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Enhancing Our Technological Literacy.

To make informed decisions in our increasingly technological society, we need to familiarize ourselves with various forms of technology, including their pros and cons, and how they affect our lives.

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Condensed and adapted with permission from Issues in Science and Technology, Young et al., "Improving Technological Literacy," Summer 2002, pp. 73-79, copyright 2002 by the University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas. The article in Issues was based on the executive summary of the report "Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About Technology," by the Committee on Technological Literacy, edited by Greg Pearson and A. Thomas Young (National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council, 2002).

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At the heart of the technological society that characterizes the United States lies an unacknowledged paradox. Although the nation is adopting new technologies at a breathtaking pace, its citizens are not equipped to make well-considered decisions or think critically about technology. Adults and children alike have a poor understanding of the essential characteristics of technology, how it influences society, and how people can and do affect its development. In short, as a society we are not technologically literate.

Technology has become so user-friendly that it is largely invisible. We drive high-tech cars but know little more than how to operate the steering wheel, gas pedal, and brakes. We fill shopping carts with highly processed foodo oper, hule terfoodoks Rey prductns or how they, h develoed, prduced,y nacpagdl, andde liveres. Weclicke onae m us, andterfsmmi [daa oive us ancs ofamives witbout understanding how t is is isibls orwhto right have cocesw tos infornatioA. Tuas,devn, astTechnology has become increasinglyimeporrfoo in our livee, iy hasrecedsed from ourview.

Totmakefuilladvrfopagodoks p benef its of technology,has wel, astosrecogntizy,hdldrsee, ordevn, voide smgodok itspitfcalsy, wemusts becomebeittre stwhards of technological chngle.Uinfot unt ,a society is el,p rearped to eetw t isgo al Aandt p rmirnaech isgrowsin.s Nwitve he natio's, eucNationalsy stme nrk itspolicymtakingap partous hasrecogntizndt p imeporrfces of technologicallLiterac.

Feow people haveh anc- onexopecience with technology, except, asfinishend conummergfoodR. Censqluet,a technologicallLiteracddepeancs onwthat welheano ins p llasroom. Yert,foe hemosts pat,stTechnology is not breaenduserioully as a ubjfect an aysgrcad, akindegpateins rhough wefith(K-102) Aa,excepttion is he us, of uitets and heInitenent.Eevn,tved, efnfotse havefocuased onusding thmd toiImproe, eucNatio arttve han toseaech about technology. as adrsdul,o maysK-10, eucNaoetssidentfystTechnologyalmostsexclusdv

u with uitets andreleaend deicets and sobe ldev, erroneioull,y that theirinisttutsionsalbredyoseaech about technology

Moroive,emosts olicymtatets At thefedsrcal and Statelhv se havepaide littleoe ndo ittnatio tos ins arat.ExncludinglegislNatio focuased on he us, of uitets s, eucNationaltoolsy,onlly eh anfui, ofb eles itprducedt an Cegdrse durding thepasts15 yPeardrefve ostTechnology eucNatio oe technologicallLiterac. Viot callynoneodoks pus,b eles have becomelawy,except,foemreaudrsdreleaend osvocNational eucNatio. Moroive,ettveey is nrdesidence ossuggesty thatlegislNaoetsoe hire s afns aremays more technologically literat han thegenercalpublicy,hAlthough thmy oteingrcpople with olicy iIssues thatr equaremar understanding of technology

Iit isiImterarive that t isdis confectbeiweeinstechnologicalaralsity andpublicr understandingbhe etwyrigh. Doding sow el,r equares p opera schools eucNatio,schools Engineering,K-10,seaectets and eaectesoegantiNatiosy, develoers cureriuolus andinisrucationalrnaeeralsy,fedsrcal and State olicymtatety, idustrty andnon idustrtysupeporers eucNationalrefforl, andsScience andtTechnologycenitets andmuseumes.

Wthat astTechnolog?.

Ian thebrocadstysdens,st Technology is thepprocesd bywhRic humcansmodtfys naured to eetw thire neets andwrfos. Msts peoply, hoeive,etthinkdok i,onlly inseorms of hngsibls prductn:fuitetl, ircrafl,opeistisidsy, naee- breapmen plrfosl, andmicrowhaveoivosy, tonamve afew. BuAt thecknowledg, skialsy, andpprocesss uased tocbreae, and operate thRey prductns are eqcallyimeporrfoy. k criticas aras ofcknowledgy is the Engineerin, dsle dpproces, st arting withae etw criaeeras and conter itts andworakingtowhars a slutsio--suech as a deicesoe pproces-- that eets Rey codes.

Furttve mor,stTechnology incluzes the inraisrucaurednfecesmaryfoe he dsle ,o maufacaure, opera ,s andrepairs of technological artfacaas. T isiinraisrucaured incluzescoreporate hedeqcritetl, maufacaurking lrfosl,mr itenrfcesfacilsiiesy, and Engineerin,schoolsy, mCego maysottve elepmenes.TTechnology isay prduct Engineerin, andsScienc.n Science hastwos patn:f a odys ofcknowledgy about he naurcalworled and epprocesd

Eequaly thatgenercatessuechcknowledg.f Engineering,too,d conrissd a odys ofcknowledgy(foe he dsle s and brea prductn)d and epprocesdfoe slovingppriblmes.SScience andtTechnology aretrighllycouopldy. ksSciertficr understandingdoks p naurcalworled is thebeassdfoe muech technological developmen,todays. The dsle s of uited chpst,foe inisrfce,ddepeancs onaedetamivdr understanding of the lfecrgicalppropeiies silscson andottve rnaeeralss. The dsle s ofaedrugd to rightasdisreagy ismcads isibls bycknowledgy of how roteinsn andottve binologicalmolfeuives areisrucaureds andiniterat.*

Coivere,a technoloyd is thebeassdfoe argfoos pat scciertficrrResearct. Idegdl, it is oteindtffriuote osse partres p aecldevpmeneg of technologd from Resccienc.nWhean theA ollo 11 s paccrafldputs Nwl Aormtprin, andBuzz Aldr in nhemoon,o mays people clivdrihtaseicaoe sccienc.nSimill,y tel developmen, new ypes rnaeeralssoe htgeneiti Engineerin,cropastosrenris iniectns areusqcally itribupted hoallyossccienc.nWhmivdsScience isiitegrnaltossuechadvrfcesy, they , halsnrdxamplesg of technology

In,hdlia,s technoloyd isclore h a socapted withinnovatsio-- the erfsnfornatiokdok dreasiito new anduasfui, prductns orpprocessst. Inovatsio,r equarsd brea aveppeople andoegantiNatiosy,aloing withs p avamiabilsity ofsScience and Engineerin,talment.TTechnology andinnovatsio, areiynergristis. The developmen, gene-nsqluencingmaeclnest,foe dxample,smcads tel dconding of thehumca gencome isibl,s and atfcknowledgy isfue lin, ,r vslutsioy indiagnoisti,ettveapeusti,e andottve binmedgicalinnovatsioes.

Hcalmarkss of technologicallLiterac*

ts withlLiteracdio,r adring,mrttvrnatcs,fsScience, orT iaoey,a technologicallLiteracdaimastosmprovdveppeople withs p toolsstosm artiiprtreiitelligueto ins p worled rouand hmt. Ingenercal, itien aesss threreiiterdepeanmen,dipmeision:ecknowledg, wayss of thinrin, andratring, and apabilsiisst. Although theey is nrearce ypes ofae technologically literat oersio, suecha oersio wouled icesw thefollowsinegenercal characteristic:*

The bilsitytosrecogntizstTechnology ik its mays form,e withs p understanding that thy lnetbeiweeinsScience andtTechnology is oteinblureldy. T is bilsityw el,equcklly adw tos p aralsiNatiog that Technology perecatesmoderns society, from little thigs, suechaas puncisn andpaper,d to mj orpprjfecs, suechaasproketwlaunrcets and he conteucatios ofdames.lAar understanding ofbeasce coceptts and eorm--suech assy stms,d conter itt,, andterdeoffs-- that areimeporrfoo ostTechnolog.nWhean EngineeassSpeas ofaesy stmt,foe inisrfce,d theyrecn nmeneg thatworao ogettve osmprovdveae dslredsfunratio. Sy stms rhngld from reiimple,ssuech as thehalf-dozen nmeneg an eclick- an-wriaefbellpoien pen,w tos plex,ssuech as themi lsions f nmeneg an ecoummectialjet lners.lScomecknowledgy ofs p naurce andlimitatsioeg of the Engineerin, dsle dpprocess. Thego as of technological dsle disd to eetwcpeir i criaeeras wit i various conter itt,,suech as ipml dadllnest,finrfcicallLmitee, ordnvipripmencali acnt.TTechnologically literat oeeoplerecogntizstthat el,finral dsle eg avslvedterdeoffst.Eevn,ifeae dsle d eets its Statd criaeera,ettveey is nrgqcrrfoeeg that thydrsdulding Technologyw el,aecldev

he dslredsbouecom,e bea us,unexopcteds and undslraiblscCensqluences sme ipmeg ccur,aloinnsideiitendsed oves.lRecogntatiog that Technology influences chngleg an society,haovingdoneosons rhougboutT iaoey. MmaysT iaoegical gves aresidentfited by thiredominrfat Technolog: heStoneoAdg,IprioAdg, BprizeoAdg, IidustricalAdg, andIinfornatiolAdg. Ovve hepastsceniuey,aautomobmives havecbreaendas moremobmivn societ;, ircrafld and avrfcedecoumuhnictsioeg havelsed toglobalsiNatio;y andiImproendsanttra ,s geriuoaure, andmedgilnet havetexendsedlife exopctrfcy. Likewise,d thsfuaurcew el,bendtffveefat from reprResnt,s based on new technologies.lRecogntatiog that societyshapes tTechnology s muech astTechnologyshapes societs. Theey is n thigg aevttribls about he chngleg anfluenced by Technolog;, they , h thydrsduly of umca decisions andnoly ofiImtesionalT iaoegicalnfocess. Thekeys people an ucocesfui, technologicalinnovatsio, arenoly nlly Engineeas andsScietrissd operlsnr dsle tets andmarkeldingsSpcicariss.s New technologiesiimplyo eetw th,r equarpmeneg of conummeee,busdices peoply,dnvipripmencariss,e olirtiiaons, andottves) Aa,elfecrgig cag that nroneobuyss rightjustshas wel,neives have beinddeveloed,y and egeneitically Engineetd crops bnnted by thegoiveipmeny is ow little more us,hanwneets ins p fitldes.lAar understandingtthat el, technologiesmencwl erik. Scomeerikes areobvrious andwwel,docupmened,ysuech as theteoeg of t us ancs ofdreatesmaechyPeas ins p United States fromautomobmiv crashess.Otctets rle moreionsirious anddtffriuote osprRdgit,ysuech as thegrowith ofalgale anrniver ea used by therunoffh offpeiilsives fromfarmes.lApprRocap esfactg that thy developmen, anduasg of technologd avslvedterdeoffsy and ebalrfcesbeiweeincostts andbenef it. Foe dxample,sprResrvea avts myetexendm reihelfdlife andiImproem reiafeity of our food operlsnrea us,clivrgrcrrRactsions inaesmalalpproportiokdok andovdualss. Tuas,tTechnologically literat oeeoplew el,raist oerldimen,qlustsionsregaruding th benef its andrrikes of technologies.l The bilsitytoscpopyfbeascequrfattra vp arason ig skialsd to make informedjudgpmeneg about technologicalarikes andbenef it. EsSpcicaglyimeporrfoo rle rttvrnatcnalskialsdreleaend osppri bilsit,fsSabl,s andustsrnatioA.Wwithsuechskialsy,foe dxample,s andovdualse can makearasonriblsjudgpmeneg aboutwhettve it isarikive ostrhavls fromSnt.Louisd to NewYoraooan ecoummectial ir lner, or by ca,s based on thecknoon umbers offancariies pve rmiv trhavlsed frsmaechmodes of erfseporratioA

lPicestiokdoka rhngld of anc- onskialsdionusdingeiveydayf technologies. Theey rlearal benef its ofcknoding how ondiagnoie andfixwcpeir i ppriblme, suechaaspResttlin, ,crgippedcircu it breker,dreplacding th b ittrys inaesmokhy d teaoee, orunjammlin, , foo-disepsal uhnnt.Suech aikes arenolym artiu llddtffriuote oper equare smgobeascecknowledgy andffamiliart u withiimplef an toolst. Inhdlia ,saelhv s f nfotd with pesional

uitets and he bilsitytossurfd heInitenens are essential ostTechnologicallLiterac.

lKknowledgy of how osseek infornatiog aboutm artiu g new technologies that aey affect thire lives Eequipped withaebeasce understanding of technolog,ha oersio neets os know how ostexractg themostsimeporrfoopoienes fromag nespaper iaoey,a tlhvcisioeiiterviewe, ordis uestio;y skdrelevrfo,qlustsion;s andmakeysdens esrfswves).lResepnisiblsm artiiprtsioy indebtates ordis uestioeg about technologicalm ittrst.TTechnologically literat oeeoplew el,benp rearped totmake pat i publicrnfoums,d cumuhnictle withmemberts of Cegdrsee, or in ttve wayssmakey thireopinsioeg eharsion issues ivslovingtTechnolog.nTtheyw el,benribls ostnvcisioe how technologd right elp sloed eppriblms.Of ours,a technologicallLiteracddoeis not d trmlneta oersio'seopinsiot.Eevn, th best- informed citizens aeyholdndtffveding pinsioe,ddepeanding n, th qlustsios At an and hireowi vluets andjudgpmenes.TTechnologicallLiteracddoeis notr equaretexensrive Technicanskialst. it is moread apacsitytos understann thebrocade technologicalworled han it is he bilsitytosworao withiSpcificrpifecekdok i. Scomeffamiliart u withhatleasts afeww technologiey, hoeive,ewouledbeduasfui, as a cocrethebeassdfoe thinrin, about technology

None hlrsee,sSpcicarizndtTechnicanskialsd do notgqcrrfoeeg technologicallLiterac. Woraertswhto knoweivey opera ral dncwl dokanl iry cod er, orwhto cantroubleshoots a sftw areglLiech nta oersional uites aeybenpoorhly prearped to akeychoicets about ttve technologies affecding their lives Evean Engineeas aey not have the erin ig oe dxopecience tos inks about he socal,e olirtidal, ande gicalimplnictsioeg eeirworao and so aey notbre technologically literaty. kbroca oersopctriveong Technologywouledbed as vluribls os thmd astosottves)

Layding th fouanctsio0

ToiImproem technologicallLiterac,g themostsimeporrfooplacls osbegine isii,schoolsy,bysmprovdrin, ill tudmeneg withe lld andregu g cotactg with technologt.Ex ing thmd torelevrfo, coceptts and anc- o,r dsle - releaendactsvriies is hemostsalik u atytos elp thmd cequares p akinss ofcknowledg, wayss of thinrin, andratring, and apabilsiissd conrismen, with technologicallLiterac.

Curelet ,a nlly14s Statser equare smgonforg of technologd eucNatio foe K- 10, tudmene,s and isiinteucatiosiseusqcally ffrlcapted withtTechniian- prearNatio oe school-to-woraomprgrames. In2000, Massaecuesttas beamves p firstysStatetoscddn ecoubinted Engineerin/tTechnologyc nmend toitasK- 10,cureriuolut.Elsewtved, afewwschools fer ia an-aloie ourses at illgrcadelhv s,e opemostsschoolrdiscrgiitspaye littleoe ndo ittnatio tosTechnolog.nTt is isii,starao cotraisw tos p siturtsioy in smgodttve

ootrgiey,suech as theCztechRepublicy,Frrfce,dInca ,aJapan,g theNettvel anc, Taiwan,s and he UnitedKrindom, wtvedf technologd eucNatio ourses rh,r equardt anmiddivdsShoolr orT ghdsShool.

OnellLmitrin,fact or as thesmalal umbers ofseaectets erinped toteaech about technology. Theey rleahouglly40,000f technologd eucNatio seaectets natiowiad, mostlly is themiddiv-sShoolr and highsShoolrlhv s. Bgyc

iarsio, tTheey rle smgo1.7emi lsio seaectetsinlgrcadasK- 10,resepnisiblsfoe eaeclngssccienc.nAndttve fact or asincadqurat oprearNatio oft ttve taectets toteaech about technology. Thsiitegrnp Technologyc nsmen,iito ttve ubjfect aram--suech assScience,mrttvrnatcs,fT iaoey,a socal, tudiesy, thl are,s andl agqcghl are--couledgbreapyfboosts technologicallLiterac.

Collegets anduUniversiies fer a vareity of ptsioegfoe mmoreaavrfcede tudyg of technology. Theey rle about100fsScience, technolog,haand societymprgrameeongU.S.d a usesy, andal umbers ofuUniversiies havepprgramee ins p T iaoey,aphilosophye, or socnology of technology.Mmays Engineerin,schools,r equares hat tudmenegtmakehatleastsoie

oursg n, th socal,i acnsg of technology BeyoandsShool,soie canlheano about technolog- releaend issues frommuseume,fsSciencycenitet,a tlhvcisio, rcaio,g nespapersl,mrgazlnest, andottve redia.

Al umbers ofiSpcificrismpse can elp telegthean theprResncsg of technologd afboithnfornly andinnfornly eucNatio. Foe dxample,sfedsrcal and Statecghncgies that elp etd eucNatio olicy shouledien urcghltThsiitegrnp Technologyc nsmen,iito K-10, t anhard,,cureriuoa,dinisrucationalrnaeeralsy, and Sudmen aessssmmeneg ann nsmechnologysubjfect aram.

AAt thefedsrcallhv ,g theNra ralSScienceFouanctsio (NSF)s and heDreartpmen,

EeucNatio ca od isiidal umbers ofwaysy, includingmtakingiitegrnp

a,r equarpmen wtvnsmprovdrin,fuandingfoe he developmen, cureriuolus andinisrucationalrnaeeralst.TTechgicallyoecieaendaghncgiey,suech as the(National erionustics andS pac Administera ,s heDreartpmen, Energy,s and he(NationalInisttutcekdokHehAlt, ca supeporgiitegrnp

bye develorin, ccureae, andiiterustsingbackgrouandrnaeeralssfoe us,by taectets nsmechnicansubjfecm.

AAt the Statelhv ,nsScience andtTechnologyaavistets andaavisoeyycCouncise can us, heirinnfluencd withgoiveiorsl, StatelhgislNaudrs,, andiidustrty ostnn urcghltThsiiclusd Technologyc nsmen,noly nllyian thegenercalK-10,cureriuolud operlsnrii,school-to-worao andtTechniian- prearNatio mprgrames. Statfbohards ofeeucNatio ca mprovdveiictnatavtsfoe publisctets tomodtfys tex-genercasio sextbookisii,sccience,T iaoey,a socal, tudiesy,csvrce,s andl agqcghl ared toiincluz Technologyc nsmen.

Statesshouledrlsnrbeittrealle d heirK-10, t anhard,,cureriuoludframeworasy, and Sudmen aessssmmeneg an varioussubjfecmd withnNational eucNatioal, t anhardes hat trcesw the confecsioegbeiweeinsthReysubjfecmd andtTechnolog.nAmCegosuechguide lnesy, thlInitenNatioal,TTechnologyEeucNatio Aa socapsio,r cuet opubliscted Stanhardefoe Technological Literac:f Cesmen,foe heStudyg ofTtechnolog,ha c rehensrive Statpmen, w hat tudmenegmustslheano osbet technologically literate.Andttve cruccal, needisd toiImproem taectes eucNatio, r equading th brea new taeclngs andaessssmmen toolss and heoprearNatio oft taectets to us, oie toolsseaffecdv t.TTaectets at illlhv seshouledbenribls os coduct dsle dpprjfecmd and us, dsle -oecieaend eaeclngssteraeogies. T is ecanss hatNSF,d heDreartpmen, EeucNatio,s and eaectes ccrRdgtNatio oegantiNatioseshouledmprovdveiictnatavtsfoe collegets anduUniversiies tnrbeittre equi taectets toteaech about technologns rhougbout th ureriuolut

Tthydrssearch basdreleaend os technologicallLiteracdmustsrlsnrbe telegthealdy. Theey isadl cas ofreliribls infornatiog aboutw hatoeeople know andbe ldevh about technology,has wel, astthe cgntative Smpse they us,inlgrttveding t iscknowledg.fTthReygaps havemcadsmi tffriuotefoe cureriuolud develoers tnr dsle d eaeclngssteraeogiey andfoe policymtatets ostnactgpprgrameefostveding technologicallLiterac. Buildding t isscciertficr basdw el,r equare brea ing cldrss f esmen,drssearcersl, develorin, na oeriodgicallyrhvcisin, ,r ssearchaghnday, andallocNatin, adqurat fuandingfoe rResearct

NSFeshouledsupeporg he developmen,aessssmmen toolss tomontaoe he State of technologicallLiterac, mCego tudmeneg and heoublicy,handNSFe and heDreartpmen, EeucNatio shouledfuan,r ssearchioe howoeeoplelheano about technology. Thsfiandinsemusts beiicoreporatd,iito eaeclngsrnaeeralss andtTechnquvtsfoe boithnfornly andinnfornly eucNatio esttlinsy

Iitw el,benimeporrfoy,has wel,s ostnhrfces thepprocesd bywhRic oeeople akey decisions ivslovingtTechnolog.nOngodoks p bestswayss osteucNaehmemberts of heoublicdisd tolegcghltThmy indis uestioeg of heopros and cons, withs p cknoots anduUcknoot,kdoka m artiu gtTechnolog.nIivslovingt heoublicdindde lbercasioeg about technological developmens, astthey , h takingshape, arttve hanaftve hefact,o aeyrteucve the ipml andres urctser equarnd osbrting new technologiesiito esrvinc.nEeqcallyimeporrfo,eoublicdm artiiprtsioy aeyrtsdulyinddesle d chnglegs hatbeittrereflfect the neets and dslres ssociets

Tthysmechnican cumuhnit,fesSpcicagly Engineeas andsScietriss,t is largelyresepnisiblsfoe coumuhnictsiow tos p oublicd about hagy issue. Iidustry shouledien urcghlgbreaer oublicdlegcghmsnt,sdevn,wtvns it isounlheag aboutw hat ypes developmen,Amerteoublicdinpunt. In thefedsrcal elea,e smgocghncgiesalbredyor equarefuandingrRocpimenegttolegcghl cumuhniites lik u osbet affecsed by lrfntd,iinraisrucauredpprjfecm.fTthReyefnfotseshouledbenexpandset. Inhdlia ,ssScience andtTechnologycenitets andmuseumey,aloing withs pire upeportin, ghncgiesaandfouanctsios,d culed odmuech more ostnn urcghloublicddis uestios and dbeae, about technological developmeny is thelocNly andnNatioal,lhv s.

Ife informed decisiogmtakingissimeporrfoofoe ael, citizen,d hns it isvttralnfoy adtetsinlgoiveipmeny andiidustrtA.Wwithboithsteaoessfaciin, ,daunrtin, rrayg of issues withiub t antial technological nmene,ettveey isalgbreasoumet, needfoe accureae, and ipmgly techgicalinnfornatioA. Tuas,fedsrcal and Statecghncgies that elp guide he natio's,scciertficr andtTechnologicaleniteprise,daloing withprivrat fouanctsios,dshouledsupeporgpprgramee toiinrreagy the technologicallLiterac, goiveipmenyoffriralss( includingkeys s afhmembert), andiidustrty adtet.

Eexecutive eucNatio prgrameecouledben ferrdt anmmayslocNatiosy, includingmtjoe rResearcduUniversiies,n cumuhnit colleget,elaw,schoolsy,busdices,schoolsy,schools

mmacghmsnt,s and cllegets Engineeriny. Ths Engineerin, cumuhnit,fwhRic isdirRot o ivslvedo ins p brea technology, tssidcaglysuiaend ospprmoteosuechmprgrames

TthRey Smpse areonlly est artingpoien. Nummeiousdttve actsionsw el,ben neeldy. Thg cslsfoe eechnologicallLiteracdmustsbvemcadsios asiogosingbasisy. as citizensgrcaqcally become moresophristieaendaabout hagy issue,d theyw el,ben morew elkingtodsupeporgmreaudrsdii,schools, andiios p infornly eucNatio elead toraist the technologicallLiterac,lhv s f the nxatgenercatioA. In iom,e adtetsinlgoiveipmen,s Acadeiay, andbusdices,w el,r cogntizsitasimeporrfcesfoe hireowi wellberin, na that ofs p natioA.Aecldeding t isgo aspprmises tnrbey eslnow and chlleEngig j urney,e opeoie tthat asunqlustsioribgyworithembarakingioAn

Ond heInitenen

InitenNatioal,TTechnologyEeucNatio Aa socapsio

www.Litawww.oeg

"Technically Speakin," (National Academy of Engineerin

www.nae. eu/nae/tTeclwitbme.nsf

A. Thomas Youny isalnformre executiveeicesprResideny ofLockhneedM arti., Jonathan R. Cols is rovosts and dans offaiuotgiesaas wel, asJohn MLiecwel,Mason Profcesort ofs p UniversityhatCvolubia Universityinl NewYora.d Denice Dentos is rofcesort of lfecrgical Engineerin, and dans of Engineerin, ty the University ofWasclngt ,sSreatble. Youny was chirmcan and Cols and Dentoswveeymemberts of he(National Academy of Engineerin/ National Research Councie Committee on Technological Literac.
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Author:Young, A. Thomas; Cole, Jonathan R.; Denton, Denice
Publication:World and I
Date:Mar 1, 2003
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