusing on issues of education, changing roles, fertility, children and family, empowerment, law, employment, peace, mass media, women's health, female genital mutilation and AIDS, as examples.
Within the timeframe of the linkage, several AUW and ISU team members were involved in the ISU Society for International Development (SID) as members and officers. Drs. Cowan and Amna Badri continue to serve as coordinators of the linkage, and Drs. Burchinal and Grotberg provide liaison on an annual basis between AUW and ISU. Ahfad University for Women moved steadily from an enrollment of 4 students in one program to a comprehensive University of about 4,700 students in the Schools of Family Sciences; Psychology and Pre-School Education; Management Sciences; Rural and Extension Education and Development; Medicine and Pharmacy, offering baccalaureate, masters and doctorate degrees. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change was launched in 1984 by Drs. Lee Burchinal and Gasim Badri who contributed sustainably in the first three years by many research articles. Ahfad then established the Sudanese-American Foundation for Education (SAFE) for the purpose of accepting educational resources for higher education in the country of Sudan. Lee, Edith and Donna Cowan received honorary degrees from Ahfad.
Established as a linkage between Ahfad University for Women and Iowa State University in early 1980s, this was a pioneering action on the part of both institutions. The original identity of each varied considerably--Ahfad University for Women being a small, private, independent, undergraduate women's institution in a Muslim-oriented North Africa location and Iowa State University being a large public, land-grant co-educational, undergraduate through doctorate level university located in the Great Plains of middle America. While these hallmark characteristics diverge considerably, both universities endorse the mission of education to improve the human condition and to make contributions to society. As a land-grant university, Iowa State University (2002) exhibits this through instruction, research, and service. Ahfad, as a private university, subscribes to these same commitments and, in addition, includes concepts of leadership and equity in women's roles. Both identify faculty development as key to educational excellence.
The divergence of identity, coupled with the congruity of mission, creates a unique partnership in which common, shared goals can be realized. Early in the conception of the AUW-ISU partnership, reference was made to the fact that "each institution needs to benefit" (Iowa State University, 1984), it would be % project of equity focusing on mutual beneficial outcomes" (Cowan & Badri, 1985), and an "equity model of international interaction" was intended (Iowa State University, 1987). The affiliation was committed to a partnership that increased levels of human satisfaction and improved the human condition.
Well known as Maslow's (1971) hierarchy of needs leading to self-actualization, this theory addresses human satisfaction and is independent of culture and environment (Boeree, 1998), giving the quest for improving the human condition a universal breadth of application. In the Linkage, these improvements would be accomplished by two universities located in distant continents and reflecting diverse cultures, through education and research that directly influence service.
Learning theories and educational direction of the 20th century had a tendency to focus on the individual, as set forth by Piaget (Mussen, 1970). By the 1980s, attention on individualism began to move toward an increased sense of family, community, and global awareness (Kohlberg, 1981; Vygotsky, 1978, 1987). More emphasis was being shifted to caring for others and working on shared goals. Feldman (2000) speculated that the coming century may well attempt to balance individuality and social connectedness. Collaboration and relationships would require reciprocity. The AUW-ISU Linkage serves as a forerunner of melding cultures and in employing shared goals and collaborative efforts.
Collaboration and Reciprocity
Collaboration, as defined by Webster (2001), is "to work together, [especially] in a joint intellectual effort." Collaboration has qualities of sharing power and trust (Olson, 2003) and common interests and values (John-Steiner, 2000; Olson, 2003; Vaughn, 1994; Mattessich & Monsey, 1992). It allows risks to be spread among partners (Wallace & Gruber, 1989), and increased efficiency can be achieved through combined efforts (Brunner, 1991; Creamer, 2002; John-Steiner, 2000). Collaboration is integrative, addresses change, and involves innovation (Kantor, 1983).
Molm (2003) differentiates partnerships between negotiated and reciprocal. Negotiated linkages are characterized by joint decisions agreed upon at the same time with equal or unequal benefits. Reciprocal linkages are separately performed and generally take place gradually. Reciprocal relationships may take longer to develop, and time and extent of reciprocity are often unknown. Reciprocal exchanges generally involve lower power use and inequality, and there are higher levels of trust and feelings of affective commitment and a stronger sense of fairness. There may be a feeling of obligation not present in negotiated partnerships. The reciprocal exchange may be more suited to educational and community processes, while negotiated may fit better with economic or financial situations. Upon review, the AUW-ISU linkage is more closely aligned with reciprocal than negotiated collaborations. It follows the equity model, CARE (Collaboration and Reciprocity in Education), that focuses on shared values, mutually beneficial goals, respect, and trust (Cowan, Torrie, Hausafus, & Swanson, 2004).
Qualities of Sustainability
In the decade of laying the foundation for the AUW-ISU partnership, the equity model was a remote departure in international work, where the prominent approach was for one partner to serve the other. AUW and ISU instinctively sensed collaboration and reciprocity as basic to the affiliation. These characteristics designed into the Linkage would later be confirmed in research and literature as vital to effective partnerships. The transition is an affiliation truly showcasing equity and reciprocity.
In retrospect, the salient qualities of the AUW-ISU Linkage place themselves into four general areas: sound goals and planning, honorable principles of human interaction, feasible processes of implementation and communication, and outcomes and achievements trans,:ending those originally anticipated in content and longevity. Shared goals based on partner-identified needs, consistent with institutional missions and complemented by diverse culture, provide the infrastructure for a sound, collaborative linkage. Without exception, participants conducted themselves with integrity, respect, sincerity, veracity, and commitment, engendering a sense of community, trust, openness, fairness, and creativity. The feeling of affective connectiveness and a willingness to share resources and risks multiplies industry within the group. Mutuality is natural and selfless, and the willingness to assist energizes accomplishments for the good of individuals and for group efforts. Cooperation, patience, and respect are core values. Over time, the linkage has communicated via face-to-face meetings, Telex, Telephone, Fax, and now modern modes of electronic communications. Memorandums of agreement, faculty exchanges, workshops, national and international professional meetings, position papers, curriculum and research projects, published manuscripts, and a Fulbright sabbatical are all important to the process.
The Ahfad University for Women--Iowa State University international linkage record is one of unexpected achievements and longevity. More faculty exchanges took place than expected; considerable substantive curriculum changes occurred, directly affecting programs and increasing attention to intercultural sensitivity and women's roles; faculty development and international education expanded; individual and institutional development were advanced; and intercultural and interdisciplinary research enhanced The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change. International cooperation continues through scholarly work, interaction with SAFE, and students pursuing advanced education. With a sound foundation, exceptional professional interactions, feasible and creative processes of operation, and unusual industry, complemented by diversity, the Ahfad University Women--Iowa State University affiliation has exceeded its intended outcomes and achievements and continues to strive for excellence into its Third Decade as the longest-sustained international, inter-institutional linkage of its kind at both institutions.
Selected References, Resources, and Publications Supporting the Ahfad University for Women--Iowa State University Linkage
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE AHEAD JOURNAL: WOMEN AND CHANGE
Badri, A., & Fanslow, A.M. (1986, June). Benefits of income generating projects for women. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 3(1), 5-18.
Badri, B. (2002, June). Ahfad University for Women's experiences in introducing women and gender studies: The challenges of the 21st century. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 30(1), 41-49.
Badri, G., & Grotberg, E.H. (1986, June). Developmental status of young Sudanese children: Comparisons with American norms. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 3(1), 29-37.
Cowan, D.L., & Badri, B. (1985, December). Women as change agents: An inter-institutional project model. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 2(2), 23-27.
Grotberg, E.H., & Badri, G. (1986, December). The effects of early stimulation by Sudanese mothers: An experiment. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 3(2), 3-16.
Hevi-Yiboe, L.A., Fanslow, A.M., & Cowan, D.L. (1986, December). Ahfad students: Attitudes and behaviors regarding women's roles in 1985. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 3(2), 28-36.
Hevi-Yiboe, L., Fanslow, A., & Cowan, D.L. (1987, December). Perceived competencies of Ahfad students. Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 4(2), 10-18.
King, A.D., Cowan, D.L., & Galejs, I. (1987, December). Sex role attitudes of first and fourth year students in a Sudanese population. Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 4(2), 19-25.
Washi, S. (2002, June). Family issues and concerns in Africa: A home economics perspective. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 30(1), 30-40.
Washi, S., Cowan, D., & Terry, R.D. (1993, June). The impact of mother's education on indicators of school performance of first through third grade primary school children living in low socio-economic areas in Khartoum, Sudan. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 10(1), 44-55.
Washi, S., Terry, D., & Cowan, D.L. (1996, June). Food behaviour of young school children & their families living in low socio-economic areas in Khartoum, Sudan. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change. 13(1), 13-31.
Washi, S., Terry, R.D., & Cowan, D. (1998, June). Illness and anthropometric characteristics of first through third grade school children living in low socioeconomic areas in Khartoum state, Sudan. The Ahfad Journal: Women and Change, 15(1), 48-62.
SELECTED PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS
Badri, A., & Cowan, D.L. (1984). Cooperative linkages: A model for women's international education. Paper presented at the Decade for Women World Conference, Nairobi, Kenya.
Entering a Third Decade: Ahfad University for Women--Iowa State University Sustainable Linkage Model
Badri, A.E., & Cowan, D.L. (1998) African women as change agents. Paper presented at the Women in Development Conference, Washington, DC.
Badri, A., Cowan, D.L., & Grotberg, E.H. (1994). Critical aspects of women's status predictive of fertility rates in Sudan. Paper presented by S. Washi at the United Nations Population Conference, Cairo, Egypt.
Cowan, D.L. (n.d.). ISU-Sudan linkage: An equity model of international education. Paper presented at the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges Conference, Washington, DC.
Cowan, D. L. (1992). Professional practices with a global perspective. Paper presented at the International Federation for Home Economics: Women and Families in Development Committee, Paris, France.
Cowan, D.L. (1994, October). Iowa State University / Ahfad linkage. An international equity model. Paper presented at the 17th National Third World Studies Conference, Omaha, NE.
Cowan, D.L., & Badri, A.E. (2000, July). Critical aspects of women's status predictive of fertility rates in Sudan. Paper presented at the International Federation for Home Economics XIX World Congress, Accra, Ghana.
Cowan, D.L., & Washi, S. (1992). Eradication of female circumcision, training rural women leaders. In N. Leidenfrost (Ed.), International Federation .for Home Economics: Women and families in development: Families in transition (pp.209-210). Upper Marlboro, MD: Mattie.
Cowan, D.L., & Washi, S. (1992). Eradication of female circumcision (FC), training potential rural women leaders, the case of Ahfad University for Women (AUW) and Babiker Bedri Scientific Association for Women Studies (BBSAWS). Paper presented at the International Federation of Home Economics World Congress, Hanover, Germany.
Washi, S., & Cowan, D.L. (1992). International inter-institutional linkages: Opportunities for global education, research, and outreach. Paper presented at the International Federation of Home Economics World Congress, Hanover, Germany.
Washi, S., & Cowan, D.L. (1992, July). Water security: A model for women's and children's health in Sudan. Paper presented at the Conference on Women in Africa and the African Diaspora, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Washi, S., Terry, R.D., & Cowan, D.L. (1993, September). Illness and anthropometric characteristics of Sudanese primary school children living in low socioeconomic areas of Khartoum state. Paper presented at the XV International Congress of Nutrition, Adelaide, Australia.
Washi, S., Terry, R.D,, & Cowan, D.L. (1998). Relationship between mothers' educational achievement and the school performance of Sudanese primary school children living in low socioeconomic housing zones. Paper presented at the Association for Women in Development Forum, Washington, DC.
ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RESOURCES:
Badri, A.E., & Cowan, D.L. (2001, June). Assessing the quality of reproductive health care and gender sensitivity, Manual submitted to the United Nations Population Fund,
Badri, A.E., Cowan, D.L., & Grotberg, E.H. (1994). Critical aspects of women's status predictive of fertility rates in Sudan. Research report submitted to the United Nations Population Council (UNFPA).
Badri, A.E., Cowan, D.L., & Grotberg, E.H. (1994, October). Factors influencing rates of fertility: position on a traditional, transitional, modern cultural continuum; gender equality; early childhood experiences; and a sense of autonomy. Unpublished manuscript.
Darkoh, C.A., Williams, S.K., & Cowan, D.L. (1999). Differential impacts of family background, geographic location, and education on northern Sudanese women's attitudes toward traditional gender roles and societal change. Unpublished manuscript.
Darkoh, C.A., Williams, S.K., Cowan, D.L., & Badri, A.E. (1999). Changing family dynamics and gender roles. Unpublished manuscript.
Darkoh, C.A., Williams, S.K., Cowan, D.L., & Badri, A.E. (1996). Traditions, roles of women, and social change in the Sudan. Unpublished manuscript.
Only Great Universities, regardless of size or place, embrace international and global ideals. Great Universities extend the innate commitment to ,improve the human condition and promote cultural understanding and peace through education and service. In addition to those recognized in the text, a multitude of Ahfad University for Women and Iowa State University administrators, staff, and students contributed considerable support, resources, and encouragement. It is they who earn the credit for launching and sustaining this remarkable partnership into its Third Decade.
Ahfad University for Women: A model for women's education in the Sudan. (Available from
Ahfad University for Women, P. O. Box 167, Omdurman, Sudan)
Boeree, C. G. (1998). Personality theories: Abraham Maslow. Retrieved October 29, 2003, from Shippensburg University Web site: http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html
Bruner, C. (1991). Thinking collaboratively: Ten questions and answers to help policy makers improve children's services. Washington, DC: Education and Human Services Consortium.
Cowan, D.L. (1985, November). Women in development: ISU model. Paper presented at the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
Cowan, D.L., & Badri, A.E. (1985). University affiliations program, Iowa State University and Ahfad University College for Women, Sudan, Year I report. Report submitted to USIA, Washington, DC.
Cowan, D.L., Torrie, M., Hausafus, C.O., & Swanson, N.W. (2004, September). Collaboration and reciprocity in education (CARE): Partnership models in local and international settings. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 96(3), 35-39.
Creamer, E. G. (2002, November). Outcome of long-term research collaboration. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Sacramento, CA.
Feldman, D. H. (2000). Foreword. In V. John-Steiner, Creative collaboration (pp. ix-xiii). New York: Oxford University Press.
Iowa State University. (1984, March). University affiliations program: Iowa State University and Ahfad University College for Women-Sudan. Proposal submitted to USIA, Washington, DC.
Iowa State University. (1987, February). Women and management. Proposal submitted to USIA, Washington, DC.
Iowa State University. (1989). White Nile water project. A source of food and health. Proposal submitted to United Support for Artists for Africa.
Iowa State University. (2000). Strategic plan for 2000-2005: Appendix B: mission, role, and scope statements. Retrieved October 1, 2004, from Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Office of the President Web site: http://www.iastate.edu/~president/plan/2005/mission.html
John-Steiner, V. (2000). Creative collaboration. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kantor, R. M. (1983). The change masters. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Kohlberg, L. (1981). Essays on moral development: Vol. 1. The philosophy of moral development: Moral stages and the idea of justice. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Maslow, A. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: The Viking Press.
Mattessich, P. W., & Monsey, B. R. (1992). Collaboration: What makes it work. St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.
Molm, L. D. (2003, January). Theoretical comparisons of forms of exchange. Sociological Theory, 221(1), 1-17.
Mussen, P. (Ed.). (1970). Carmichael's manual of child psychology. (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Olson, L. M. (2003, Winter). Pathways to collaboration. Reclaiming children and youth, 11, 236-239.
Vaughn, G. G. (1994, Spring). Collaboration: Finding pathways for change. Home Economics FORUM, 7(1), 6-12.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky (Vol. 4) New York: Plenum Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). M. Cole, S. Scribner, V. John-Steiner & E. Souberman, Eds., Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Donna Cowan, Professor Emeritus, Associate Dean, International Programs, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, Iowa State University, Amna Elsadik Badri, Professor, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Ahfad University for Women & Nathan W. Swanson, Undergraduate Research Assistant, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Iowa State University
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|Author:||Cowan, Donna; Badri, Amna Elsadik; Swanson, Nathan W.|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2004|
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