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* Definitions from Building Career Ladders for Low-Wage Workers: A "How-to" Manual for Workforce Development Practitioners and Partners, Claudia Green, Sarah Griffen, Laurie Sheridan Boston Workforce Development Coalition

(1) Waldron, T., B. Roberts, and A. Reamer. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security. Working Poor Families Project, October 2004.

(2) U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Adult Literacy Survey. Adult Literacy in America, 1992, prepared by Educational Testing Service (Table 391, prepared February 1994) (Latest data available.) Adults are age 16 and older.

(3) U.S. Department of Education. Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000. NCES 2004-010. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. November 2003.

(4) Working Hard, page 14.

(5) Carnevale, A.P., and D. M. Desrochers. Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K-16 Reform. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2003.

(6) U.S. Bureau of Census. The Big Payoff: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings. Current Population Reports P23-210. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, July 2002.

(7) Sticht, T., and W. Armstrong. Adult Literacy in the United States: A Compendium of Quantitative Data and Interpretive Comments. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy, 1994.

(8) Grubb, W. N., Learning to Work: The Case for Reintegrating Job Training and Education. New York, NY: Russell Sage, 1996; Sticht, T.G., The Military Experience and Workplace Literacy: A Review and Synthesis for Policy and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: National Center on Adult Literacy, 1995.

(9) Strawn, J. Beyond Job Search or Basic Education: Rethinking the Role of Skills in Welfare Reform. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy, 1998; Strawn, J. and K. Martinson, Steady Work and Better Jobs: How to Help Low-Income Parents Sustain Employment and Advance in the Workforce. New York: MDRC, 2000.

(10) For more information on the Employability Skills for Adults curriculum, contact the Adult Learning Resource Center, Des Plaines, IL (847-803-3535 or

(11) For information on DACUM, see For information on WorkKeys, see

(12) MDRC, "Support Success: Services that May Help Low-Income Students Succeed in Community College," 2004.

(13) Gruber, D. Using Resources Effectively: An Overview of Funding Resources for Workforce Development Initiatives. Workforce Strategy Center, November 2004.


(15) Hollenbeck, K.M., and W.J. Huang. Net Impact and Benefit-Cost Estimates of the Workforce Development System in Washington State (Technical Report No. TR03-018). Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, July 2003; Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board. Workforce Training Results 2002: An Evaluation of Washington State's Workforce Training System. Olympia, WA: Author, March 2003.

(16) Prince, D., and D. Jenkins. Building Pathways to Success for Low-Skill Adult Students: Lessons for Community College Policy and Practice from a Statewide Longitudinal Tracking Study. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University, April 2005.
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Publication:Bridges to Careers for Low-Skilled Adults: A Program Development Guide
Date:Jan 1, 2005
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