Physical Therapy helps a patient manage their pain as well as to improve their movement over an injured body part. These therapies use exercise to gently stretch and strengthen specific muscles and joints. One such therapy uses wrist-exercise to help rehabilitate an injured wrist. Wrist flexion/extension is when the wrist is bent down or up until a stretch is felt. A Physical Therapist may demonstrate the range of wrist motion exercises for a patient to perform the exercise at home. However, there is no way that the patient will know if he or she had performed the exercise correctly. Incorrect motion or stress on the wrist may do more harm than good for the patient.
In this project, an exercise machine has been made that will allow a Physical Therapist to instruct a patient to perform flexion/extension exercises of the wrist properly and with a correct range of weight/load to strengthen the wrist. With this machine a patient can now progress from a low impact exercise to a higher load to increase the strength and mobility of the wrist.
Investigating the Effects of Clathrin-Coated Pit Size Distribution of Productive and Abortive Pit Lifetimes. Alexis R. Siegel and Gillian L. Ryan, Kettering University
The protein clathrin is a triskelion that diffuses freely throughout the cytoplasm and attaches to the cell membrane. During endocytosis, these proteins will come together in a hexagonal lattice structure forming clusters within the cell membrane. This process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis will first result in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). After nucleation of the clusters within the membrane, the CCP will deform into a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV). These pits, pending successful completion of endocytosis, will detach into the cytoplasm as productive pits. If unsuccessful, the pits will dissipate. These pits are labeled as abortive pits, and two subpopulations have been identified experimentally based on their lifetime. A Monte Carlo simulation is done using a modified Ising Lattice Gas Model to gain a better understanding of the dynamics leading to the CCP formation and lifetimes. In previous work, our model assumed a constant pit size for successful endocytosis to occur. This model captures the lifetime distributions of abortive pits but does not reproduce the lifetime of productive pits. In this talk, we present an updated model, which accounts for the size distribution of pits capable of completing endocytosis. We will present the analysis and comparison of pit lifetime distributions to those observed experimentally.
Investigation of Interaction Strength Dependence on the Growth Rate for Clathrin-Coated Pits. Sally S. Dagher and Gillian L. Ryan, Kettering University
Endocytosis is a process that eukaryotic cells employ to uptake molecules into the cell. Although there are multiple endocytosis pathways, the best studied is Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in which the membrane is coated with clathrin proteins to form clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) which deform to intake cargo. These CCPs are dynamic and can be either abortive or productive. Abortive CCPs do not complete endocytosis while productive CCPs will successfully form, detach from the membrane, and move into the cytoplasm as a vesicle. Experimental observations have indicated that productive pits will undergo rapid assembly, slow maturation, and rapid departure phases. Assembly and maturation are the rate-limiting steps with four-fifths of growth occurring in the assembly phase. To better understand the dynamic CCP formation an Ising lattice gas model was developed. CCP growth rate is observed to be dependent on the clathrin interaction strength. The preliminary model recovers CCP growth rates consistent with experiment but fails to capture both the assembly and maturation phases of growth. In this talk, we will discuss how a CCP size-dependent interaction modifies growth profiles during Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.
Energy Aware Job Scheduling in Parallel Machine Production Systems. Farnaz Ghazi Nezami, Kettering University
A scarcity of national resources and other environmental concerns make energy efficiency consideration an inevitable concern in manufacturing facilities. Process improvement using effective scheduling systems is an economic approach to minimize energy consumption and waste. Energy charges consist of energy consumption and demand charges, where energy demand costs account for the largest amount of utility bills in industrial facilities. This paper proposes a new mathematical framework for production scheduling in a parallel manufacturing environment when machines are non-identical. The goal is to determine the optimum sequence of jobs and machines operating schedules in order to minimize total completion time, energy charges as well as energy demand penalty costs during the planning horizon. A mixed-integer nonlinear model is proposed to formulate the problem which will be linearized and solved for optimality. The performance of the model is tested through numerical experiments.
A DIC Approach to Extract Operating Mode Shapes of Automotive Body Panels with Complex Geometry. Vanshaj Srivastava and Javad Baqersad, Kettering University
There has been an increase in applications of lightweight materials in the aerospace and automotive industries. That makes test engineers seek for different non-contact techniques which can provide full-field data without mass loading the structure. Recently, stereo-photogrammetry and three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) have been adopted to collect operating data for structural analysis. These non-contact optical techniques provide a wealth of distributed data over the entire structure. However, the stereo-camera system is limited by the field of view of the cameras; a single pair of DIC cameras may not be able to provide deformation data for the entire structure. Multiple pairs of cameras can be used to perform DIC measurement on a large complex structure; which involves huge costs and may not be a feasible option. In this work, a multi-view 3D DIC approach is used to predict the vibrational characteristics of an automotive body panel. A pair of DIC cameras is roved over the entire structure to capture the deformation of each field of view. The measured data includes the geometry and displacement data which are later mapped into a global coordinate system. The measured data are stitched in the frequency domain to extract the operating deflection shapes and resonant frequencies of the entire structure.
Let Me Give You a Hand. Ekaterina Shick, Joshua Kartes, and Victor Argueta-Diaz, Alma College
People are so accustomed to having our hands to accomplish everyday tasks that we cannot even begin to imagine what life would be like if they were gone. For 2 million in our world this is a harsh reality they must live in every day. As of right now, the only solution to this problem is advanced prosthetic devices, and these prosthetics are not cheap. In fact, for a veteran the average cost of a prosthetic limb over a life time is around $824k. However, for an average human insurance will only cover 10-50%, thus the cost will be even higher. We are hoping to create a prosthetic that will be cheap and effective for those who cannot afford such outrageous prices. Our solution is based on a myoelectric muscle sensor and haptic feedback to control the hand position by the user. Our project is still in the beginning phases and we are still doing research and planning. As of today, we are evaluating different hand designs and control algorithms.
SDF-1[alpha] Coated Electrospun Collagen Scaffold for In Situ Tendon/Ligament Repair. Mario Rossi, Brian Ziola, Anne Tucker, Angelica Guardia, and Kathm Alismail, Lawrence Technological University; Therese Bou-Akl, St. John Providence; Meagan Salisbury, William Beaumont Hospital; Tristan Maerz, University of Michigan; Yawen Li, Lawrence Technological University
Collagen is a major extracellular matrix (ECM) component in many tissues. Electrospun collagen nanofibers can be used to create scaffolds for the regeneration of fibrous tissues such as ligaments and tendons, which usually results in joint instability or inability to fully utilize a muscle if torn or stretched. In this project, a collagen scaffold was electrospun, cross-linked and infused with an alginate solution containing stromal cell-derived factor lot (SDF-1[alpha])--a chemokine to induce migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the scaffold--as an alternative approach to in situ tendon/ligament repair. Collagen was extracted from rat tail tendon, electrospun into fibers, and cross-linked using l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in acetone. The collagen scaffolds were seeded with fibroblasts; AlamarBlue assay showed approximately 60% cell attachment after seeding and cell proliferation in the next two weeks. After dip-coating the scaffolds with alginate/SDF-1[alpha] solution, the in vitro release profile of SDF-1[alpha] was measured using EL1SA, resulting in a burst release profile with 62% of the 24-hour release amount of the chemokine discharged in the first four hours. Ongoing work includes degradation study of the cross-linked collagen scaffold, optimization of the crosslinking process for enhanced mechanical properties, and in vitro MSC migration study.
Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine through DIC Technique. Ashim Khadka and Javad Baqersad, Kettering University
In this study, to quantify the level of strain/stress and loading conditions that rotating structures such as wind turbines experience during operation, an approach is proposed that can perform a nondestructive evaluation of these rotating structures using non-contact, three-dimensional (3D) full-field digital image correlation (DIC). This technique addresses the benefit of noninterference with structure functionality. At the same time, since unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have appeared to be a beneficial tool for remote inspection and data acquisition for places which are either inaccessible or riskier, the feasibility of performing DIC measurement using a set of cameras installed on UAV is being investigated.
A synchronized set of the stereo camera systems is used to acquire the images for displacement, geometry, and strain measurements. Here, to simplify the operator use, a single controller is used for the flight of UAV and image acquisition. UAV is stabilized at the set field of interest and working distance based on the turbine size, and the images of wind turbine blades with the ideal sized speckled pattern are processed for in-situ health monitoring. Thus, blending the benefits of the remote accessibility of UAV and full field evaluation of structures using D1C system is a novel advent to monitor the existing wind turbines.
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|Title Annotation:||wrist therapy, effects of protein clathrin, clathrin-coated pits|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2018|
|Next Article:||Environmental Science & Ecology.|