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Endemic seed plants in the Bahamian Archipelago.

Introduction

The Bahamian archipelago (The Bahamas plus The Turks and Caicos Islands) consists of approximately 700 islands and islets occurring along 450 miles of latitude (-20[degrees] to 21[degrees] N) in the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Florida, Cuba, and Hispaniola. This insular system represents the furthest north extreme of the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Because of its geographical location the Bahamian flora has connections both with the United States subtropical mainland and the Greater Antilles.

Alice Northrop (1902) wrote the first flora within the Bahamas. This work was followed by Britton and Millspaugh (1920) and culminated with the magnum opus of Correll and Correll (1982). These authors discussed endemism within the archipelago and increased our understanding of species distributions across these islands. Prior to our study it was only Taylor (1921) who published a paper focusing on patterns of plant endemism on the Bahamian islands, he recognized 132 endemic species of flowering plants. Previously Cooker (1905) indicated that the islands only have 56 endemic species of vascular plant. Britton and Millspaugh (1920) estimated that the Bahamian flora is composed of 133 endemic seed plants. Without giving a particular figure Gillis (1974) indicated that the islands should have a number of endemics significant lower than that reported by Taylor (1921).

Numerous other workers and institutions have contributed to the flora over the years such as William Gillis (Kass & Eshbaugh, 1993) and Miami University faculty and graduate students (Nickrent et al., 1988; Eshbaugh, 2014; Vincent & Hickey, 2014).

As part of the description of each species Correll and Correll (1982) indicated if a species is considered by them to be endemic. All total they identified 114 seed plant species as endemic to the archipelago, ft is noteworthy, that this figure refers to those species for which these authors were certain of their status as Bahamian endemics. Correll and Correll (1982) listed six additional species for which they were not sure if they should be regarded as Bahamian endemics.

Correll and Correll (1982) presented details of species distributions across the archipelago based on their own field collections and herbarium specimen records at 25 institutions. These two authors showed the distributions of each species based on an 11 island grouping system of division that was created for their work.

The most recent checklist for the Caribbean Islands was published by Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) and this work identified 92 seed plant endemic species. The study presented by us seeks to review the current plant endemicity status of the Bahamian archipelago. We also provide recommendations for additional work to be conducted and potential avenues for governmental policies to give better protection to species with extremely limited distributions.

Methodology

In a previous study Freid et al. (2003) (Fig. 1) established a new system of island divisions to more finely map where species were occurring (22 island groupings) than what was possible based on the 11 island groupings published by Correll and Correll (1982). Using information provided by Correll and Correll (1982) and Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) we prepared an initial list of Bahamian endemics. Subsequently we reviewed herbarium specimens at BNH, FTG, NY, and MU. For our research we also conducted taxonomic literature reviews on each species to determine its current taxonomic status. In addition, we consulted specialists (see Acknowledgement section below) to interpret those species that were taxonomically difficult to understand. These reviews yielded two species lists. The first encompasses those species that we considered endemic to the archipelago (Appendix 1); the second one records those species that were considered by Correll and Correll (1982) and/or Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) as Bahamian endemics but should now not be regarded as part of the endemic flora. They either occur in other regions or are currently merged with non-endemic taxa.

The herbarium data and literature reviews allowed us to record the distribution of the endemic species for each of the 22 island grouping (Appendix 1). This resulted in a data matrix that recorded the presence (coded as 1) and absence (coded as 0) of each species in each island grouping. This data matrix was subsequently used for classification and ordination studies. These two multivariate approaches helped us to reveal biogeographical relationships across the Bahamian archipelago. Ordination of island groupings was achieved through Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCO) with Jaccard's Coefficient using NTSYSpc vers. 2.1 (Rohlf, 2000). Classification of these groupings was based on the neighbor joining clustering method and it was performed with PAUP vers. 3.1.1 (Swofford, 2003) using the mean character difference distance. Based on this distance we obtained a network tree with branch lengths proportional to distances between clusters.

Discussion

Taxonomy Patterns

Our review showed that the Bahamian archipelago has 89 endemic seed plant species in 54 genera and 29 families (Appendix 1, Fig. 2). All of these species are Angiosperms with the exception of the Long Island endemic Zamia lucayana (Zamiaceae, Cycadales). Fifty-one species listed by Correll and Correll (1982) or Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) are not regarded any longer as endemic to the archipelago (Appendix 2). Twenty-four species were delisted due to changes in taxonomy and 28 species were not considered as Bahamian endemics because they occur in other regions (Appendix 2). The three genera with the highest number of endemics are Agave (eight species), Euphorbia (seven species), and Encyclia and Spermacoce (six species in each of these two genera). The number of genera that have a single endemic species is 41. The most endemic-rich families are Rubiaceae (14 species), Euphorbiaceae (11 species), and Asteraceae (nine species).

From a historical perspective the majority of the endemic Bahamian species (51) were described and published in two main periods: 1900-1909 (30 species) and 1970-1979 (21 species) (Fig. 3). The first period matches the plant exploration activities of N. L. Britton and C. F. Millspaugh sponsored by the Field Museum of Chicago and the New York Botanic Garden. The 1970-1979 interval coincides with the work supported by Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden that led to the publication of the Bahamian flora by Correll and Correll (1982).

Biogeography Patterns

The multivariate analyses of geographical distributions yielded four major island clusters (Fig. 1). One of these clusters was composed by small islands [the largest island of this group was Little Inagua (~78 [km.sup.2], data from http://www.bnt.bs/_m1780/Little-Inagua-Island)]. Members of this cluster have a reduced number of endemic species and confirm a widespread pattern of other insular systems in which an increase in species and endemism diversity only starts to occur above a particular threshold area (i.e., the small-island effect) (Whittaker & Fernandez-Palacios, 2007). However, we cannot rule out that Little Inagua is associated with this cluster because it is relatively remote and is still underexplored. We anticipate that future floristic studies in this island might find additional endemics shared with the neighbor islands of Turks and Caicos, Great Inagua, and Mayaguana.

The three remaining clusters ally with the north-east geographical layout of the archipelago. Andros, New Providence, Abaco, and Grand Bahama formed the Northern Island Cluster. These island grouping displayed the lowest scores along the first coordinated after the PCO analysis. Eleuthera, Exumas, Cat Island, and Long Island composed the Central Island Cluster. The PCO analyses showed them to have intermediate values along the first coordinate and high scores along the second one. The rest of the islands belonged to the Southern Island Cluster and they had large scores along the first and second coordinates. The only discrepancy between the neighbor joining tree and the PCO scatter diagram was showed by Mayaguana (-285 [km.sup.2], data from http://www.bahamas.gov.bs). The phytogeographical network placed this island with the Southern Island Cluster whereas the PCO analyses suggested that this island was closely related to those of the Central Island Cluster. The island of Mayaguana provides another example of a relatively isolated island that we believe still needs to be further explored; this might explain the disagreement between these two multivariate approaches. Interestingly, the island of San Salvador (-163 [km.sup.2], data from http:// www.bahamas.gov.bs) is smaller than Mayaguana but has similar number of endemics (15 endemics in San Salvador vs 14 endemics in Mayaguana) and it belongs to the Southern Island Cluster. San Salvador has been heavily explored mostly because of the presence of the Gerace Research Center since the 1970's, and indeed Kass (1991) published a floristic guide for this island.

More than half of the endemics (50 species) have a restricted insular distribution; 31 of them are confined to a single island grouping and 19 only occur on two island groupings (Table 1). The islands with the highest number of single-cluster endemics are Turks and Caicos (eight species) and Long Island (four species). The islands of Crooked and Acklins as well as Great Inagua have three single-island endemics each (Table 1). The Small Island Cluster has two endemics restricted only to this geographical group (i.e., Euphorbia inaguaensis and Spermacoce inaguensis on Little Inagua) (Table 2). The number of endemics only confined to the Southern Island Cluster is 28. This value is lower for the Central Island Cluster (ten) and Northern Island Cluster (nine). The lowest number of endemics occurs on the Small Island Cluster (25). The Southern Island Cluster has the highest number of endemic species (59) followed by the Central Island Cluster (38) and the Northern Island Cluster (35). A full island biogeographic study of the Bahamian flora is out of the scope of this paper. However, the highest level of endemism occurs in a cluster of islands from the southern portion of the archipelago that has a reduced area. It appears that latitude rather than island area is a major player to understand patterns of floristic diversity in the Bahamian island chain. It is noteworthy that islands located at southern latitudes have a greater influence from the tropics, as they are also closer to Cuba and Hispaniola. Unlike, Florida most of the surface of these two islands has been above sea level during the Quaternary and Tertiary; therefore they have been acting as continuous sources of plants for the Bahamian archipelago.

Future Conservation Initiatives

Governmental authorities of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos should consider the protection status to the 50 species that are known to occur on two or less island groupings. These species are at the highest priority for protection as they have the most limited insular distribution (Maunder et al., 2008, 2011). As far as we are aware with the exception of Zamia lucaya (Calonje et al, 2013) none of these species have been the target of extensive field surveys to determine the limits of their geographical area and demographic patterns. Three particular endemics, Encyclia androsiana, Lepidium filicaule, and Matelea correllii, provide good examples of species whose distribution ranges are unknown. They demonstrate a need for a comprehensive conservation strategy for the endemic flora.

Endemics may have the potential to act as indicators of ecosystem status for rapid assessment purposes. They should serve as a means of assessing areas for development and to implement actions for when endemic species are being removed or their niches disturbed or altered. While random surveying for these endemic species on a particular island is clearly impractical, the checklist presented in this paper coupled with future results from auto-ecological patterns will help environmental agencies to produce shorter lists of what is likely to occur (and need to be surveyed for) within any island grouping.

To assist in the development of science based protected species list for the Bahamian archipelago, an IUCN Redlist targeting plant endemics should be produced. In support of producing a redlist for the Bahamian endemics additional research is needed. For each species a combination of criteria need to be determined to know its conservation status (IUCN, 2012). These criteria include having details pertinent population size and numbers, distribution area, and current and possible threats.

To assess which of the endemics occur within The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos protected area system is an essential step to delineate in situ conservation programs. For instance, Calonje et al. (2013) found that the Critically Endangered endemic Zamia lucayana occurs along a very narrow strip near the coast of Long Island on privately own land. As new parks are created and old parks expanded there should be a discussion of how well the expansion of the park system can be done to maximize protection of endemic species.

Conclusions

The Bahamian archipelago has fewer endemic seed-plant species than previously thought. While the reduction of accepted endemic species fosters the idea that the Bahamian archipelago is low on endemic diversity it brings to light the importance of protecting those endemic species that do occur in the archipelago. Bearing in mind the ecological uniformity of the Bahamas Islands within the Caribbean Islands Hotspot, we find that this archipelago have a relatively high number of endemic species, there are two possible explanations for this. First the archipelago is highly fragmented with many opportunities for speciation following colonization and isolation. Secondly, the Bahamian chain is at relatively short distance from the northern portions of Haiti and most of Cuba. This geographical location can pave the way for long distance dispersal and subsequent speciation events.

DOI 10.1007/s12229-014-9137-z

Appendix 1. List of Endemic Seed Plant Species Currently Recognized on the Bahamian Archipelago

This checklist of Bahamian endemics was originally based on the works of Correll and Correll (1982; accepted endemics coded as "C&C") and Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012; accepted endemics coded as "A-R&S"). The endemicity status of these species was checked with taxonomic experts (see Acknowledgements) and with recent treatments and monographs. For each species we have assigned the following descriptors:

Bas.: Date of publication of basionym.

Dist.: Insular distribution. See Fig. 1 for island grouping numeric codes.

Notes: Additional relevant information.

Acanthaceae

Stenandrium bracteosum (Britton & Millsp.) Britton in Leonard, Wrightia 2: 77, 1960 [A-R&S, C&C], Bas.: 1920. Dist.: 4, 19.

Stenandrium carolinae Leonard & Proctor in Leonard, Wrightia 2: 75, 1960 [AR&S., C&C], Dist.: 1.

Apocynaceae

Matelea correllii Spellman, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 1255, 1979 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 8.

Metastelma inaguense Vail ex Britton, Rhodora 66: 13, 1964 [A-R&S, C&C (listed as "apparently endemic")]. Bas.: 1906. Dist.: 1, 2, 4, 6, 11, 19. Notes: Correll and Correl (1982) listed this species as Cynanchum inaguense (Vail) Howard & Dunbar (Apocynaceae). We follow the taxonomy of Lieve and Mede (1997) and Kings and Endress (2012) and consider that endemic species of Cynanchum L. belong to Metastelma R.Br.

Metastelma sigmoideum (Correll) Acev.-Rodr., Smithsonian Contr. Bot 98: 48,2012 [A-R&S, C&C (listed as "apparently endemic")]. Bas.: 1977. Dist.: 20, 21. Notes: Correll and Correl (1982) listed this species as Cynanchum sigmoideum Correll. Notes: See notes for M. inaguense.

Metastelma stipitatum (Correll) Liede, Novon 7: 43, 1997. Bas.: 1977 [C&C (listed as "apparently endemic")]. Dist.: 1. Notes: Correll and Correl (1982) treated this species as Cynanchum stipitatum Correll. This species is not listed by Kings and Endress (2012); however, in our study it is accepted as a distinct endemic species within Metastelma as suggested by Lieve and Mede (1997). The species is morphologically close to M. northropiae Schltr. and additional research to elucidate taxonomic affinities with the latter are needed (Liede-Schumann, pers. comm.) 0 Asparagaceae

Agave acklinicola Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11: 41, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 4, 6. Notes: Gillis (1976) considered that A. acklinicola, A. braceana, A. cacozela, A. indagatorum, and A. millspaughii should be merged with the endemic A. bahamana. Previously Britton and Millspaugh (1920) also were certain is these species should be recognized a distinct species. Until additional taxonomic research is available to clarify the taxonomic distinctiveness of these morphs we have decided to follow the most recent account by AcevedoRodriguez and Strong (2012).

Agave bahamana Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11: 40, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20. Notes: See notes for A. acklinicola.

Agave braceana Trel, Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11: 40, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 15, 19, 20. Notes: See notes for A. acklinicola.

Agave cacozela Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11:41, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 16. Notes: See notes for A. acklinicola.

Agave inaguensis Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11:41, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 2. Notes: See notes for A. acklinicola.

Agave indagatorum Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11: 42, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 8, 11. Notes: See notes for A. acklinicola.

Agave millspaughii Tre\., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11:41,1913 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 13. Notes: See notes for A. acklinicola.

Agave nashii Trel., Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 11: 45, 1913 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 2. Arecaceae

Coccothrinax inaguensis Read, Principes 10: 30, 1966 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1,2,9,11

Asteraceae

Anastraphia paucifloscula Wright ex Hitchc., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 102, 1893 [A-R&S], Dist.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 13, 15, 17. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) accepted the name Gochnatia paucifloscula (Wright ex Hitchc.) Jervis ex Cabrera (Asteraceae) and listed this species as also occurring in Cuba. We follow the taxonomy of Ventosa and Herrera (2011a, b); Robinson and Funk (2012), and Telleria et al. (2013). This species does not occur in Cuba.

Chromolaena bahamensis (Northr.) R. M. King & H. Rob., Phytologia 20: 199, 1970 [A-R&S, C&C], Bas.: 1902. Dist.: 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) accepted Eupatorium bahamense Northr. (Asteraceae). We follow the works of King and Robinson (1987) and Robinson & Funk (2012).

Chromolaena lucayana (Britton) R. M. King & H. Rob., Phytologia 20: 203, 1970 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1920. Dist.: 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) accepted Eupatorium lucayanum Britton. We follow the works of King and Robinson (1987) and Robinson & Funk (2012).

Koanophyllon correlliorum (Plettman) R. M. King & H. Rob., Phytologia 37: 458, 1977 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1977. Dist.: 19. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) accepted Eupatorium correlliorum Britton. We follow the works of King and Robinson (1987) and Robinson and Funk (2012).

Lepidaploa arbuscula (Less.) H. Rob., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103: 481, 1990 [AR&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1831. Dist.: 1, 2, 3, 6, 15, 16. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) listed this species as Vemonia arbuscula Less. (Asteraceae). Taxonomic treatments by Robinson (1990, 1999) and Robinson and Funk (2012) is followed by us.

Symphyotrichum lucayanum (Britton) G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 77: 286, 1995 . Bas.: 1906 [A-R&S]. Dist.: 20. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) regarded this species [listed as Aster lucayanus Britton (Asteraceae)] as the non-endemic Aster concolor L.; however, Nesom (1994) regarded S. lucayanus as a distinct species. Robinson and Funk (2012) listed S. lucayanus as endemic to the Bahamas.

Tetranthus bahamensis Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 5: 318, 1907 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 6, 14.

Thymopsis brittonii Greenman, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3: 453, 1905 [A-R&S, C&C (listed as "perhaps in Cuba")]. Dist.: 12, 13, 16. Notes: We follow Robinson & Funk (2012) and consider that until new evidence is available T. brittonii is a species restricted to the Bahamian archipelago.

Wedelia bahamensis (Britton) Schulz ex O.E. Schulz, Symb. Antill. 7:106,1911 [AR&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1905. Dist.: 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17. Boraginaceae

Heliotropium diffusion Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 122, 1905 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 4, 6, 9.

Heliotropium nashii Millsp,. Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 309, 1909 [AR&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 2.

Heliotropium nanum Northr., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 61, 1902 [A-R&S, C&C (listed as "doubtfully endemic")]. Dist.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18. Notes: We follow Forther (1998) who accepted this species within Heliotropium L.

Varronia bahamensis (Urb.) Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 310, 1909 [A-R&S], Bas.: 1899. Dist.: 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) listed this species (as Cordia bahamensis Urb.) for Florida, Cuba, and Anegada. Wunderlin and Flansen (2011) also recorded this species (as C. bahamensis) for Florida, but these reports need additional research as they seem to refer to naturalized or cultivated plants. It is unlikely that the plants grown in Cuba and Anegada refer to this species (Miller, pers. comm.); although, V. bahamensis is morphologically similar to the Puerto Rico-Anegada endemic V rupicola (Urb.) Britton (Miller, pers. comm.).

Varronia lucayana Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 311, 1909 [AR&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 2, 4, 6. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) listed this species as Cordia lucayana Millsp. (Boraginaceae). In here we follow taxonomic treatments by Miller and Gottschling (2007) and Feuillet (2012).

Brassicaceae

Lepidium filicaule C. L. Hitchc., Madrono 8: 142, 1945 [A-R&S]. Dist.: 1.

Burseraceae

Bursera frenningae Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 60: 157, 1979 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 6, 8, 12, 13, 17.

Cactaceae

Harrisia brookii Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 564, 1909 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 8, 17.

Campanulaceae

Lobelia lucayana Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 428, 1920 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1, 9, 11.

Celastraceae

Maytenus lucayana Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 140, 1906 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 15, 20.

Convolvulaceae

Evolvulus bahamensis House, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 89, 1908 [A-R&S], Dist.: 1. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) did not accept this species and they merged it with the Greater Antillean endemic E. arbuscula Poir. More recently Acevedo & Strong (2012) and Austin (pers. comm.) considered this to be an good species endemic to the Bahamas.

Cyperaceae

Cyperus correllii (T. Koyama) G. C. Tucker, Sida 10: 305, 1984 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1976. Dist.: 20. Notes: The species was listed as Torulinium correlli T. Koyama (Cyperaceeae) by Correll and Correll (1982). The taxonomy proposed by Tucker (1984) and Strong & Acevedo Rodriguez (2012) is followed in our study.

Eleocharis bahamensis Boeckeler Beitr. Cyper. 2:11,1890 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1. Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum reticulatum Northr., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 43, 1902 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 13, 15.

Euphorbiaceae

Argythamnia argentea Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 154, 1906 [AR&S, C&C], Dist.: 1,7, 17.

Argythamnia lucayana Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 154, 1906 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 8, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21.

Argythamnia sericea Griseb., FI. Brit. W. I.: 44, 1859 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1,2, 6. Croton brittonii Acev.-Rodr., Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98: 324, 2012 [A-R&S], Dist.: 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17. Notes: This name was published by Acevedo Rodriguez & Strong (2012) as a synonymy of the illegitimate name C. bahamensis Millsp. These authors regarded this taxon as endemic to the Bahamas. Correll and Correll (1982) merged C. bahamensis with the non-endemic C. humilis L.

Euphorbia cayensis Millsp., Torreya 4: 172, 1904 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 11,15,18, 19, 20, 22.

Euphorbia gymnonota Urb., Symb. Antill. 5: 396,1908 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1, 2, 6, 9, 11.

Euphorbia inaguaensis Oudejans, Phytologia 67: 46, 1989 [A-R&S]. Dist.: 3. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) referred to this endemic species as E. abbreviata Correll; however, this is an illegitimate name. Oudejans (1989) published the name E. inaguaensis to correct this taxonomic error.

Euphorbia lecheoides Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 163, 1906 [AR&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 17.

Euphorbia longinsulicola S. R. Hill, Sida 6: 313, 1976 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 8. Euphorbia proctorii (D. G. Burch) Correll, Sida 8: 319,1980 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1976. Dist.: 2.

Euphorbia vaginulata Griseb., FI. Brit. W. I.: 52, 1859 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 12.

Fabaceae

Ateleia popenoei Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 62: 261, 1981 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 13.

Caesalpinia murifructa Gillis & Proctor, J. Arnold Arbor. 55: 427, 1974 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 2, 6.

Galactia bahamensis Urb., Symb. Antill. 2: 331, 1900 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.

Linaceae

Linum bahamense Northr., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 42, 1902 [A-R&S, C&C (listed as "known only from Inagua and Acklins Islands")]. Dist.: 15, 16, 17, 19, 20. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) recognized two morphs within this species: L. bahamense f. bahamense and L. bahamense f. corrallicola (Small) Rogers.

Malvaceae

Pavonia bahamensis Flitchc., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 63, 1893 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 6, 9, 11, 15.

Waltheria bahamensis Britton, Torreya 3: 105, 1903 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20.

Myrtaceae

Mosiera androsiana (Urb.) Salywon, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 899, 2007 [A-R&S, C&C], Bas.: 1915. Dist.: 15. Notes: This species is listed as Psidium androsianum (Urb.) Correll (Myrtaceae) by Correll and Correll (1982). Salywon (2007) and Acevedo-Rodriguez (2005) suggested that this Bahamian endemic should be placed within Mosiera Small.

Orchidaceae

Encyclia androsiana Sauleda, New World Orchid. Nomencl. Notes 2: s.n., 2012. Dist.: 15. Notes: see notes for E. gracilis in Appendix 2.

Encyclia caicensis Sauleda & R. M. Adams, Selbyana 2: 340,1978 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1.

Encyclia fehlingii (Sauleda) Sauleda & R. M. Adams, Brittonia 33: 187, 1981 [AR&S, C&C], Bas.: 1977. Dist.: 15, 16, 19, 20.

Encyclia correllii Sauleda, Orchid Digest 76: 44, 2012. Bas.: 1835. Dist.: 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20.

Encyclia inaguensis Nash in Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 92, 1920 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 3.

Encyclia withneri (Sauleda) Sauleda & R. M. Adams, Brittonia 33: 187, 1981 [AR&S, C&C], Bas.: 1977. Dist.: 12.

Tolumnia sasseri (Moir) Braem, Die Orchidee 37: 59, 1986 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1975. Dist.: 12, 16. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) recognized this species as Oncidium sasseri Moir (Orchidaceae). We have followed most recent taxonomic placements proposed by Braem (1986) and Ackerman (2012).

Passifloraceae

Passiflora bahamensis Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 5: 315, 1907 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 12, 15, 16.

Poaceae

Aristida correlliae P. M. McKenzie, Urbatsch & Proctor, Syst. Bot. 15: 421, 1990 [AR&S], Dist: 1, 6. Notes: This is the most recently described species endemic to the Bahamas. This name honors Dr. Helen Correll (McKenzie et al., 1990). The name was also accepted by Peterson et al. (1990).

Eragrostis bahamensis Hitchc., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 149, 1893 [AR&S, C&C]. Dist.: 1,2,3, 6, 9.

Sporobolus bahamensis Hack., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 52: 56, 1902 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 6. Polygalaceae

Polygala northorpiana R. N. Baneijee, Taxon 28: 418, 1979 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 4, 6, 15, 16, 19, 20.

Portulaceae

Portulaca minuta Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 60: 154, 1979 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 13, 15.

Ranunculaceae

Clematisplukenetii DC., Syst. Nat. 1: 153, 1817 [A-R&S]. Dist.: 4, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20. Correll and Correll (1982) recognize two endemic species within Clematis L.: C. bahamica (Kuntze) Britton and C. orbiculata Correll. However, Moreno (1993) in her unpublished treatment for one of the sections of this genus considered that these taxa do not merit taxonomic recognition as two different species. She also indicated that they refer to an earlier name: C. plukenetii. This taxonomic placement was also accepted by Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (2012).

Rubiaceae

Catesbaea foliosa Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 312, 1909 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 2, 6, 9, 12.

Chiococca stricta Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 45, 1977 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 6. Erithalis diffusa Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 47, 1977 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 6,11. Ernodea gigantea Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 49, 1977 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 6. Ernodea millspaughii Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 207, 1908 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 18, 19, 20, 21.

Ernodea nashii Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 208, 1908 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 2, 3.

Ernodea serratifolia Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 50, 1977 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 2, 12.

Guettarda nashii Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 413, 1920 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 2.

Spermacoce brittonii (Standi.) R.A. Howard, Phytologia 65: 287, 1988 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1931. Dist.: 1. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) considered this species as Borreria brittonii Standi. (Rubiaceae). In our study we follow the taxonomy of Howard (1988a) and Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (2012) and we accept this species within Spermacoce L.

Spermacoce capillaris (Correll) R. A. Howard, Phytologia 65: 287, 1988 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1979. Dist.: 1. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) considered this species as Borreria capillaris Correll (Rubiaceae). See additional details in notes for S. brittonii.

Spermacoce felis-insulae (Correll) R. A. Howard, Phytologia 65: 288, 1988 [AR&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1977. Dist.: 12. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) listed this species as B. felis-insulae Correll. See additional details in notes for S. brittonii.

Spermacoce inaguensis (Britton) R. A. Howard, Phytologia 65: 287, 1988 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1920. Dist.: 3. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) accepted this species as B. inaguensis Britton. See additional details in notes for S. brittonii.

Spermacoce savannarum (Britton & Millsp.) R. A. Howard, Phytologia 65: 287, 1988 [A-R&S, C&C (listed as "apparently endemic")]. Bas.: 1920. Dist.: 1, 2, 6. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) regarded this species as B. savannarum Britton. See additional details in notes for S. brittonii.

Spermacoce thymifolia (Griseb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. PL 3(3): 123, 1898 [A-R&S, C&C]. Bas.: 1861. Dist.: 1,2. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) accepted this taxon as B. thymifolia Britton. See additional details in notes for S. brittonii.

Rutaceae

Spathelia bahamensis Viet., Contr. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal 63: 76, 1948 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 12, 17.

Sapindaceae

Thouinia discolor Griseb., FI. Brit. W. I.: 127. 1859 [A-R&S, C&C]. Dist.: 2,4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21.

Verbenaceae

Lantana balsamifera Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 123, 1906 [A-R&S, C&C], Dist.: 1, 3, 18.

Lantana demutata Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 175, 1906 [AR&S, C&C], Dist.: 2, 8, 12, 13, 17. Zamiaceae

Zamia lucayana Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 5: 311, 1907. Dist.: 8. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) merged this species with the non-endemic Z. pumila L.

Appendix 2. Species Delisted as Endemic to the Bahamian Archipelago

This appendix includes those species that were accepted as Bahamian endemics by Correll and Correll (1982) (coded as "C&C") or Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) (coded as A-R&S) that we do not consider as part of the endemic flora of the archipelago. Each name is followed by a short discussion under the "Notes" descriptor. For those species that have not been the subject of recent taxonomic treatments or that have not been included in the "Flora de la Republica de Cuba" project we have checked for their distribution outside the Bahamian archipelago at the FLA, MO, and NY herbaria.

Amaryllidaceae

Zephyranthes cardinalis C. H. Wright, Bot. Mag. 140: t. 8553, 1914 [A-R&S]. Notes: The original description of this species was based on material cultivated in New Providence. It is likely that it refers to plants of Z. bifolia grown in gardens of the archipelago (Meerow, pers. comm., Vincent, pers. comm.)

Anacardiaceae

Rhus bahamensis G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 72, 1832 [A-R&S]. Notes: Gillis (1971) indicated that R. bahamensis is a nomem nudum, and that it is likely that this name refers to Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (Anacardiaceae). The latter is also found in USA and Mexico.

Apocynaceae

Metastelma bahamense Griseb., Cat. PI. Cub.: 174, 1866 [A-R&S]. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) listed this species for Cuba and according to Gillis (1974) the species is also found on this island. We have located specimens from Cuba at NY (i.e., NY1622615 and NY1622616, both annotated by D. Correll). Metastelma bahamense is morphologically similar to M. northropiae Schltr. and additional research is needed to determine if both species should be kept separately (Liede-Schumann, pers. comm.).

Neobracea bahamensis (Britton) Britton, in Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 335, 1920 [C&C (listed as "apparently endemic to the Bahamas")]. Notes: This species also occurs on Cuba (Leon & Alain, 1957; Fong et al, 2005; Figueredo Cardona et al., 2009; Krings & Endress, 2012). We located one herbarium specimen collected in Cuba for this species at NY (NY01335760).

Asteraceae

Vernonia bahamensis Griseb., FI. Brit. W. I.: 352, 1861 [C&C], Notes: Robinson (1990) merged this species with the Bahamian endemic Lepidaploa arbuscula (Less.) H. Rob.

Burseraceae

Bursera inaguensis Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3: 443, 1905 [C&C (listed as "probably also Cuba")]. Notes: This species also occurs in Cuba (Martinez-Habibe, 2012).

Boraginaceae

Heliotropium eggersii Urb., Symb. Antill. 5: 481, 1908 [C&C], Notes: In his treatment for Heliotropium L., Forther (1998) accepted this name although indicating that he was unable to examine any material. Feuillet (2012) considered this species as a synonym of the widespread neotropical species Euploca procumbens (Mill.) Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Earlier taxonomic revisions within the family merged this Bahamian species with Heliotropium procumbens Mill. (Johnston, 1928, 1937).

Rochefortia bahamensis Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 5: 317, 1909 [C&C]. Notes: Klotz (1982) considered this taxon as an endemic subspecies of R. cuneta SW.; however, in this treatment he was not aware of Rochefortia spinosa (Jacq.) Urb. as the legitimate name [basionomy Ehretia spinosa Jacq. (Boraginaceae)] to refer to plants of R. spinosa. An infraspecific placement for the Bahamian individuals, within R. spinosa, has not been published yet. Such taxonomic arrangement is made in our study as follows: Rochefortia spinosa (Jacq.) Urb., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 472, 1915 ssp. bahamensis (Britton) Freid & Jestrow comb. nov. (basionomy: Rochefortia bahamensis Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 5: 317, 1909, type Bahamas Insulae (Watlings Islds.) leg. Britton & Millspaugh 6167).

Cactaceae

Cephalocereus bahamensis Britton, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 12: 415, 1909 [C&C]. Notes: This species is a synonym of Pilosocereus polygonus (Lam.) Byles & Rowles (Cactaceaea), a species restricted to the Bahama archipelago, Cuba, Florida, and Hispaniola (Zappi, 1994; Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012).

Opuntia bahamana Britton & Rose, Cact. 1: 203, 1919 [C&C], Notes: This species is considered as a synonym of O. stricta (Haw) Haw (Hunt, 2006; Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012). The latter is found throughout the Caribbean Islands, Mexico, and Southeastern USA (Hunt, 2006).

Opuntia lucayana Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 141, 1906 [C&C]. Notes: This species is believed to be an intergeneric hybrid between O. stricta and Consolea macrantha (Griseb.) A. Berger (Hunt, 2006).

Opuntia nashii Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3: 446,1905 [C&C], Notes: This species has been transferred to Consolea Lemaire (Cactaceae) and it also occurs in Cuba (C. nashii (Britton) A. Berger subsp. gibarense Areces). C. nashii subsp. nashii is a Bahamian endemic (Areces-Mallea, 2001).

Celastraceae

Crossopetalum aquifolium (Griseb.) Hitch., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 70, 1893 [C&C (listed as "possibly Cuba")]. Notes: This species is also found in Cuba (Mory, 2010).

Crossopetalum coriaceum Northr., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 48, 1902 [C&C]. Notes: This species also occurs in Cuba (Mory, 2010).

Combretaceae

Bucida spinosa (Northr.) Jenn., Carnegie Mus. 11: 201, 1917 [C&C]. Notes: This species is also found in Cuba, Belize, Hispaniola, Mexico (Yucatan), and Puerto Rico (Stace, 2010).

Convolvulaceae

Evolvulus squamosus Britton, New York Bot. Gard. 3: 399, 1905 [C&C]. Notes: This species is also found on the Cayman Islands (Proctor, 2012) and the Virgin Islands (Britton, 1916; D'Arcy, 1971).

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia abbreviata Correll, Sida 8: 317, 1980 [C&C]. Notes: This is an illegitimate name. Oudejans (1989) published the name E. inaguaensis to correct this taxonomic error.

Euphorbia brittonii Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 159, 1906 [C&C]. Notes: This taxon is considered a synonym of Euphorbia minutula Boiss. (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Berry, pers. comm.; Van Ee, pers. comm.), a species endemic to the Bahamian archipelago and Cuba [the type of this species is a specimesn from Cuba collected by C. Wright (MO 1809734) (Burch, 1966)].

Euphorbia exumensis (Millsp.) Correll, Sida 8: 319, 1980 [C&C], Notes: This species is currently treated as E. lecheoides Millsp. var. exumensis (Millsp.) Oudejans (Oudejans, 1992). Euphorbia lecheoides is endemic to the Bahamas

Euphorbia wilsonii (Millsp.) Correll, Sida 8: 319, 1980 [C&C]. Notes: This endemic taxon is currently accepted as E. lecheoides Millsp. var. wilsonii (Millsp.) Oudejans (Oudejans, 1992). Euphorbia lecheoides is a Bahamian endemic.

Pedilanthus bahamensis Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 359, 1913 [C&C]. Notes: Steinmann (2003) considered this taxon as an endemic subspecies of the widespread and non-endemic Euphorbia tithymaloides L.

Fabaceae

Acacia acuifera Benth., London J. Bot. 1: 496, 1842 [C&C]. Notes: The accepted name for this species is Vachelia acuifera (Benth.) Seigler & Ebinger (Fabaceae). It is also found in Cuba (Gonzalez-Gutierrez, 2007; Clarke et al., 2009).

Caesalpinia ovalifolia Urb., Symb. Antill. 2: 273, 1900 [C&C (listed as "apparently endemic")]. Notes: This species is considered a synonym of Guilandina ciliata Bergius ex Wikstr. (Fabaceae) [Howard, 1988b (as Caesalpinia ciliata (Bergius ex Wikstr.) Urb.); Acevedo-Rodriguez & Lewis, 2012; ILDIS, 2013]. The species also occurs in Hispaniola (Liogier, 1985), Lesser Antilles (Howard, 1988b), and Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

Caesalpinia reticulata Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 118, 1905 [C&C]. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) was not certain about the taxonomic status of this species indicating that it might be a morphological variant of C. bahamensis. Previously Gillis (1971) merged both species, in our study we concord with this taxonomic arrangement and consider that C. reticulata is a synonym of C. bahamensis. This placement is also followed by Acevedo-Rodriguez & Lewis (2012) and ILDIS (2013). Caesalpinia bahamensis occurs in the Bahama islands, Cuba, and Hispaniola (Barreto Valdes, 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez & Lewis, 2012).

Calliandra haematomma (DC.) Benth., London J. Bot. 3: 103, 1844 [C&C (listed as "apparently endemic")]. Notes: This species also occurs in Cuba, Bolivia, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Paraguay, and Puerto Rico (Bameby, 1998). Calliandra haematomma var. correllii Bameby is the only taxon of this species complex endemic to the Bahamian archipelago.

Cassia caribaea Northr., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 39, 1902 [C&C]. Notes: This species is considered as part of the Chamaecrista caribaea (Northr.) Britton complex, a taxonomic group that has three varieties, with two of them (C. caribaea var. caribaea and C. caribaea var. lucayana (Britton) Irwin & Bameby) endemic to the Bahama archipelago (Irwin & Bameby, 1982). The third one (C. caribaea var. inaguensis (Britton) Irwin & Bameby) is found in the Bahama islands and also in Hispaniola (Irwin & Bameby, 1982).

Cassia lucayana Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 138, 1906 [C&C]. Notes: This species is considered a variety of Chamaecrista caribaea. See futher details in notes for Cassia caribaea.

Mimosa bahamensis Benth., J. Bot. (Hooker) 4: 408, 1842 [C&C, A-R&S], Notes: This species is also found in Central America and Mexico (Martinez-Bemal et al., 2008; Parker, 2008).

Loranthaceae

Dendropemon bahamensis Britton in Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 109, 1920 [C&C], Notes: Kuijt (2011) merged this species with D. loranthoideus (Baill.) Tiegh., a taxon endemic to the Bahamian archipelago and Hispaniola.

Dendropemon brevipes Britton in Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI. 108, 1920 [C&C], Notes: This species has been included within D. purpureus (L.) Krug & Urb. The latter is endemic to the Bahama islands, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico (Kuijt, 2011).

Malvaceae

Hibiscus brittonianus Kearney, Leafl. West. Bot. 7: 121, 1954 [C&C]. Notes: Areces Berazain & Fryxell (2007) merged this species with Hibiscus clypeatus L. subsp. membranaceus (Cav) O. J. Blanch. The latter is endemic to the Bahama islands, Cuba, and Haiti.

Phymosia abutiloides (L.) Desv. in Ham., Prodr. PI. Ind. Occid. 50, 1825 [C&C]. Notes: This species also occurs in Hispaniola (Fryxell, 1972; Liogier, 1981). We have located several specimens from Hispaniola in FLA (i.e., FLAS209854, FLAS177242), MO (i.e., M01992581, MO1570484, M02137524, M0765762), and NY (i.e., NYO1440741)

Orchidaceae

Encyclia gracilis (Lindl.) Schltr., Orchideen: 209, 1914 [A-R&S, C&C]. Notes: This name has been used for a endemic orchid species that is relatively common in the archipelago; however, a recent study of its original description and type specimen shows that this taxon as originally published corresponds with the natural hybrid Encyclia x lucayana Sauleda & Adams (accepted name Encyclia x gracilis (Lind.) Schltr.). Bahamian plants that have been traditionally assigned to "Encyclia gracilis" have been assigned a to the recently described species Encyclia correllii Sauleda (see Appendix 1).

Oncidium lucayanum Nash in Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 98, 1920 [C&C], Notes: This species (accepted name Tolumnia lucayana (Nash) Braem) also occurs in Cuba and Hispaniola (Ackerman, 2014).

Tetramicra urbaniana Cogn. in Urb., Symb. Antill. 6: 551, 1910 [C&C]. Notes: This species is considered as a synonym of Tetramicra parviflora Lindl. The latter is also found in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Jamaica (Ackerman, 2014).

Vanilla correllii Sauleda & R. M. Adams, Brittonia 33: 192, 1981 [C&C], Notes: Soto Arenas and Cribb (2010) placed this species within V. poitaei Rchb. f. The latter is endemic to the Bahamian archipelago, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico.

Plumbaginaceae

Limonium bahamense Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 142, 1906 [C&C]. Notes: This species also occurs in Hispaniola [as L. bahamense var. var. haitense (S.F. Blake) Alain] (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong, 2012). We have located specimens from Hispaniola in MO (i.e., M02532, M025446, M06496, M046468, Ekman, 7-11-1929, Zanoni et al. 11-12-1981,), and NY (i.e., NY 1624311, NY1624315)

Polygalaceae

Polygola wilsonii Small in Britton & Millsp., Bahama FI.: 216 [C&C (listed as "known only from Salt Cay Bank, Anguille Isles")]. Notes: This species also occurs in Cuba (Rankin Rodriguez, 2003).

Primulaceae

Ardisia bahamensis (Gaertn.) A. DC., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 128, 1834 [A-R&S]. Notes: This species [accepted name Heberdenia bahamensis (Gaertn.) Sprague (Primulaceae)] is a Macaronesian island endemic (Stahl, 1996). Ranunculaceae

Clematis bahamica Kuntze (Britton), Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4: 117, 1906 [C&C]. Notes: Moreno (1993) considered this species as a synonym of the Bahamian endemic C. plukenetii DC.

Clematis orbiculata Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 40, 1977 [C&C]. Notes: Moreno (1993) considered this species as a synonym of the Bahamian endemic C. plukenetii DC.

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus taylori (Britton) M. C. Johnst., Amer. J. Bot. 51: 1118, 1964 [C&C]. Notes: This species also occurs in Puerto Rico (Island of Mona) (Britton, 1915; Liogier & Martorell, 2000).

Rubiaceae

Erithalis salmeoides Correll, J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 49, 1977 [C&C]. Notes: This species is also found in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Jamaica (Negron-Ortiz, 2005).

Ernodea cokeri Britton in Coker, Bahama Is. (Shattuck) 264, 1905 [C&C], Notes: This species also occurs in Florida (Negron-Ortiz & Hickey, 1996).

Ernodea taylori Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35:208,1908 [C&C]. Notes: This taxon is also present in the Cayman Islands, Cuba, and Haiti (Negron-Ortiz & Hickey, 1996).

Scolosanthus bahamensis Britton, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3: 452, 1905 [C&C], Notes: The species also occurs in Cuba (Fong et al., 2005; Gonzalez Gutierrez et al., 2006). We have located specimens from Cuba at NY (i.e., NY01331083, NY1331084, NY1331085).

Spermacoce bahamensis (Britton) R. A. Howard, Phytologia 65: 287, 1988 [C&C (listed as Borreria bahamensis Britton)]. Notes: This species has an unusual disjunct distribution between the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles (Howard, 1989). Herbarium specimens for the Lesser Antilles were located in MO (i.e., MO807516, Meagher 4037, and Meagher 02/16/10/94) and NY (i.e., NY01331217, NY01331218, NY01331219, and NY01331219).

Santalaceae

Phoradendron northropiae Urb. in Northrop, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 33, 1902 [C&C]. Notes: This species also occurs in South America (Kuijt, 2003).

Solanaceae

Solanum didymacanthum Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 183, 1906 [C&C], Notes: This taxon is considered as a synonym of S. microphyllum (Lam) Dunai, a species endemic to the Bahamas and Hispaniola Knapp (2009).

Solanum bahamense L., Sp. PI. 1: 188, 1753. Notes: Correll and Correll (1982) did not provide details pertinent to the distribution status of this species. Strickland-Constable et al. (2010) indicated that this species has a wide distribution in the Bahamian archipelago, Florida and the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

Verbenaceae

Nashia inaguensis Millsp., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 177, 1906 [C&C], Notes: This species also occurs on Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Cedeno-Maldonado & O'Reilly, 1996).

Stachytarpheta fruticosa (Millsp.) B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 51: 531, 1916 [C&C]. Notes: This species is also found in Cuba (Mendez Santos, 2001).

Acknowledgments We dedicate this paper to Pericles Mailles [past board president of the Bahamas National Trust (BNT)] in recognition for his contributions to preserve the natural heritage of The Bahamas. This paper was presented at an international symposium held at Nassau between October 30 and 31, 2012 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the publication of the Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (title of symposium: Celebrating 30 Years of the Flora of the Bahamas: Conservation and Science Challenges). Our gratitude to the symposium organizers (The Bahamas National Trust and The College of The Bahamas in collaboration with Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, and Florida International University) for providing an avenue to present this study. The symposium was funded by the Bahamas Environmental Fund. The Latin American and Caribbean Institute of FIU and FTBG supported attendance to the symposium. The following colleagues helped us to interpret the taxonomy of Bahamian plants, our gratitude for their time and for sharing with us relevant information: J. Ackerman (Orchidaceae), M. S. Appelhans (Spathelia), D. Austin (Evolvulus), P. E. Berry (Euphorbia), M. Hamilton (Varronia), S. Knapp (Solarium), F. Luebert (Heliotropium), S. LiedeSchumann (Metastelma), C. Martinez-Habibe (Bursera), A. W. Meerow (Zephyranthes), J. S. Miller (Varronia), R. Oviedo (flora of Cuba), L. Rico (Fabaceae), T. N. Taylor (Rubiaceae), B. W. Van Eee (Croton), I. Ventosa (Anastraphia), M. A. Vincent (Zephyranthes), and A. Weeks (Bursera). This is contribution number 257 from the Tropical Biology Program of Florida International University.

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Ethan Freid (1,4) * Javier Francisco-Ortega (2,3) * Brett Jestrow (3)

(1) The Bahamas National Trust, P. O. Box N-4105, The Retreat, Village Road, Nassau, The Bahamas

(2) Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA

(3) Kushlan Tropical Science Institute, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33156, USA

(4) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: ethanf@hotmail.com

Published online: 7 August 2014

Table 1 Bahamian endemic seed plant species that have restricted
insular distribution. See Figure 1 for island grouping code

Single island grouping endemics

Species                           Island groupings

Agave cacozela                    16
Agave indagatorum                 8
Agave millspaughii                13
Agave nashii                      2
Aleleia popenoei                  13
Chiococca stricta                 6
Cyperus correllii                 20
Eleocharis bahamensis             1
Encyclia androsiana               15
Encyclia caicensis                1
Encyclia withneri                 12
Emodea gigantea                   6
Euphorbia inaguaensis             3
Euphorbia longinsulicola          8
Euphorbia proctorii               2
Evolvulus bahamensis              1
Guettarda nashii                  2
Koanophyllon correlliorum         19
Lepidium fdicaule                 1
Matelea correllii                 8
Metastelma stipitatum             1
Mosiera androsiana                15
Spermacoce brittonii              1
Spermacoce capillaris             1
Spermacoce felis-insulae          12
Spermacoce inaguensis             3
Sporobolus bahamensis             6
Stenandrium carolinae             1
Symphyotrichum lucayanum          20
Zamia lucayana                    8

Two island grouping endemics

Species                           Island groupings

Agave acklinicola                 4, 6
Agave inaguensis                  1,2
Aristida correlliae               1, 6
Caesalpinia murifructa            2, 6
Encyclia inaguensis               1, 3
Erithalis diffusa                 6, 1
Emodea nashii                     2, 3
Emodea serratifolia               2, 12
Erythroxylum reticulatum          13, 15
Harrisia brookii                  8, 17
Heliotropium nashii               1,2
Maytenus lucayana                 15, 20
Metastelma sigmoideum             20,21
Portulaca minuta                  13, 15
Spathelia bahamensis              12, 17
Spermacoce thymifolia             1,2
Stenandrium bracteosum            4, 19
Tetranthus bahamensis             6, 14
Tolumnia sasseri                  12, 16

Table 2 Endemics restricted to a single Island Cluster. See Fig.
lb for details of the island groupings that compose the four
Island Clusters yielded after the multivariate analyses. The
Small Island Cluster has a total of 25 endemics. The Southern
Island Cluster has 59 endemics. The total numbers of endemics
occurring in the Central Island Cluster and the Northern Island
Cluster are 38 and 35, respectively

Island Cluster             Species

Central Island Cluster     Agave indagatorum
Central Island Cluster     Agave millspaughii
Central Island Cluster     Ateleia popenoei
Central Island Cluster     Encyclia withneri
Central Island Cluster     Euphorbia longinsulicola
Central Island Cluster     Harrisia brookii
Central Island Cluster     Matelea correllii
Central Island Cluster     Spathelia bahamensis
Central Island Cluster     Spermacoce felis-insulae
Central Island Cluster     Zamia lucayana
Northern Island Cluster    Agave cacozela
Northern Island Cluster    Agave braceana
Northern Island Cluster    Encyclia androsiana
Northern Island Cluster    Cyperus correllii
Northern Island Cluster    Encyclia fehlingii
Northern Island Cluster    Koanophyllon correlliorum
Northern Island Cluster    Mosiera androsiana
Northern Island Cluster    Maytenus lucayana
Northern Island Cluster    Symphyotrichum lucayanum
Small Island Cluster       Euphorbia inaguaensis
Small Island Cluster       Spermacoce inaguensis
Southern Island Cluster    Agave acklinicola
Southern Island Cluster    Agave inaguensis
Southern Island Cluster    Agave nashii
Southern Island Cluster    Argythamnia sericea
Southern Island Cluster    Aristida correlliae
Southern Island Cluster    Caesalpinia murifructa
Southern Island Cluster    Chiococca stricta
Southern Island Cluster    Coccothrinax inaguensis
Southern Island Cluster    Eleocharis bahamensis
Southern Island Cluster    Encyclia caicensis
Southern Island Cluster    Erithalis diffusa
Southern Island Cluster    Emodea gigantea
Southern Island Cluster    Euphorbia gymnonota
Southern Island Cluster    Euphorbia proctorii
Southern Island Cluster    Evolvulus bahamensis
Southern Island Cluster    Guettarda nashii
Southern Island Cluster    Heliotropium diffusum
Southern Island Cluster    Heliotropium nashii
Southern Island Cluster    Lepidium fdicaule
Southern Island Cluster    Lobelia lucayana
Southern Island Cluster    Metastelma stipitatum
Southern Island Cluster    Spermacoce brittonii
Southern Island Cluster    Spermacoce capillaris
Southern Island Cluster    Spermacoce savannarum
Southern Island Cluster    Spermacoce thymifolia
Southern Island Cluster    Sporobolus bahamensis
Southern Island Cluster    Stenandrium carolinae
Southern Island Cluster    Varronia lucayana
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