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Endemic seed plant species from Hainan Island: a checklist.

Introduction

Plants on tropical and subtropical islands are not only speciation paradigms but are well known because many of them are on the verge of extinction (Whittaker & Fernandez-Palacios, 2007). About one in six vascular plant species grows on oceanic islands, and one in three of all endangered plants is an insular endemic (World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 1992). One of the most extraordinary features of islands is that they harbor a high number of endemics within a very small area (Kruckeberg & Rabinowitz, 1985). It is, therefore, not surprising that 10 of the 34 biodiversity hotspots are islands (Mittermeier et al., 2004).

Despite their biological importance and conservation priority, there is an urgent need for floristic inventories of islands (Campbell & Hammond, 1989). Major insular systems from the tropics, such as the Caribbean Islands, Philippines, Madagascar, and Indonesia do not have recent comprehensive floras, or even checklists of their endemic species. We are aware that developing comprehensive floras for these islands can be a Herculean task requiring massive resources. However we argue, that by preparing checklists of insular endemics we are paving the way for more extensive floristic studies and practical conservation investments. Checklists can help in establishing conservation actions and priorities and provide a framework for additional floristic surveys and treatments. More importantly, checklists of endemics can be instrumental in increasing conservation awareness among those directly involved in the management of plant biodiversity on these islands and can provide educational and research tools for environmental biologists and educators.

In this study, we compiled a checklist of endemic seed plants from Hainan Island. In a separate paper in this issue of Botanical Review (Francisco-Ortega et al., in press) we discuss the patterns of endemism on Hainan. Hainan is the second largest island of China and represents the most important insular element in the Indo- Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. The island has the most extensive and best preserved tropical forests in China and therefore is a major priority for conservation (Deng et al., 2008; Zang & Ding, 2009).

We prepared an initial list of seed plants endemic to Hainan based on the checklist developed for the indigenous flora of the island by Wu et al. (1994) (see Francisco-Ortega et al. (In press) for a more extensive discussion of the history of floristic accounts for Hainan). Consequently we updated the initial list by using several bibliographic/taxonomic data base resources, including the Catalogue of Life, China (The Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2008), the Kew Bibliographic Database (Royal Botanic Gardens--Kew, 2009), the International Plant Name Index (IPNI, 2009), the ISI Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters, 2009), the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, 2009), and the International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS, 2009). We also consulted relevant taxonomic treatments and available volumes of the Flora of China, including unpublished family drafts posted on the Flora of China website (Flora of China, 2009). Additionally, we circulated early drafts of the final checklist among plant taxonomists who are actively working with Chinese plants (see acknowledgement section below). The resulting checklist of seed plants endemic to Hainan is presented in Appendix 1. The checklist also contains information concerning conservation status, the occurrence of Hainan endemics in four protected areas, and available molecular phylogenies. We found that many of the species regarded as endemic to Hainan by Wu et al. (1994) also occur on the mainland or have since then been merged with other, more widespread taxa. An additional checklist of the species that were until recently thought to be endemic to Hainan, but are no longer considered to be, and the reason for their exclusion, is presented in Appendix 2. Among those species previously thought to be endemic, 23 of them are reported to be in Vietnam, but not in mainland China.

Appendix 1. List of Endemic Seed Plant Species Currently Recognized on Hainan Island

As a working taxonomy we have mostly followed the Flora of China series and the family classifications established by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). We have assigned to each species the following descriptors: Bas.: Date of publication of basionym.

Conserv. stat.: Conservation status of endemic species according to Fu and Jin (1992), Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity (1998), Yu (1999; List of National Protected Key Wild Plants (First Batch)), Wang & Xie (2004), IUCN (2009, abbreviated as IUCN), or CSIS (2009; abbreviated as CSIS). Conservation categories provided by CSIS and IUCN follow guidelines described by IUCN (2001).

Reserve: Presence of species in the nature reserves of Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, and Yinggeling (Zeng et al., 1995; Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, 2001; Jiang et al., 2006a; Bawangling National Nature Reserve, unpublished; Yinggeling Nature Reserve, unpublished).

Molec.: Species for which molecular phylogenies are available. Notes: Additional relevant information, such as endemics restricted to limestone areas (Xing et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2006).

ACANTHACEAE

Cosmianthemum viriduliflorum (C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo) H. S. Lo, Guihaia 17: 42, 1997. Bas.: 1974. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Peristrophe strigosa C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 596, 1974. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Staurogyne hainanensis C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 589, 1974. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Staurogyne paotingensis C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 589, 1974. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Staurogyn e stenophylla Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 322, 1935. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Staurogyne strigosa C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 590, 1974.

ANNONACEAE

Artabotrys hainanensis R. E. Fr., Ark. Bot. Ser. 2, 3: 41, 1955. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Artabotrys pilosus Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 224, 1935. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Chieniodendron hainanense (Merr.) Y. Tsiang & R T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9: 375, 1964. Bas.: 1925.

Fissistigma tungfangense Y. Tsiang & P. T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9: 377, 1964. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

APOCYNACEAE

Cosmostigma hainanense Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 6: 156, 1941. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Gymnema hainanense Y. Tsiang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 37, 1965. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Hoya baishaensis S. Y. He & P. T. Li, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 46: 155, 2009.

Hoya bawanglingensis S. Y. He & P. T. Li, Novon 19: 357, 2009. Conserv. stat.: VU (He et al., 2009a). Reserve: Bawangling (He et al., 2009a).

Hoya persicinicoronaria S. Y. He & P. T. Li, Novon 19: 475, 2009. Conserv. stat.: VU (He et al., 2009b). Reserve: Bawangling (He et al., 2009b).

Hoya dasyantha Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 174, 1936. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Hoya lasiogynostegia P. T. Li, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(1): 118, 1984.

Hoya liangii Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 177, 1936. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Kopsia hainanensis Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2: 111, 1934. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Pentastelma auritum Y. Tsiang & P. T. Li, Fl. Hainan. 3: 577, 1974. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Rauvolfia tiaolushanensis Y. Tsiang, Sci. Rep. Kwangtung Coll. Forest 1: 10, 1962. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Toxocarpus hainanensis Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4: 69, 1939. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Toxocarpus laevigatus Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4: 70, 1939.

Toxocarpus patens Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 6: 128, 1941. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Tylophora picta Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 218, 1936. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Tylophora uncinata M. G. Gilbert & P. T. Li, Novon 5: 16, 1995.

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Ilex angulata Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 266, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Ilex dolichopoda Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 107, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Ilex huiana S. J. Chen & Y. X. Feng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 37: 143, 1999. Notes: The name Ilex huiana C. J. Tseng, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1-2): 9 was invalidly published in 1981.

Ilex liangii S. Y. Hu, J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 246, 1950. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Ilex nuculicava S. Y. Hu, J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 385, 1949. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Ilex shimeica K. F. Kwok, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 357, 1963. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

ARACEAE

Arisaema hainanense C. Y. Wu ex H. Li, Y. Shiao & S. L. Tseng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 107, 1977. Conserv. stat.: Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling. Molec.: Rennet et al. (2004).

Homalomena hainanensis H. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 103, 1977. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Schismatoglottis hainanensis H. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 103, 1977. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

ARALIACEAE

Dendropanax oligodontus Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 151, 1940. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Heteropanax hainanensis C. B. Shang, Adansonia Ser. 3, 19: 80, 1997.

Macropanax decandrus G. Hoo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. Addit. 1: 164, 1965. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

ARECACEAE

Calamus egregius Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 599, 1937. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Calamus multispicatus Buffet, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 592, 1937. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Calamus simplicifolius C. F. Wei, Guihaia 6: 36, 1986. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Calamus tetradactyloides Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 596, 1937. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Chuniophoenix hainanensis Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 583, 1937. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS, IUCN); Endangered (Fu & Jin, 1992); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms with Species Priority Category (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Chuniophoenix humilis C. Z. Tang & T. L. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 111, 1977. Conserv. stat.: Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms with Species Priority Category (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Licuala hainanensis A. J. Hend., L. X. Guo & Barfod, Syst. Bot. 32: 718, 2007.

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE

Aristolochia fulvicoma Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 48, 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Aristolochia howii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 46, 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Aristolochiapolymorpha S. M. Hwang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 222, 1981. Notes: Limestone species.

Thottea hainanensis (Merr. & Chun) D. Hou, Blumea 27: 321, 1981. Bas.: 1935. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

ASPARAGACEAE

Disporum hainanense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21: 338, 1922.

ASTERACEAE

Calotis caespitosa C. C. Chang, Sunyatsenia 3: 280, 1937. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Sinosenecio hainanensis (C. C. Chang & Y. C. Tseng) C. Jeffrey & Y. L. Chen, Kew Bull. 39: 238, 1984. Bas.: 1974. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling.

Strobocalyx chunii (C. C. Chang) H. Rob., S. C. Keeley, Skvarla & R. Chan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 121: 31, 2008. Bas.: 1937. Reserve: Jianfengling.

BALANOPHORACEAE

Balanophora saxicola F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li, Acta Bot. Austro Sin. 10: 17, 1995. Reserve: Diaoluoshan. Notes: Limestone species.

BALSAMINACEAE

Impatiens hainanensis Y. L. Chen, Guihaia 7: 9, 1987. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling. Notes: Limestone species.

BEGONIACEAE

Begonia hainanensis Chun & F. Chun, Sunyatsenia 4: 20, 1939. Conserv. stat.: EN (IUCN); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Begonia howii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 138, 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Begonia peltatifolia H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 209, 1944. Conserv. stat.: EN (IUCN); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

Begonia sublongipes Y. M. Shui, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 26: 484, 2004.

BORAGINACEAE

Ehretia changjiangensis F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 31: 472, 1993. Notes: Limestone species.

Ehretia hainanensis I. M. Johnst., J. Arnold Arbor. 32: 108, 1951.

BUXACEAE

Buxus hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 25, 1935. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Buxus pubiramea Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 104, 1940. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

CAMPANULACEAE

Lobelia hainanensis E. Wimm., Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 56: 348, 1948.

CAPPARACEAE

Capparis dasyphylla Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 16: 192, 1937. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Capparis hainanensis Oliv., Hooker's. Icon. Pl. 16: 1588, 1887.

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

Lonicera calveseens (Chun & F. C. How) P. S. Hsu & H. J. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(4): 81, 1979. Bas.: 1958. Reserve: Jianfengling.

CELASTRACEAE

Euonymus hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 47, 1958. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Euonymus potingensis Chun & F. C. How ex J. S. Ma, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10: 94, 1997.

Glyptopetalum fengii (Chun & F. C. How) Ding Hou, Fl. Males. Ser. 1 Spermat. 6: 256, 1963. Bas.: 1958. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Gymnosporia tiaoloshanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 52, 1958. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Maytenus dongfangensis F. W. Xing & X. S. Qin, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 158: 534, 2008. Notes: Limestone species.

Maytenus hainanensis (Merr. & Chun) C. Y. Cheng, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 45 (3): 146, 1999. Bas.: 1935.

Microtropis obscurinervia Merr. & F. L. Freeman, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 73: 283, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Salacia amplifolia Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 55, 1958.

Salacia confertiflora Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 27, 1935.

Salacia hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 56, 1958.

CONNARACEAE

Ellipanthus glabrifolius Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 246, 1923. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

CONVOLVULACEAE

Erycibe oligantha Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 175, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

CYCADACEAE

Cycas changjiangensis N. Liu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 36: 552, 1998. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS), EN (IUCN); National Protected Key Wild Plant (First Batch). Notes: Limestone species.

Cycas hainanensis C. J. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13(4): 82, 1975. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS), EN (IUCN); National Protected Key Wild Plant (First Batch). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Cycas shanyagensis G. A. Fu, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 26: 2, 2006. Conserv. stat.: National Protected Key Wild Plant (First Batch).

CYPERACEAE

Carex planiscapa Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 82, 1958. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Carex tsoi Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 207, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Carex tungfangensis L. K. Dai & S. M. Huang, F1. Hainan. 4: 536, 1977. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Fimbristylis chingmaiensis S. M. Huang, F1. Hainan. 4: 536, 1977.

Fimbristylis longistipitata T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 11: 108, 229, 1961. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Hypolytrum ohwianum T. Koyama, Jap. J. Bot. 15: 183, 1956.

Hypolytrum paucistrobiliferum T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 11: 200, 234, 1961. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Lipocarpha bawangensis R. H. Miao, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 30(2): 86, 1991. Reserve: Bawangling.

Machaerina myriantha (Chun & F. C. How) Y. C. Tang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 537, 1977. Bas.: 1958. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Mariscus hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 87, 1958. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Mariscus monospermus S. M. Huang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 537, 1977.

Scirpus chunianus T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 11 : 13, 221, 1961. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Scirpus pseudoarticulatus L. K. Dai & S. M. Huang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 538, 1977. Reserve: Jianfengling.

DIOSCOREACEAE

Dioscorea changjiangensis F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li, Acta Bot. Austro Sin. 10: 19, 1995. Notes: Limestone species.

EBENACEAE

Diospyros chunii F. P. Metcalf & L. Chen, Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 618, 1935.

Diospyros corallina Chun & L. Chert, Sunyatsenia 3:120, 1936. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

Diospyros hainanensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 258, 1923. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Diospyros howii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 299, 1935. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Diospyros inflata Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 163, 1940. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Diospyros maclurei Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 259, 1923. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Diospyros oliviformis R. H. Miao, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 32(4): 65, 1993.

Diospyros strigosa Hemsl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1910: 193, 1910. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

ELAEOCARPACEAE

Sloanea hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 123, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

ERICACEAE

Vaccinium hainanense Sleumer, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 71: 469, 1941. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

ERIOCAULACEAE

Eriocaulon kaikoense Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 25, 1943.

Eriocaulon kainantense Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 13, 1943.

Eriocaulon odashimai Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 26, 1943.

Eriocaulon sclerophyllum W. L. Ma, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 29: 306, 1991.

EUPHORBIACEAE

Acalypha chuniana H. G. Ye, Y. S. Ye, X. S. Qin & F. W. Xing, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 43: 148, 2006. Notes: Limestone species.

Acalypha hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 91, 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Notes: Limestone species.

Croton chunianus Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 21 : 497, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Croton howii Y. T. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27: 147, 1989. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Croton laevigatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2: 97, 1791. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Croton laui Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 16: 389, 1937. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS); Vulnerable (Fu & Jin, 1992); EMolecered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Drypetes longistipitata P. T. Li, J. South China Agric. Univ. 21(4): 59, 2000.

Euphorbia hainanensis Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 505, 1940.

Leptopus hainanensis (Merr. & Chun) Pojark., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20:271, 1960. Bas.: 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Mallotus anomalus Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 99, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Phyllanthus hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 20, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling. Molec.: Lee et al. (2006).

Phyllanthus nanellus P. T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 376, 1987.

Phyllanthus rheophyticus M. G. Gilbert & P. T. Li, Fl. China 11: 188, 2008.

Trigonostemon xyphophylloides (Croizat) L. K. Dai & T. L. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 278, 1963. Bas.: 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

FABACEAE

Christia hainanensis Y. C. Yang & P. H. Huang, Bull. Bot. Lab. N. E. Forest. Inst., Harbin 8: 5, 1980.

Crotalaria hainanensis C. C. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6: 395, 1957. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Crotalaria jianfengensis C. Y. Yang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20: 478, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling.

Crotalaria yaihsienensis T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 349, 1963.

Dalbergia hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 32, 1934. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Dalbergia peishaensis Chun & T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 24, 1958. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Dalbergia tsoi Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 244, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Derris breviramosa F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 3: 219, 1954. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Indigofera litoralis Chun & T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 27, 1958. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Paraderris hainanensis (Hayata) Adema, Blumea 48: 138, 2003. Bas.: 1913.

Sophora praetorulosa Chun & T. C. Chen ex P. T. Li, J. South China Agric. Univ. 21(4): 59, 2000. Reserve: Jianfengling. Notes: Sophora praetorulosa Chun & T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7:28 was invalidly published for this species in 1958.

FAGACEAE

Castanopsis hainanensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21: 340, 1922. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Castanopsis hairocarpa G. A. Fu, Guihaia 21: 96, 2001.

Castanopsis jianfenglingensis S. Duanmu, Sci. Silvae Sin. 8(2): 187, 1963. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling.

Castanopsis ledongensis C. C. Huang & Y. T. Chang, Guihaia 16: 301, 1996. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Notes: The name Castanopsis ledongensis C. C. Huang & Y. T. Chang, Guihaia 10:5 was published in 1990; however, the species description did not have a holotype.

Castanopsis oleifera G. A. Fu, Guihaia 21: 97, 2001.

Castanopsis qingbeiensis G. A. Fu, Guihaia 21: 96, 2001.

Castanopsis wenchangensis G. A. Fu & C. C. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27:151, 1989.

Castanopsis wuzhishangensis G. A. Fu, Guihaia 21: 95, 2001. Cyclobalanopsis albicaulis (Chun & W. C. Ko) Y. C. Hsu & H. W. Jen, J. Beijing Forest. Univ. 15(4): 45, 1993. Bas.: 1958. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

Cyclobalanopsis changhuaglingensis G. A. Fu & X. J. Hong, Guihaia 27: 29, 2007.

Cyclobalanopsis dongfangensis (C. C. Huang, F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li) Y. Y. Luo & R. J. Wang, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 15: 261, 2007. Bas.: 1996.

Cyclobalanopsis fuliginosa (Chun & W. C. Ko) Y. Y. Luo & R. J. Wang, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 15: 261, 2007. Bas.: 1958. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Cyclobalanopsis litoralis Y. C. Hsu & H. W. Jen, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(1): 147, 1979. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Cyclobalanopsis subhinoidea (Chun & W. C. Ko) Y. T. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34: 339, 1996. Bas.: 1958. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Cyclobalanopsis tiaoloshanica (Chun & W. C. Ko) Y. C. Hsu & H. W. Jen, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(1): 148, 1979. Bas.: 1958. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Cyclobalanopsis yin-qianii G. A. Fu, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 27: 1, 2007. Lithocarpus chiungchungensis Chun & P. C. Tam, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 207, 1965. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Lithocarpus elmerrillii Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 28: 232, 1947. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Lithocarpus fenzelianus A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Ser. 2, 4: 912, 1932. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Lithocarpus handelianus A. Camus, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Ser. 2, 6: 93, 1934. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Lithocarpus naiadarum (Hance) Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 9: 152, 1928. Bas.: 1884. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Lithocarpus obovatilimbus Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 28: 236, 1947. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Quercus bawanglingensis C. C. Huang, Z. X. Li & F. W. Xing, Guihaia 16: 302, 1996. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling. Notes: The name Quercus bawanglingensis C. C. Huang, Z. X. Li & F. W. Xing, Guihaia 10:10 was published in 1990; however, the species description did not have a holotype. Notes: Limestone species.

GESNERIACEAE

Cathayanthe biflora Chun, Sunyatsenia 6: 283, 1946. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Chirita heterotricha Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 13: 71, 1934. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Molec.: Li & Wang (2007).

Metapetrocosmea peltata (Merr. & Chun) W. T. Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(4): 39, 1981. Bas.: 1935. Conserv. stat.: Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Oreocharis dasyantha Chun, Sunyatsenia 6: 287, 1946. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Oreocharis flavida Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21: 354, 1922. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Paraboea changjiangensis F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 15: 121, 1993. Notes: Limestone species.

Paraboea hainanensis (Chun) B. L. Burtt, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 41: 429, 1984. Bas.: 1974. Reserve: Jianfengling.

HAMAMELIDACEAE

Chunia bucklandioides H. T. Chang, Sunyatsenia 7: 63, 1948. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS), VU (IUCN); Rare (Fu & Jin, 1992); National Protected Key Wild Plant (First Batch); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Distyliopsis salicifolia (E. Walker) P. K. Endress, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 90: 30, 1970. Bas.: 1944. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

HYDRANGEACEAE

Dichroa mollissima Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 245, 1923.

ICACINACEAE

Nothapodytes obtusifolia (Merr.) R. A. Howard, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 70, 1942. Bas.: 1935. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Platea parvifolia Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 112, 1940. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

JUGLANDACEAE

Engelhardia hainanensis P. Y. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 251, 1981. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

LAMIACEAE

Callicarpa basitruncata Merr., Phytologia 3: 406, 1951.

Callicarpa erythrosticta Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 178, 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Gomphostemma hainanense C. Y. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 145, 1965. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Premna hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 77, 1958. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Scutellaria hainanensis C. Y. Wu, Fl. Hainan. 4: 532, 1977. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Wenchengia alternifolia C. Y. Wu & S. Chow, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 251, 1965. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

LARDIZABALACEAE

Stauntonia oligophylla Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 54, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

LAURACEAE

Actinodaphne glaucina C. K. Allen, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 410, 1938. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Actinodaphne paotingensis Y. C. Yang & P. H. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 63, 1978. Reserve: Diaoluoshan. Melee.: Li et al. (2006).

Alseodaphne rugosa Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 232, 1935. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS, IUCN); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Beilschmiedia appendiculata (C. K. Allen) S. K. Lee & Y. T. Wei, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(2): 65, 1979. Bas.: 1942. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Beilschmiedia baotingensis S. K. Lee & Y. T. Wei, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(2): 64, 1979. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Beilschmiedia brevifolia Y. T. Wei, Guihaia 4: 196, 1984.

Beilschmiedia longepetiolata C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 450, 1942. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Beilschmiedia macropoda C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 452, 1942. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Beilschmiedia obconica C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 453, 1942.

Beilschmiedia tungfangensis S. K. Lee & L. F. Lau, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 194, 1963. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Cryptocarya impressinervia H. W. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(2): 70, 1979. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Notes: The name C. obtusifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21: 344, published for this species in 1922 is a later homonym of C. obtusifolia Meisn. in DC., Prodr. 15(1): 508, 1864.

Cryptocarya leiana C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 456, 1942.

Cryptocarya metcalfiana C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 457, 1942. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Cryptocarya tsangii Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 16: 121, 1940.

Dehaasia hainanensis Kosterm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 93: 439, 1973. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Molec.: Chen et al. (2009).

Endiandra hainanensis Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 461, 1942. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Litsea litseifolia (C. K. Allen) Y. C. Yang & P. H. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 57, 1978. Bas.: 1938. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Lindera robusta (C. K. Allen) H. P. Tsui, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 64, 1978. Bas.: 1941. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Litsea verticillifolia Y. C. Yang & P. H. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 48, 1978. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS).

Machilus monticola S. K. Lee, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 185, 1963. Conserv. stat.: Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Molec.: Chen et al. (2009).

Machilus pomifera (Kosterin.) S. K. Lee, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8:186, 1963. Bas.: 1961. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling. Molec.: Chen et al. (2009).

Neolitsea hainanensis Y. C. Yang & P. H. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 43, 1978. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Neolitsea howii C. K. Allen, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 424, 1937. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Neolitsea obtusifolia Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 6, 1935. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Phoebe hainanensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21: 343, 1922. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Syndiclis chinensis C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 462, 1942. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Syndiclis lotungensis S. K. Lee, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 191, 1963. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

LOWIACEAE

Orchidantha insularis T. L. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9: 340, 1964. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

MAGNOLIACEAE

Lirianthe albosericea (Chun & C. H. Tsoong) N. H. Xia & C. Y. Wu, Fl. China 7: 63, 2008. Bas.: 1964. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling. Molec.: Shi et al. (2000); Kim et al. (2001).

Magnolia bawangensis Y. W. Law, R. Z. Zhou & D. M. Liu, Nordic J. Bot. 27: 4, 2009. Conserv. stat.: CR (Liu et al., 2009). Reserve: Bawangling (Liu et al., 2009).

Michelia shiluensis Chun & Y. F. Wu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 286, 1963. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling. Molec.: Kim et al. (2001).

MALVACEAE

Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm., Pengum. Balai Besar Penjel. Kehut. Indonesia 54: 30, 1956. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS, IUCN); Endangered (Fu & Jin, 1992); National Protected Key Wild Plant (First Batch); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms with Species Priority Category (Compilation Group of China's

Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Firmiana pulcherrima H. H. Hsue, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 271, 1963. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Grewia chuniana Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 488, 1937.

Reevesia botingensis H. H. Hsue, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 272, 1963. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Reevesia lancifolia H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 208, 1944. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Reevesia longipetiolata Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 40, 1934. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

MELASTOMATACEAE

Medinilla arboricola F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 345, 1963. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Melastoma dendrisetosum C. Chen, J. South China. Agri. Coll. 4(1): 35, 1983. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Phyllagathis hainanensis (Merr. & Chun) C. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 42, 1984. Bas.: 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Phyllagathis melastomatoides (Merr. & Chun) W. C. Ko, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 267, 1963. Bas.: 1935.

Phyllagathis stenophylla (Merr. & Chun) H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 32, 1944. Bas.: 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Scorpiothyrsus erythrotrichus (Merr. & Chun) H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 35, 1944. Bas.: 1940. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Scorpiothyrsus xanthostictus (Merr. & Chun) H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 34, 1944. Bas.: 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Sonerila hainanensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 256, 1923. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

MELIACEAE

Munronia yinggelingensis R. J. Zhang, Y. S. Ye & F. W. Xing, Nordic J. Bot. 27: 376, 2009. Conserv. stat.: EN (Zhang et al., 2009). Reserve: Yinggeling (Zhang et al., 2009).

MENISPERMACEAE

Arcangelisia gusanlung H. S. Lo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(1): 100, 1980. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Yinggeling. Molec.: Wang et al. (2007).

Stephania hainanensis H. S. Lo & Y. Tsoong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(1): 39, 1978. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling. Molec.: Hong et al. (2001). Notes: Limestone species.

Stephania succifera H. S. Lo & Y. Tsoong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(1): 36, 1978. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling. Molec.: Hong et al. (2001); Wang et al. (2007).

Tinospora hainanensis H. S. Lo & Z. X. Li, Guihaia 6: 51, 1986. Conserv. stat.: Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms with Species Priority Category (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

MORACEAE

Ficus dinganensis S. S. Chang, Guihaia 3: 300, 1983.

MYRSINACEAE

Ardisia baotingensis C. M. Hu, Acta Bot. Austro Sin. 6: 27, 1990. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Ardisia densilepidotula Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 6: 284, 1928. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Ardisia ordinata E. Walker, Philipp. J. Sci. 73: 137, 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Ardisia porifera E. Walker, Philipp. J. Sci. 73: 70, 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling.

Ardisia retroflexa E. Walker, Philipp. J. Sci. 73: 60, 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Maesa confusa (C. M. Hu) Pipoly & C. Chen, Novon 5: 357, 1995. Bas.: 1992. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Maesa consanguinea Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 258, 1923. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

MYRTACEAE

Decaspermum albociliatum Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 202, 1938. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Decaspermum austro-hainanicum Hung T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Bot. Yurman. 4: 24, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Decaspermum hainanense (Merr.) Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 42, 1935. Bas.: 1923. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Decaspermum teretis H. T. Chang & R. H. Miao ex Craven, Harvard Pap. Bot. 11: 27, 2006. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling. Notes: The name Pyrenocarpa teretis H. T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ.

Sunyatseni 1975: 64 was invalidly published for this species in 1975.

Syzygium buxifolioideum Hung T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4: 20, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Syzygium conspersipunctatum (Merr. & L. M. Perry) Craven & Biffin, Blumea 51: 136, 2006. Bas.: 1937. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Syzygium hainanense Hung T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4: 20, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Syzygium howii Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 243, 1938. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Syzygium infra-rubiginosum Hung T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4: 23, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Syzygium jienfunicum Hung Y. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4: 19, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling.

Syzygium rysopodum Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 221, 1938. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Syzygium stenocladum Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 220, 1938. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Syzygium tephrodes (Hance) Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 223, 1938. Bas.: 1885. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

OLEACEAE

Chionanthus hainanensis (Merr. & Chun) B. M. Miao, Invest. Stud. Nat. Mus. Hist. Nat. Shanghaiense 7: 18, 1987. Bas.: 1940. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Jasminum rehderianum Kobuski, Sunyatsenia 3: 110, 1936. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Olea neriifolia H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 212, 1944. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Molec.: Besnard et al. (2009).

Olea parvilimba (Merr. & Chun) B. M. Miao, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 61: 126, 1992. Bas.: 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

ORCHIDACEAE

Anoectochilus baotingensis (K. Y. Lang) Ormerod, Taiwania 48: 87, 2003. Bas.: 1996. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Anoectochilus hainanensis H. Z. Tian, F. W. Xing & U Li, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 45: 220, 2008.

Apostasia ramifera S. C. Chen & K. Y. Lang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24: 349, 1986. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms with Species Priority Category (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

Bulbophyllum hainanense Z. H. Tsi, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 1(1-2): 118, 1981. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Bulbophyllum ledungense T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 45, 1974. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Bulbophyllum obtusiangulum Z. H. Tsi, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 578, 1995. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Notes: Chen and Vermeulen (2009) consider this taxon to be a synonymy of Bulbophyllum lepidum (Blume) J. J. Smith, Orch. Java: 471, 1905; a species also found on mainland China, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Until additional data are available, however, we consider B. obtusiangulum to be a distinct species endemic in Hainan.

Bulbophyllum wuzhishanensis X. H. Jin, Brittonia 57: 255, 2005.

Ceratostylis hainanensis Z. H. Tsi, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 582, 1995. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Crepidium hainanense (T. Tang & F. T. Wang) S. C. Chen & J. J. Wood, Fl. China 25: 234, 2009. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Crepidium insulate (T. Tang & F. T. Wang) S. C. Chen & J. J. Wood, Fl. China 25: 233, 2009. Conserv. star.: VU (CSIS).

Dendrobium hainanense Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1896: 193, 1896. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Dendrobium sinense T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 41, 1974. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Gastrochilus acinacifolius Z. H. Tsi, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 9(2): 25, 1989. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Gastrodia longitubularis Q. W. Meng, X. Q. Song & Y. B. Luo, Nordic J. Bot. 25: 23, 2008. Conserv. stat.: CR (Meng et al., 2008).

Liparis bautingensis T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 39, 1974. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Liparis fissilabris T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 37, 1974. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Liparis hainanensis T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 38, 1974. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling. Notes: Chen et al. (2009e) consider this taxon to be a synonymy of Liparis balansae Gagnepain, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 79:165, 1932; a species also found on mainland China, Thailand, and Vietnam. Until additional data are available, however, we consider L. hainanensis to be a distinct species endemic in Hainan.

Oxystophyllum changjiangense (S. J. Cheng & C. Z. Tang) M. A. Clem., Telopea 10: 276, 2003. Bas.: 1980. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS, IUCN). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Notes: Limestone species.

Phaius hainanensis C. Z. Tang & S. J. Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20: 199, 1982. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Pinalia quinquelamellosa (Tang & F. T. Wang) S. C. Chen & J. J. Wood, Fl. China 25: 356, 2009. Bas.: 1934.

Sunipia hainanensis Z. H. Tsi, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 33: 590, 1995. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Thrixspermum odoratum X. Q. Song, Q. W. Meng, & Y. B. Luo, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 46: 595, 2009.

Trichotosia dongfangensis X. H. Jin & L. P. Siu, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 41: 465, 2004.

PENTAPHYLACACEAE

Adinandra angustifolia (S. H. Chun ex H. G. Ye) B. M. Barthol. & T. L. Ming, Fl. China 12: 477, 2007. Bas.: 2001.

Adinandra epunctata Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 132, 1940. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Adinandra howii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 131, 1940. Conserv. star.: EN (CSIS).

Cleyera anguslifolia H. G. Ye, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 9: 313, 2001.

Eurya hainanensis (Kobuski) Hung T. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 3: 37, 1954. Bas.: 1938. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Eurya ovatifolia Hung T. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 3: 40, 1954. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan.

Eurya pentagyna Hung T. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 3: 21, 1954. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Ternstroemia hainanensis Hung T. Chang, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 9(4): 135, 1963. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS).

PINACEAE

Keteleeria hainanensis Chun & Y. Tsiang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 259, 1963. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS); Endangered (Fu & Jin, 1992). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Pinus orthophylla Businsky, Willdenowia 34: 229, 2004.

PIPERACEAE

Piper infossibaccatum A. Huang, Guihaia 10: 295, 1990. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Piper lingshuiense Y. C. Tseng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(1): 28, 1979. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Piper senporeiense Yamamoto, Contrib. Fl. Kainan. 1: 21, 1943. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

POACEAE

Ampelocalamus actinotrichus (Merr. & Chun) S. L. Chen, T. H. Wen & G. Y. Sheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 334, 1981. Bas.: 1935. Conserv. star.: Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Jianfengling. Molee.: Guo et al. (2002).

Bambusa bicicatricata (W. T. Lin) L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 214, 1980. Bas.: 1978.

Bambusa boniopsis McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 7, 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Bambusa brunneo-aciculia G. A. Fu, Guihaia 13: 108, 1993.

Bambusa diaoluoshanensis L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 369, 1981. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Bambusa duriuscula W. T. Lin, Bull. Bot. Lab. N. E. Forest. Inst., Harbin 1980(6): 87, 1980.

Bambusa glabro-vagina G. A. Fu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 20: 489, 1982.

Bambusa insularis L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 370, 1981.

Bambusa malingensis McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 11, 1940. Molee.: Sungkaew et al. (2009).

Bambusa mutabilis McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 12, 1940. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Bambusa piscatorum McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 14, 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Bonia levigata (L. C. Chia, H. L. Fung & Y. L. Yang) N. H. Xia, Kew Bull. 51: 568, 1996. Bas.: 1988. Molee.: Yang et al. (2008).

Eragrostis alta Keng, Lingnan Sci. J. 16: 1, 1937.

Eragrostis hainanensis L. C. Chia, Fl. Hainan. 4: 539, 1977. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Eragrostis rufinerva L. C. Chia, Fl. Hainan. 4: 539, 1977.

Eulalia micranthera Y. L. Keng & S. L. Chen, Fl. Hainan. 4: 539, 1977. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Fargesia hainanensis T. P. Yi, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 3(3): 151, 1983.

Imperata flavida S. M. Phillips & S. L. Chen, Novon 15: 469, 2005. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling. Notes: Imperata flavida Y. L. Keng, Clav. Gener. Spec. Gramin. Primar. Sinic.: 138, 234 was invalidly published for this species in 1957.

Lingnania hainanensis (L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung) T. P. Yi, J. Sichuan Forest. Sci. Technol. 28(3): 17, 2007. Bas.: 1980. Molee.: Sun et al. (2005).

Lingnania longianthera G. A. Fu, J. Bamboo Res. 5(2): 41, 1986. Notes: This species is not included in the treatment of Bambuseae in the Flora of China. Until additional studies are available, however, we follow Fu (2003) and consider this taxon to be endemic to Hainan.

Oligostachyum gracilipes (McClure) G. H. Ye & Z. P. Wang, J. Nanjing Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 26(3): 488, 1990. Bas.: 1940.

Oligostachyum nuspiculum (McClure) Z. P. Wang & G. H. Ye, J. Nanjing Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 1982(1): 98, 1982. Bas.: 1940.

Oligostachyum scopulum (McClure) Z. P. Wang & G. H. Ye, J. Nanjing Univ., Nat. Sci. Ed. 1982(1): 98, 1982. Bas.: 1940.

Pogonatherum biaristatum S. L. Chen & G. Y. Sheng, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 13: 76, 1993.

Schizostachyum diaoluoshanense N. H. Xia, L. L. Zhang & R. S. Lin, Nordic J. Bot. 26: 21, 2008. Reserve: Diaoluoshan (Zhang et al., 2008).

Setiacis diffusa (L. C. Chia) S. L. Chen & Y. X. Jin, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 26: 219, 1988. Bas.: 1977.

POLYGALACEAE

Polygala bawanglingensis F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li, Acta Bot. Austro Sin. 6: 54, 1990. Reserve: Bawangling. Notes: Limestone species.

Polygala hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 5, 1958. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Polygala wuzhishanensis S. K. Chen & J. Parn., Fl. China 11: 148, 2008.

PROTEACEAE

Heliciopsis lobata (Merr.) Sleumer, Blumea 8: 83, 1955. Bas.: 1930. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling. Molec.: Mast et al. (2008).

RANUNCULACEAE

Clematis hainanensis W. T. Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4: 134, 1982.

RHAMNACEAE

Rhamnus hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 273, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

ROSACEAE

Prunus hainanensis (G. A. Fu & V. S. Lin) H. Yu, N. H. Xia & H. G. Ye, Nordic J.

Bot. 25: 31, 2008. Bas.: 1988. Conserv. stat.: EN (Yu et al., 2007). Reserve: Bawangling, Yinggeling.

Rhaphialepis wuzhishanensis W. B. Liao, R. H. Miao & Q. Fan, Novon 17: 429, 2007. Conserv. stat.: EN (Fan et al., 2007).

Rubus howii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 71, 1940. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

RUBIACEAE

Argostemma discolor Merr, Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 265, 1923. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Argostemma hainanicum H. S. Lo, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 6(4): 46, 1986. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Benkara rectispina (Merr.) Ridsdale, Reinwardtia 12: 299, 2008. Bas.: 1935.

Ceriscoides howii H. S. Lo, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 18: 281, 1998. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS).

Damnacanthus hainanensis (H. S. Lo) Y. Z. Ruan, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 71(2): 176, 1999. Bas.: 1979. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Hedyotis baotingensis W. C. Ko, J. South China Agric. Coll. 16(4): 43, 1995.

Hedyotis cathayana W. C. Ko, Fl. Hainan. 3: 579, 1974. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Hedyotis cheniana R. J. Wang, Novon 18: 264, 2008. Conserv. stat.: LC (Wang, 2008). Notes: Although Wang (2008) considers this species to have a Least Concern conservation status, no herbarium specimens have been collected since 1959.

Hedyatis communis W. C. Ko, Fl. Hainan. 3: 579, 1974. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Hedyotis cryptantha Dunn, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1912: 367, 1912. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Hedyotis hainanensis (Chun) W. C. Ko, Fl. Hainan. 3: 580, 1974. Bas.: 1934. Reserve: Bawangling, Yinggeling.

Hedyotis minutopuberula Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 229, 1942. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Hedyotis paridifolia Dunn, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1912: 366, 1912. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Hedyotis terminaliflora Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 326, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Hedvotis wuzhishanensis R. J. Wang, Novon 18: 266, 2008. Conserv. stat.: LC (Wang, 2008). Notes: Although Wang (2008) considers this species to have a Least Concern conservation status, only five herbarium specimens have been collected between 1933 and 1989.

Hedyotis yazhouensis F. W. Xing & R. J. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 41: 87, 2003.

Lasianthus calycinus Dunn, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1912: 367, 1912. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Lasianthus verrucosus H. S. Lo, Bot. J. South China 2: 2, 1993. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Meyna hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 57, 1935. Conserv. star.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling.

Morinda brevipes S. Y. Hu, J. Arnold Arbor. 32: 399, 1951. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Morinda hainanensis Merr. & F. C. How, Sunyatsenia 5: 188, 1940. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Mussaenda antiloga Chun & W. C. Ko, Fl. Hainan. 3: 582, 1974. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Mussaenda hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 58, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Mussaenda lotungensis Chun & W. C. Ko, Fl. Hainan. 3: 581, 1974. Conserv. star.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Mussaenda membranifolia Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 267, 1923. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Mycetia hainanensis H. S. Lo, Guihaia 11: 112, 1991. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Ophiorrhiza hainanensis Y. C. Tseng, Fl. Hainan. 3: 582, 1974. Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling.

Ophiorrhiza humilis Y. C. Tseng, Fl. Hainan. 3: 583, 1974. Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Psychotria hainanensis H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 213, 1944. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Saprosma hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 9: 44, 1930. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Saprosma merrillii H. S. Lo, Bot. J. South China 2:15, 1993. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Tarenna laui Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 59, 1935.

Wendlandia merrilliana Cowan, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 18: 303, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

RUTACEAE

Clausena hainanensis C. C. Huang & F. W. Xing, Guihaia 12: 215, 1992. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan. Notes: Limestone species.

Melicope chunii (Merr.) T. G. Hartley, Allertonia 8: 237, 2001. Bas.: 1925.

Melicope patulinervia (Merr. & Chun) C. C. Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6: 132, 1957. Bas.: 1940. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

SALICACEAE

Homalium stenophyllum Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 287, 1935. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS).

Populus qiongdaoensis T. Hong & P. Luo, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 7(3): 67, 1987. Reserve: Bawangling, Yinggeling.

Salix hainanica A. K. Skvortsov, Harvard Pap. Bot. 3: 107, 1998.

SANTALACEAE

Viscum hainanense R. L. Han & D. X. Zhang, Nordic J. Bot. 23: 720, 2006.

Reserve: Bawangling (Han et al., 2006).

SAPINDACEAE

Allophylus repandiyblius Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 113, 1940. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Yinggeling.

Allophylus trichophyllus Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 270, 1935. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS).

Lepisanthes hainanensis H. S. Lo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17(2): 31, 1979. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Lepisanthes oligophylla (Merr. & Chun) N. H. Xia & Gadek, Fl. China 12: 13, 2007. Bas.: 1935. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Lepisanthes unilocularis Leenh., Blumea 17: 73, 1969. Conserv. stat.: EX (CSIS, IUCN); Extinct (Fu & Jin, 1992).

Mischocarpus hainanensis H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 574, 1974. Reserve: Jianfengling.

Nephelium topengii (Merr.) H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 574, 1974. Bas.: 1923. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Paranephelium hainanense H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 575, 1974. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS), EN (IUCN); Endangered (Fu & Jin, 1992); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms with Species Priority Category (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998).

SAPOTACEAE

Madhuca hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 71, 1958. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS, IUCN); Vulnerable (Fu & Jin, 1992); National Protected Key Wild Plant (First Batch); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling. Molee.: Smedmark et al. (2006).

Xantolis longispinosa (Merr.) H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 575, 1974. Bas.: 1934. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Lindernia cyrtotricha P. C. Tsoong & T. C. Ku, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 67(2): 148, 398, 1979. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

SMILACACEAE

Heterosmilax micrandra T. Koyama, Brittonia 36: 201, 1984.

STEMONACEAE

Stemona parviflora C. H. Wright, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32: 49, 1896. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling. Molee.: Jiang et al. (2006b).

SYMPLOCACEAE

Symplocos crassilimba Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 47, 1935. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Symplocos euryoides Hand.-Mazz., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 62(B): 27, 1943. Reserve: Jianfengling. Molee.: Wang et al. (2004); Fritsch et al. (2006).

Symplocos ovatilobata Noot., Rev. Symploc. Old World: 257, 1975. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS); Endangered or Rare Species of Chinese Angiosperms (Compilation Group of China's Biodiversity, 1998). Reserve: Diaoluoshan, Yinggeling. Molee.: Wang et al. (2004); Fritsch et al. (2006).

THEACEAE

Camellia amplexifolia Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 129, 1940. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Camellia parviflora Sealy, Rev. Gen. Camellia: 139, 1958. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS).

Camellia paucipunctata (Merr. & Chun) Chun, Sunyatsenia 4: 187, 1940. Bas.: 1935. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

Camellia xanthochroma K. M. Feng & L. S. Xie, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 2: 424, 1980. Conserv. stat.: CR (CSIS).

Polyspora hainanensis (Hung T. Chang) B. M. Barthol. & T. L. Ming, Novon 15: 264, 2005. Bas.: 1983. Conserv. stat.: EN (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Yinggeling. Molee.: Prince & Parks (2001); Yang et al. (2004).

THYMELAEACEAE

Daphne axillaris (Merr. & Chun) Chun & C. F. Wei, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 264, 1963. Bas.: 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Wikstroemia chuii Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 9: 41, 1930. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

Wikstroemia hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 40, 1935. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Wikstroemia liangii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 140, 1940. Conserv. stat.: VU (CSIS). Reserve: Diaoluoshan.

URTICACEAE

Boehmeria lohuiensis S. S. Chien, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 355, 1963. Reserve: Yinggeling.

Pilea subedentata C. J. Chen, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 2(3): 79, 1982. Reserve: Bawangling, Jianfengling.

VITACEAE

Cayratia lanceolata (C. L. Li) J. Wen & Z. D. Chen, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 28: 471, 2006. Bas.: 1996.

Leea longifoliola Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 33, 1935. Reserve: Jianfengling, Yinggeling.

Tetrastigma pseudocruciatum C. L. Li, Chin. J. Appl. Environm. Biol. 1: 318, 1995.

ZINGIBERACEAE

Alpinia coriacea T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(3): 31, 1978. Reserve: Diaoluoshan. Molec.: Kress et al. (2005).

Alpinia hibinoi Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 108, 1943.

Amomum chinense Chun, Fl. Hainan. 4: 533, 1977. Reserve: Bawangling, Diaoluoshan, Jianfengling.

Appendix 2. Taxa no longer considered endemic to Hainan Island and names of uncertain application

ACANTHACEAE

Calophanoides hainanensis C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 597, 1974 (accepted name: Justicia hainanensis (C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo) N. H. Xia & Y. F. Deng, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 13: 533, 2005, also occurring in mainland China (Xia & Deng, 2005)).

Championella maclurei (Merr.) C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 592, 1974 (accepted name: Strobilanthes anamitica Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.: 498, 1891, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (The Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2008; Y. F. Deng, pers. comm.)).

Graptophyllum viriduliflorum C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 594, 1974 (accepted name: Cosmianthemum viriduliflorum, endemic to Hainan (Hu, 2009)).

Lepidagathis hainanensis H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 598, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (Hu, 2009)).

Pararuellia hainanensis C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 593, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (The Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2008; Y. F. Deng, pers. comm.)).

Rostellularia humilis H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 598, 1974 (accepted name: Justicia demissa N. H. Xia & Y. F. Deng, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 13: 534, 2005, also occurring in mainland China (Xia & Deng, 2005)).

Staurogyne sinica C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 590, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (Y. Deng, pers. comm.)).

ANNONACEAE

Miliusa prolifica (Chun & F. C. How) P. T. Li, Guihaia 13: 315, 1993 (also occurring in mainland China (X.-L. Hou, unpublished)).

Meiogyne hainanensis (Merr.) N. T. Ban, Bot. Zhum. (Moscow & Leningrad) 58: 1148, 1973 (accepted name: Oncodostigma hainanense (Merr.) Y. Tsiang & P. T.

Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 30(2): 81, 1979, also occurring in mainland China (Li, 2009; X.-L. Hou, pers. comm.)).

Polyalthia consanguinea Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 243, 1923 (accepted name: Polyalthia obliqua Hook. f. & Thomson, Fl. Ind. 1: 138, 1855, also occurring in Malaysia and mainland China (Li, 2009; X.-L. Hou, unpublished)).

Polyalthia laui Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 5, 1935 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Li, 2009; X.-L. Hou, unpublished)).

Species of uncertain status

Meiogyne kwangtungensis P. T. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 14: 104, 1976 (this species is known only from the type specimen and is of uncertain taxonomic status (X.-L. Hou, unpublished)).

Richella hainanensis (Y. Tsiang & P. T. Li) Y. Tsiang & P. T. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 30(2): 128, 1979 (this species is known only from the type specimen and is of uncertain taxonomic status (X.-L. Hou, pers. comm.)).

APOCYNACEAE

Alyxia lehtungensis Y. Tsiang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 30, 1965 (accepted name: Alyxia sinensis Benth., Hook. J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4: 334, 1852, also occurring in mainland China and Taiwan (Li et al., 1995b; D. Middleton, pers. comm.)).

Anodendron affine (Hook. & Am.) Druce, Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 4: 605, 1917 (also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, India, Japan, and Vietnam (Li et al., 1995b)).

Beaumontia brevituba Oliv., Hooker's. Icon. P1. 16: 1582, 1887 (also occurring in mainland China (Li et al., 1995b)).

Marsdenia hainanensis Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 206, 1936 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Li et al., 1995a)).

Marsdenia lachnostoma Benth., Fl. Hongk.: 226, 1861 (also occurring in Hong Kong and SE Asia (Li et al., 1995b)).

Parabarium hainanense Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2: 123, 1934 (accepted name: Urceola quintaretii (Pierre) D. J. Middleton, Novon 4:151, 1994, also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Li et al., 1995b)).

Parsonsia howii Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 2: 167, 1934 (also occurring in Vietnam (D. Middleton, pers. comm.)).

Sindechites chinensis (Merr.) Markgr. & Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 152, 1936 (also occurring in SE Asia (Li et al., 1995b)).

Tylophora cycleoides Y. Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 3: 224, 1936 (also occurring in mainland China (Li et al., 1995a)).

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Ilex kaushue S. Y. Hu, J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 372, 1949 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen et al., 2008a)).

Ilex revoluta P. C. Tam, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 356, 1963 (accepted name: Ilex tamii T. R. Dudley, Hollies Gen. Ilex: 244, 1997, also occurring in mainland China (Chen et al., 2008a)).

ARACEAE

Alocasia kainanensis K. Krause in Engler, Pflanzenr. Arac. Colocas.: 91, 1920 (accepted name: Alocasia hainanica N. E. Brown, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 183, 1903, also occurring in Vietnam (Li & Zhu, 2009)).

ARALIACEAE

Schefflera hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 295, 1935 (also occurring in Vietnam (Shang & Lowry, 2007)).

ARECACEAE

Calamus pulchellus Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 597, 1937 (also occurring in mainland China (Henderson & Guo, 2008; Pei et al., 2009)).

Plectocomia microstachys Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 15: 731, 1942 (also occurring in mainland China (Henderson & Guo, 2008; Pei et al., 2009)).

ASTERACEAE

Inula intermedia C. C. Chang & Y. C. Tseng, Fl. Hainan. 3: 584, 1974 (accepted name: Duhaldea chinensis DC., Prodr. 5: 366, 1836, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chen& Anderberg, 2009)).

Vernonia ckunii C. C. Chang, Sunyatsenia 3: 272, 1937 (accepted name: Strobocalyx chunii, endemic to Hainan (Robinson et al., 2008)).

BERBERIDACEAE

Mahonia hainanensis C. M. Hu, Z. X. Li & F. W. Xing, Guihaia 14: 18, 1994 (accepted name: Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata, Icon. P1. Formosan. 6: 1, 1916, also occurring in mainland China and Taiwan (The Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2008; D. Boufford, unpublished)).

CELASTRACEAE

Euonymus fengii Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 44, 1958 (accepted name: Glyptopetalum fengii, endemic to Hainan (Liu & Funston, 2008a)).

Euonymus geloniifolius Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 45, 1958 (accepted name: Glyptopetalum geloniifolium (Chun & F. C. How) C. Y. Cheng, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 45(3): 94, 1999, also occurring in mainland China (Liu & Funston, 2008a)).

Euonymus longipedicellatus Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 36, 1934 (accepted name: Glyptopetalum longipedicellatum (Merr. & Chun) C. Y. Cheng, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 45(3): 90, 1999, also occurring in mainland China (Liu & Funston, 2008a)).

Gymnosporia hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 267, 1935 (accepted name: Maytenus hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Liu & Funston, 2008b)).

Loeseneriella merrilliana A. C. Smith, J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 172, 1945 (also occurring in mainland China (Peng & Funston, 2008)).

CLUSIACEAE

Garcinia oligantha Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 22: 254, 1923 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Li et al., 2007)).

CONVOLVULACEAE

Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm. f.) Hallier f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 541, 1893 (also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Indonesia, Pacific Islands, and SE Asia (Fang & Staples, 1995)).

Merremia hainanensis H. S. Kin, Fl. Hainan. 3: 587, 1974 (also occurring in Vietnam (Staples 2010)).

CYPERACEAE

Carex laxisquamata T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 535, 1977 (accepted name: Carex breviscapa C. B. Clarke in Hook., Fl. Brit. India 6: 736, 1894, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Indonesia, and SE Asia (Dai et al., 2009)).

Carex saxicola T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 535, 1977 (also occurring in mainland China (Dai et al., 2009)).

Fimbristylis pauciflora R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 225, 1810 (also occurring in mainland China, Australia, and India (Govaerts & Simpson, 2007)).

Hypolytrum hainanense (Merr.) T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 11: 201, 1961 (also occurring in Vietnam (Dai, 2009)).

Mariscus compactus (Retz.) Bold., Zakfl. Land. Java: 77, 1916 (accepted name: Cyperus compactus Retz., Observ. Bot. 5: 10, 1788, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, SE Asia, N Australia, and Madagascar (Govaerts & Simpson, 2007)).

Scirpus hainanensis S. M. Huang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 538, 1977 (also occurring in mainland China (S. Zhang, pers. comm.)).

DIOSCOREACEAE

Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 625, 1790 (also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, and SE Asia (Ting & Gilbert, 2000)).

DIPTEROCARPACEAE

Hopea exalata W. T. Lin, Y. Y. Yang & Q. S. Hsue, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16: 87, 1978 (accepted name: Hopea reticulata Tardieu, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 10: 123, 1942, also occurring in Vietnam (Li & Ashton, 2007)).

Hopea hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 134, 1940 (also occurring in Vietnam (Li & Ashton, 2007)).

EBENACEAE

Diospyros metcalfii Chun & L. Chen, Sunyatsenia 3: 119, 1936 (also occurring in mainland China (Lee et al., 1996)).

ELAEOCARPACEAE

Elaeocarpus hainanensis Oliv., Hooker's. Icon. Pl. 25: 2462, 1896 (also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Tang & Phengklai, 2007)).

Elaeocarpus limitaneus Hand.-Mazz., Sinensia 3: 193, 1933 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Tang & Phengklai, 2007)).

ERICACEAE

Pieris obliquinervis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 157, 1940 (accepted name: Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(1, lief 37): 44, 1889 var. lanceolata (Wall.) Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 788, 1936, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Fang & Stevens, 2005)).

Rhododendron simiarum Hance, J. Bot. 19: 243, 1881 (also occurring in mainland China (Fang & Chamberlain, 2005)).

EUPHORBIACEAE

Actephila merrilliana Chun, Sunyatsenia 3: 26, 1935 (also occurring in mainland China (Li & Gilbert, 2008a)).

Andrachne hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 102, 1940 (accepted name: Leptopus hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Li & Vorontsova, 2008)).

Antidesma apiculatum Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26: 430, 1894 (accepted name: Antidesma montanum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17: 1124, 1827, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Japan, Indonesia, and SE Asia (Li & Hoffmann, 2008)).

Antidesma maclurei Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 248, 1923 (also occurring in Vietnam (Li & Hoffmann, 2008)).

Antidesma pseudomicrophyllum Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 496, 1940 (accepted name: Antidesma montanum var. microphyllum (Hemsley) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54: 357, 1999, also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Li & Hoffmann, 2008)).

Blachia chunii Y. T. Chang & P. T. Li ex P. T. Li, J. S. China Agric. Univ. 21(4): 59, 2000 (accepted name: Blachia siamensis Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 71: 620, 1924, also occurring in mainland China and Thailand (Li & Gilbert, 2008b)).

Blachia yaihsienensis F. W. Xing & Z. X. Li, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 11(4): 57, 1991 (accepted name: Blachia jatrophifolia Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenr. Euphorb. Clu.: 39, 1911, also occurring in SE Asia (Li & Gilbert, 2008b)).

Claoxylon hainanense Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenr. Euphorb.-Mercurial: 128, 1914 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chiu & Gilbert, 2008a)).

Cleistanthus dongfangensis (P. T. Li) H. S. Kiu, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27: 454, 1989 (accepted name: Cleistanthus concinnus Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 41, 1942, also occurring in Vietnam (Li & Dressler, 2008)).

Cnesmone anisosepala (Merr. & Chun) Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 429, 1941 (accepted name: Cnesmone tonkinensis (Gagnep.) Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 429, 1941, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chiu & Gillespie, 2008)).

Cnesmone hainanensis (Merr. & Chun) Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 430, 1941 (also occurring in mainland China (Chiu & Gillespie, 2008)).

Croton olivaceus Y. T. Chang & P. T. Li, Guihaia 8: 54, 1988 (accepted name: Croton lauioides Radcl.-Sm. & Govaerts, Kew Bull. 52: 187, 1997, also occurring in mainland China (Li & Esser, 2008a)).

Drypetes congestiflora Chun & T. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 175, 1963 (also occurring in mainland China and Philippines (Li & Gilbert, 2008c)).

Drypetes hainanensis Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 134, 1925 (also occurring in SE Asia (Li & Gilbert, 2008c)).

Drypetes nienkui Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 258, 1935 (accepted name: Drypetes indica (Mull. Arg.) Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engler, Pflanzenr.-Euphorb.- Phyllanthoid.-Phyllanth.: 278, 1921, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, India, and SE Asia (Li & Gilbert, 2008c)).

Euphorbia lingiana C. Shih, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 276, 1963 (accepted name: Euphorbia atoto G. Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr.: 36, 1786, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Indonesia, Pacific Islands, and SE Asia (Ma & Gilbert, 2008)).

Macaranga bracteata Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 6: 281, 1930 (accepted name: Macaranga andamanica Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2: 389, 1877, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chiu & Gilbert, 2008b)).

Mallotus grossedentatus Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 98, 1940 (accepted name: Mallotus esquirolii H. Lev., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 327, 1911, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chiu & Gilbert, 2008c)).

Sapium laui Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 505, 1940 (accepted name: Triadica eochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 610, 1790, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, and SE Asia (Li & Esser, 2008b)).

Trigonostemon fungii Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 47, 1932 (accepted name: Trigonostemon chinensis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 21: 498, 1922, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Li & Gilbert, 2008d)).

Trigonostemon howii Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 262, 1935 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Li & Gilbert, 2008d)).

FABACEAE

Amphicarpaea linearis Chun & T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 23, 1958 (also occurring in mainland China (ILDIS, 2009)).

Bauhinia hainanensis H. Y. Chen, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 132, 1938 (also occurring in mainland China (Huang, 1997; Zhang et al., 2009)).

Dalbergia odorifera T. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 351, 1963 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Larsen, 2009)).

Derris hainanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 77, 1913 (accepted name: Paraderris hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Pedley, 2009)).

Indigofera chuniana F. P. Metcalf, Sunyatsenia 4: 155, 1940 (accepted name: Indigofera colutea (Burm. f.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 19: 355, 1921, also occurring in mainland China (Gao & Schrire, 2009)).

Indigofera hainanensis Tsai & T. T. Yu, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Bot. 7: 30, 1936 (accepted name: Indigofera wightii Wight & Am., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 202, 1834, also occurring in mainland China (Gao & Schrire, 2009)).

Ormosia howii Merr. & Chen, Sargentia 3: 112, 1943 (also occurring in mainland China (ILDIS, 2009)).

Ormosia inflata Merr. & Chen, Sargentia 3: 100, 1943 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (ILDIS, 2009)).

FAGACEAE

Lithocarpus brachystachyus Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 28: 230, 1947 (also occurring in mainland China (Huang et al., 1999)).

Lithocarpus caudatilimbus (Merr.) A. Camus, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 6: 185, 1938 (also occurring in mainland China (Huang et al., 1999)).

Lithocarpus elaeagnifolius (Seemen) Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 9: 151, 1928 (also occurring in Vietnam (Huang et al., 1999)).

Lithocarpus fenestrata (Roxb.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 1: 126, 1919 (also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Huang et al., 1999)).

Lithocarpus howii Chun, J. Arnold Arbor. 28: 235, 1947 (also occurring in mainland China (Huang et al., 1999)).

Quercus insularis Chun & P. C. Tam, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 208, 1965 (accepted name: Cyclobalanopsis phanera (Chun) Y. C. Hsu & H. W. Jen, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 1(1): 148, 1979, also occurring in mainland China (Huang et al., 1999)).

Quercus basellata Chun & W. C. Ko, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 35, 1958 (accepted name: Cyclobalanopsis phanera, also occurring in mainland China (Huang et al., 1999)).

Trigonobalanus verticillata Forman, Taxon 11: 140, 1962 (also occurring in SE Asia (Ng & Lin, 2008)).

Species of uncertain status

Castanopsis undulatifolia G. A. Fu, Guihaia 14: 301, 1994 (Huang et al., 1999).

GESNERIACEAE

Lysionotus hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 321, 1935 (accepted name: Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 19: 534, 1874, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, and Vietnam (Wang et al., 1998)).

HAMAMELIDACEAE

Sycopsis salicifolia E. Walker, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 341, 1944 (accepted name: Distyliopsis salicifolia, endemic to Hainan (Zhang et al., 2003)).

Altingia obovata Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 238, 1935 (accepted name: Altingia chinensis (Champ. ex Benth.) Oliv. ex Hance, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 13: 103, 1873, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Ickert-Bond et al., 2007)).

LAMIACEAE

Callicarpa brevipes (Benth.) Hance, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. Ser. 5, 5: 233, 1866 (accepted name: Callicarpa dentosa (H. T. Chang) W. Z. Fang, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 1: 300, 1951, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chen & Gilbert, 1994)).

Callicarpa kochiana Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 181, 1914 (also occurring in mainland China, Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam (Chen & Gilbert, 1994)).

Callicarpa longibracteata Hung T. Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 277, 1951 (endemic to Hong-Kong (Chen & Gilbert, 1994)).

Dysophylla stellata (Lour.) Benth. in Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 30, 1830 (accepted name: Pogostemon stellatus (Lour.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 429, 1891, also occurring in mainland China, Australia, India, Japan, and SE Asia (Li & Hedge, 1994)).

Paraphlomis pagantha Dunn, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 1015, 1936 (accepted name: Paraphlomis lancidentata Y. Z. Sun, Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China, Bot. Ser. 10: 30, 1935, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Suddee & Paton, 2006)).

Premna maclurei Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 6: 330, 1928 (also occurring in Vietnam (Govaerts, 2003a)).

Premna octonervia Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, J. Arnold Arbor. 20: 354, 1939 (also occurring in SE Asia (Govaerts, 2003a)).

Sphenodesme floribunda Chun & F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 79, 1958 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Gilbert, 1994)).

LAURACEAE

Alseodaphne hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 13: 57, 1934 (also occurring in Vietnam (Li et al., 2008a)).

Beilschmiedia glauca S. K. Lee & L. F. Lau, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 193, 1963 (also occurring in mainland China (Li et al., 2008b)).

Cryptocarya howii C. K. Allen, J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 458, 1942 (accepted name: Cryptocarya metcalfiana, endemic to Hainan (Li et al., 2008c)).

Machilus cicatricosa S. K. Lee, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 182, 1963 (also occurring in Vietnam (Wei & Van Der Werff, 2008)).

Machilus dinganensis S. K. Lee & F. N. Wei, Guihaia 4: 94, 1984 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Wei & Van Der Werff, 2008)).

Machilus lohuiensis S. K. Lee, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 184, 1963 (also occurring in Vietnam (Wei & Van Der Werff, 2008)).

Machilus wenchangensis G. A. Fu & X. J. Hong, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 26: 2, 2004 (accepted name: Machilus lohuiensis, also occurring in Vietnam (Wei & Van Der Werff, 2008)).

Neolitsea ellipsoidea C. K. Allen, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 428, 1937 (also occurring in mainland China (F. N. Wei, pers. comm.)).

Neolitsea oblongifolia Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 234, 1935 (also occurring in mainland China (Huang & Van Der Werff, 2008)).

LILIACEAE

Aspidistra hainanensis Chun & F. C. How, Fl. Hainan. 4: 533, 1977 (also occurring in mainland China (Liang & Tamura, 2000)).

Ophiopogon reversus C. C. Huang, Fl. Hainan. 4: 534, 1977 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Tamura, 2000)).

LYTHRACEAE

Rotala kainantensis Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 251, 1943 (accepted name: Rotala hexandra Koehne, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 167, 1880, also occurring in mainland China, Central Asia, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and SE Asia (Qin & Graham, 2007)).

Sonneratia x hainanensis W. C. Ko, E. Y. Chen & W. Y. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23: 311, 1985 (this taxon is the natural hybrid Sonneratia alba Sm. x S. ovata Backer (Qin et al., 2007)).

MAGNOLIACEAE

Magnolia albosericea Chun & C. H. Tsoong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9: 117, 1964 (accepted name: Lirianthe albosericea, endemic to Hainan (Xia et al., 2008)).

Manglietia albistaminea Y. W. Law, R. Z. Zhou & X. S. Qin, Novon 16: 260, 2006 (accepted name: Manglietiafordiana Oliv., Hooker's. Icon. Pl. 20: 1953, 1891 var. hainanensis (Dandy) N. H. Xia, Fl. China 7: 58, 2008, this variety is endemic to Hainan (Xia et al., 2008)).

Manglietia hainanensis Dandy, J. Bot. 68: 204, 1930 (accepted name: Manglietia fordiana var. hainanensis, this variety is endemic to Hainan (Xia et al., 2008)).

Michelia rubriflora Y. W. Law & R. Z. Zhou, Pakistan J. Bot. 37: 559, 2005 (accepted name: Michelia mediocris Dandy, J. Bot. 66: 47, 1928, also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Xia et al., 2008)).

MALVACEAE

Decaschistia nervifolia Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 252, 1943 (accepted name: Decaschistia mouretii Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1: 79, 1909 var. nervifolia (Masam.) H. S. Kiu, Guihaia 14: 304, 1994, this variety is endemic to Hainan (Tang et al., 2007a)).

Grewia concolor Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 35, 1935 (also occurring in mainland China (Tang et al., 2007b)).

Heritiera parvifolia Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 6:137, 1925 (also occurring in India and SE Asia (Tang et al., 2007c)).

Microcos chungii (Merr.) Chun, Sunyatsenia 4: 196, 1940 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Tang et al., 2007b)).

MARANTACEAE

Phrynium hainanense T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 162, 1981 (also occurring in mainland China, India, and Vietnam (Wu & Kennedy, 2000)).

MELASTOMATACEAE

Medinilla hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 292, 1935 (accepted name: Medinilla rubicunda (Jack) Blume, Flora 14: 512, 1831, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chen & Renner, 2007)).

Osbeckia kainantensis Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 33: 253, 1943 (accepted name: Osbeckia chinensis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 345, 1753, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, and SE Asia (Chen & Renner, 2007)).

Scorpiothyrsus glabrifolius H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 34, 1944 (accepted name: Scorpiothyrsus xanthostictus, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Renner, 2007)).

Scorpiothyrsus oligotrichus H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 34, 1944 (accepted name: Scorpiothyrsus erythrotrichus, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Renner, 2007)).

Scorpiothyrsus xanthotrichus (Merr. & Chun) H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 35, 1944 (accepted name: Scorpiothyrsus erythrotrichus, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Renner, 2007)).

MELIACEAE

Aglaia tsangii Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 6: 280, 1930 (accepted name: Aglaia lawii (Wight) C. J. Saldanha ex Ramamoorthy in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Dist.: 392, 1976, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, India, Indian Ocean Islands, Indonesia, Pacific Islands, and SE Asia (Peng & Pannell, 2008)).

Munronia simplicifolia Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 18, 1935 (accepted name: Munronia unifoliolata Oliv., Hooker's. Icon. Pl. 18: 1709, 1887, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Peng & Bartholomew, 2008)).

MORACEAE

Taxotrophis aquifolioides W. C. Ko, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 353, 1963 (accepted name: Streblus ilicifolius (Vidal) Corner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 19: 227, 1962, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Zhou & Gilbert, 2003)).

MYRSINACEAE

Ardisia chinensis Benth., Fl. Hongk.: 207, 1861 (also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Japan and SE Asia (Chen & Pipoly, 1996)).

Ardisia crassinervosa E. Walker, Philipp. J. Sci. 73: 86, 1940 (accepted name: Ardisia crenata Sims, Bot. Mag. 45: 1950, 1817 subsp. crassinervosa (E. Walker) C. M. Hu & J. E. Vidal, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 4(4): 7, 1996, also occurring in SE Asia (Chen & Pipoly, 1996; C. M. Hu, pets. comm.)).

Ardisia crassirhiza Z. X. Li & F. W. Xing ex C. M. Hu., Bot. J. South China, 1: 9, 1992 (accepted name: Ardisia crenata subsp. crassinervosa, also occurring in SE Asia (Chen & Pipoly, 1996; C. M. Hu, pers. comm.)).

Ardisia nervosa E. Walker, Philipp. J. Sci. 73: 88, 1940 (accepted name: Ardisia crenata subsp. crassinervosa, also occurring in SE Asia (Chen & Pipoly, 1996; C. M. Hu, pers. comm.)).

MYRTACEAE

Cleistocalyx conspersipunctatus Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 18: 335, 1937 (accepted name: Syzygium conspersipunctatum, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Craven, 2007)).

Pyrenocarpa hainanensis (Merr.) H. T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1975(1): 63, 1975 (accepted name: Decaspermum hainanense, endemic to Hainan).

Pyrenocarpa teretis H. T. Chang & R. H. Miao, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1975(1): 64, 1975 (accepted name: Decaspermum teretis, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Craven, 2007)).

Syzygium chunianum Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 240, 1938 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Craven, 2007)).

Syzygium fluviatile (Hemsl.) Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 241, 1938 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Craven, 2007)).

Syzygium myrsinifolium (Hance) Merr. & L. M. Perry, J. Arnold Arbor. 19: 226, 1938 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Craven, 2007)).

OLEACEAE

Jasminum cordatulum (L. C. Chia) L. C. Chia, Fl. Hainan. 3: 205, 576, 1974 (accepted name: Jasminum pierreanum Gagnep., Bull. Bot. Soc. France 80: 76, 1933, also occurring in SE Asia (Chang et al., 1996)).

Jasminum pilosicalyx Kobuski, J. Arnold Arbor. 20: 68, 1939 (accepted name: Jasminum craibianum Kerr, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1938: 27, 1938, also occurring in Thailand (Chang et al., 1996)).

Linociera hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 168, 1940 (accepted name: Chionanthus hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Chang et al., 1996)).

Linociera leucoclada Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 170, 1940 (accepted name: Chionanthus brachythyrsus (Merr.) P. S. Green, Kew Bull. 50: 326, 1995, also occurring in Vietnam (Chang et al., 1996)).

Linociera parvilimba Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 169, 1940 (accepted name: Olea parvilimba, endemic to Hainan (Chang et al., 1996)).

Linociera ramiflora (Roxb.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 52, 1837 (accepted name: Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1: 106, 1820, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia, India, Nepal, Pacific Islands, and Vietnam (Chang et al., 1996)).

Myxopyrum hainanense L. C. Chia, Fl. Hainan. 3: 577, 1974 (accepted name: Myxopyrum pierrei Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 80: 78, 1933, also occurring in SE Asia (Chang et al., 1996)).

Osmanthus didymopetalus P. S. Green, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 536, 1958 (also occurring in mainland China (Ye et al., 2006)).

Osmanthus hainanensis P. S. Green, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 504, 1958 (also occurring in mainland China (Xu et al., 2005)).

ORCHIDACEAE

Ania hookeriana (King & Pantl.) Summerh., Bot. Mag. 161: 9553, 1939 (accepted name: Tainia penangiana Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 820, 1890, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, India, and SE Asia (Chen& Wood, 2009a)).

Bulbophyllum hastatum T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 44, 1974 (accepted name: Bulbophyllum depressum King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal Pt. 2 Nat. Hist. 66: 585, 1895, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chen & Vermeulen, 2009)).

Ceratostylis caespitosa (Rolfe) T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 87, 1951 (accepted name: Ceratostylis hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Wood, 2009b)).

Dendrobium changjiangense S. J. Cheng & C. Z. Tang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 98, 1980 (accepted name: Oxystophyllum changjiangense, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Wood, 2009c)).

Didymoplexiella hainanensis X. H. Jin & S. C. Chen, Novon 14: 176, 2004 (accepted name: Didymoplexiopsis khiriwongensis Seidenfaden, Contr. Orchid Fl. Thailand 13: 13, 1997, also occurring in Thailand and Vietnam (Chen et al., 2009a)).

Eria bulbophylloides T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 42, 1974 (accepted name: Campanulorchis thao (Gagnep.) S. C. Chen & J. J. Wood, Fl. China 25: 346, 2009, also occurring in Vietnam (Chen et al., 2009c)).

Eria hainanensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 16, 1903 (accepted name: Dendrolirium tomentosum (J. Konig) S. C. Chen & J. J. Wood, Fl. China 25: 350, 2009, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chen et al., 2009d)).

Hetaeria hainanensis T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 35, 1974 (accepted name: Hetaeria anomala Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1: 185, 1857, also occurring in Taiwan, India, and SE China (Chen et al., 2009b)).

Liparis subplicata T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 40, 1974 (accepted name: Liparis bootanensis Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 278, 1851, also occurring in Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, and SE China (Chen et al., 2009e)).

Phalaenopsis hainanensis T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 47, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chen & Wood, 2009d)).

Schoenorchis hainanensis (Rolfe) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 986, 1913 (accepted name: Schoenorchis gemmata (Lindl.) J. J. Sm., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indie. 72: 100, 1912, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chen & Wood, 2009e)).

Thrixspermum austrosinense T. Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 46, 1974 (accepted name: Thrixspermum annamense (Guillaum.) Garay, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 206, 1972, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, and SE Asia (Chen & Wood, 2009f)).

Thrixspermum hainanense (Rolfe) Schltr., Orchis 5: 55, 1911 (accepted name: Thrixspermum centipeda Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 520, 1790, also occurring in mainland China, India, Indonesia, and SE Asia (Chen& Wood, 2009f)).

Vanda subconcolor Tang & F. T. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12: 48, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Bell, 2009)).

PANDANACEAE

Pandanus austrosinensis T. L. Wu, Fl. Hainan. 4: 535, 1977 (also occurring in mainland China Sun & DeFilipps, 2009)).

PENTAPHYLACACEAE

Cleyera obscurinervia (Merr. & Chun) Hung T. Chang, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 5(2): 28, 1959 (also occurring in mainland China (Min & Bartholomew, 2007)).

Eurya cuneata Kobuski, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 317, 1938 (also occurring in Vietnam (Min & Bartholomew, 2007)).

PINACEAE

Pinus massoniana Lamb., Descr. Pinus 1: 17, 1803 (also occurring in mainland China (Fu et al., 1999)).

POACEAE

Arthraxon hainanensis Y. L. Keng & S. L. Chen, Fl. Hainan. 4: 538, 1977 (accepted name: Arthraxon castratus (Griff.) Bor, Fl. Assam 5: 376, 1940, also occurring in Australia, India, and SE Asia (Chen & Phillips, 2006a)).

Arundinaria hirtivaginata W. T. Lin, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 12: 354, 1992 (accepted name: Pseudosasa hindsii (Munro) S. L. Chen & G. Y. Sheng ex T. G. Liang, Fujian Bamboos: 142, 1987, also occurring in mainland China (Chu et al., 2006)).

Bambusa austrosinensis N. H. Xia, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 1(1): 8, 1993 (accepted name: Bambusa remotiflora (Kuntze) L. C. Chia & H. L. Fung, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 214, 1980, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Ohrnberger, 1999; Li & Stapleton, 2006)).

Digitaria heterantha (Hook. f.) Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 1: 54, 1923 (also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and SE Asia (Chen & Phillips, 2006b)).

Eragrostis pulchra S. C. Sun & H. Q. Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 511, 1981 (accepted name: Eragrostis multicaulis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 426, 1854, also occurring in mainland China, India, Japan, and SE Asia (Chen & Peterson, 2006)).

Eulalia nana Y. L. Keng & S. L. Chen, Fl. Hainan. 4: 539, 1977 (accepted name: Polytrias indica (Houtt.) Veldkamp Blumea 36: 180, 1991 var. nana (Y. L. Keng & S. L. Chen) S. M. Phillips & S. L. Chen, Novon 15: 470, 2005, this variety is endemic to Hainan (Chen & Phillips, 2006c)).

Garnotia maxima Santos, Nat. Appl. Sci. Bull. Univ. Philipp. 10: 89, 1950 (accepted name: Garnotia patula (Munro) Benth., Fl. Hongk.: 416, 1861, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Wu & Phillips, 2006)).

Hymenachne insulicola (Steud.) L. Liu, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 10(1): 298, 1990 (accepted name: Panicum auritum Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 176, 1829, also occurring in mainland China, Indonesia, India, and SE Asia (Chen & Renvoize, 2006)).

Indocalamus pseudosinicus McClure, Sunyatsenia 6: 37, 1941 (also occurring in mainland China (Wang & Stapleton, 2006)).

Lingnania fimbriligulata McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9, 35, 1940 (accepted name: Bambusa remotiflora Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.: 760, 1891, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Li & Stapleton, 2006)).

Monocladus levigatus L. C. Chia, H. L. Fung & Y. L. Yang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 26: 216, 1988 (accepted name: Bonia levigata, endemic to Hainan (Xia & Stapleton, 2006)).

Urochloa cordata S. L. Chen & Y. X. Jin., Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22: 472, 1984 (accepted name: Urochloa setigera (Retzius) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9: 598, 1920, also occurring in mainland China, India, Nepal, and SE Asia (Chen & Phillips, 2006d)).

Species of uncertain status

Bambusa concava W. T. Lin, J. Bamboo Res. 16(3): 24, 1997 (description based on sterile material).

Dinochloa orenuda McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 18, 1940 (description based on sterile material).

Dinochloa puberula McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 19, 1940 (description based on sterile material).

Dinochloa utilis McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 20, 1940 (description based on sterile material).

Sasa hainanensis C. D. Chu & C. S. Chao, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 31, 1980 (description based on sterile material).

Semiarundinaria shapoensis McClure, Lingnan Univ. Sci. Bull. 9: 54, 1940 (description based on sterile material).

POLYGALACEAE

Polygala insularis C. Y. Wu & S. K. Chen, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 2: 80, 1980 (accepted name: Polygala wuzhishanensis, endemic to Hainan (Chen et al., 2008b)).

RHAMNACEAE

Smythea nitida Mew., J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 136, 1925 (accepted name: Ventilago leiocarpa Benth., J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5: 77, 1861, also occurring in mainland China, India, and SE Asia (Chen & Schirarend, 2007)).

Ziziphus laui Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 32, 1935 (also occurring in Vietnam (Chen & Schirarend, 2007)).

RUBIACEAE

Adina hainanensis F. C. How, Sunyatsenia 6: 240, 1946 (accepted name: Pertusadina metcalfii (H. L. Li) Y. F. Deng & C. M. Hu, Blumea 51: 559, 2006, also occurring in mainland China and Thailand (Govaerts et al., 2009)).

Argostemma saxatile Chun & F. C. How, Fl. Hainan. 3: 578, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Canthium spinosissimum Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 56, 1932 (accepted name: Fagerlindia depauperata (Drake) Tirveng., Nordic J. Bot. 3: 458, 1983, also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Hedyotis ampliflora Hance, J. Bot. 17: 11, 1879 (also occurring in Vietnam (Govaerts et al., 2009)).

Hedyotis obliquinervis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 56, 1935 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Hedyotis ovata Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 29: 161, 1883 (also occurring in Vietnam (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Ixora effusa Chun & F. C. How, Fl. Hainan. 3: 580, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Morinda officinalis F. C. How, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 326, 1958 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Oldenlandia cryptantha (Dunn) Chun, Sunyatsenia 1: 311, 1934 (accepted name: Hedyotis cryptantha, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Oldenlandia hainanensis Chun, Sunyatsenia 1: 311, 1934 (accepted name: Hedyotis hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Oldenlandia paridifolia (Dunn) Chun, Sunyatsenia 1: 313, 1934 (accepted name: Hedyotis paridifolia, endemic to Hainan (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Ophiorrhiza hainanensis Y. C. Tseng, Fl. Hainan. 3: 582, 1974 (accepted name: Ophiorrhiza nutans C. B. Clarke in Hook., Fl. Brit. India 3: 84, 1880, also occurring in mainland China and Himalayas (Govaerts et al., 2009)).

Oxyceros rectispina (Merr.) T. Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 45: 340, 1970 (accepted name: Benkara rectispina, endemic to Hainan (C. Taylor, pers. comm.)).

Paederia stenobotrya Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 57, 1932 (also occurring in mainland China (R. J. Wang, pers. comm.)).

Psychotria laui Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 16: 403, 1937 (accepted name:

Cephaelis laui (Merr. & F. P. Metcalf) F. C. How & W. C. Ko, Fl. Hainan 3: 1974, also occurring in Vietnam (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Randia hainanensis Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 58, 1932 (accepted name: Oxyceros griffithii (Hook. f.) W. C. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 71(1): 346, 1999, also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Randia merrillii Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 46, 1934 (accepted name: Aidia cochinchinensis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1: 143, 1790, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, SE Asia, and Pacific Islands (Chen & Zhu, 2009 (as Aidia merrillii (Chun) Tirveng., Adansonia Ser. 4, 8: 271, 1987))).

Randia rectispina Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 14: 60, 1935 (accepted name: Benkara rectispina, endemic to Hainan (Govaerts et al., 2009)).

Saprosma crassipes H. S. Lo, Bot. J. South China 2: 15, 1993 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Spiradiclis hainanensis H. S. Lo, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 9: 301, 1987 (also occurring in mainland China (C. Taylor, pers. comm.)).

Tarenna lancilimba W. C. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22: 141, 1984 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Tarenna tsangii Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 59, 1932 (also occurring in mainland China (Chen & Zhu, 2009)).

Tsiangia hongkongensis (Seem.) But, H. H. Hsue & P. T. Li, Blumea 31: 311, 1986 (accepted name: Ixora chinensis Lam., Encycl. 3: 344, 1789, also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Govaerts et al., 2009)).

RUTACEAE

Murraya microphylla (Merr. & Chun) Swingle, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 32: 26, 1942 (also occurring in mainland China (Zhang & Hartley, 2008)).

Species of uncertain status:

Fortunella bawangica C. C. Huang, Guihaia 11: 8, 1991 (likely equal to Citrus japonica Thunb., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 3: 208, 1780 (Zhang & Mabberley, 2008)).

SAPINDACEAE

Amesiodendron chinense (Merr.) Hu, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 209, 1936 (also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Xia & Gadek, 2007)).

Aphania oligophylla (Merr. & Chun) H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 573, 1974 (accepted name: Lepisanthes oligophylla, endemic to Hainan (Xia & Gadek, 2007)).

Otophora unilocularis (Leenh.) H. S. Lo, Fl. Hainan. 3: 575, 1974 (accepted name: Lepisanthes unilocularis, endemic to Hainan (Xia & Gadek, 2007)).

SAPOTACEAE

Sarcosperma kachinense (King & Prain) Exell, J. Bot. 69: 100, 1931 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Lee & Pennington, 1996)).

Sarcosperma laurinum (Benth.) Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 655, 1876 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Lee & Pennington, 1996)).

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Lindernia megaphylla P. C. Ysoong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 67, 1959 (also occurring in mainland China (Hong et al., 1998)).

SOLANACEAE

Solanum nienkui Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 2: 318, 1935 (also occurring in Vietnam (Hop & Phuong, 2005)).

STYRACACEAE

Styrax hainanensis F. C. How, Fl. Hainan. 3: 576, 1974 (also occurring in mainland China (Huang & Grimes, 1996)).

SYMPLOCACEAE

Symplocos atriolivacea H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 212, 1944 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Wu & Nooteboom, 1996)).

Symplocos hainanensis H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 210, 1944 (also occurring in mainland China (Wu & Nooteboom, 1996)).

Symplocos maclurei Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 23: 260, 1923 (accepted name: Symplocos adenophylla G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 3, 1837, also occurring in mainland China and SE Asia (Wu & Nooteboom, 1996)).

Symplocos punctulata Masam. & Syozi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 12: 201, 1950 (accepted name: Symplocos pendula Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: 1237, 1848, also occurring in India and Malaysia (Wu & Nooteboom, 1996)).

THEACEAE

Gordonia hainanensis Hung T. Chang, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 22(2): 111, 1983 (accepted name: Polyspora hainanensis, endemic to Hainan (Min & Bartholomew, 2007)).

Parapyrenaria multisepala (Merr. & Chun) Hung T. Chang, Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 1979(3): 74, 1979 (accepted name: Pyrenaria jonquieriana Lanessan, Pl. Util. Col. Franc.: 295, 1886 subsp. multisepala (Merr. & Chun) S. X. Yang, Novon 15: 380, 1950, this subspecies is endemic to Hainan (Min & Bartholomew, 2007)).

Tutcheria ovalifolia H. L. Li, J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 209, 1944 (accepted name: Pyrenaria microcarpa (Dunn) H. Keng, Gard. Bull. Singapore 26: 134, 1972 var. ovalifolia (H. L. Li) T. L. Ming & S. X. Yang, Chin. J. Appl. Environm. Biol. 3: 287, 1997, also occurring in mainland China and Taiwan (Min & Bartholomew, 2007)).

URTICACEAE

Laportea hainanensis Merr. & F. P. Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 16: 189, 1937 (accepted name: Dendrocnide stimulans (L. f.) Chew, Gard. Bull. Singapore 21: 206, 1965, also occurring in mainland China, Taiwan, and SE Asia (Chen et al., 2003)).

Pilea tsiangiana F. P. Metcalf. Lingnan Sci. J. 15: 633, 1936 (also occurring in mainland China and Vietnam (Chen & Monro, 2003)).

VITACEAE

Cayratia papillata (Hance) Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 118, 1940 (accepted name: Tetrastigma papillatum (Hance) C. Y. Wu, Chin. J. Appl. Environm. Biol. 1: 312, 1995, also occurring in mainland China (Ren & Wen, 2007a)).

Parthenocissus subferruginea Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5: 120, 1940 (accepted name: Cissus repanda Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 18, 1794 var. subferruginea (Merr. & Chun) C. L. Li, Chin. J. Appl. Environm. Biol. 2: 49, 1996, this variety is endemic to Hainan Island (Ren & Wen, 2007b)).

Tetrastigma cauliflorum Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 48, 1932 (also occurring in mainland China, Laos, and Vietnam (Ren & Wen, 2007a)).

Tetrastigma hainanense Chun & F. C. How., Acta Phytotax. Sin. 7: 65, 1958 (accepted name: Tetrastigma papillatum (Hance) C. Y. Wu, Chin. J. Appl. Environm. Biol. 1: 312, 1995, also occurring in mainland China (Ren & Wen, 2007a)).

ZINGIBERACEAE

Amomum longiligulare T. L. Wu, Fl. Hainan. 4: 533, 1977 (also occurring in Vietnam (Govaerts, 2003b)).

Amomum longipetiolatum Merr., Lingnan Sci. J. 11: 40, 1932 (also occurring in mainland China (Wu & Larsen, 2000)).

Hornstedtia hainanensis T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16: 38, 1978 (also occurring in mainland China (Wu & Larsen, 2000)).

UNPUBLISHED NAMES ATTRIBUTED TO HAINAN ISLAND ENDEMICS

Although the following two species were reported as endemic to Hainan by Wu et al. (1994), we have not been able to locate their original descriptions.

Distylium rigidifolium Hung T. Chang (Hamamelidaceae).

Syzygium intermediiforme Hung T. Chang & R. H. Miau (Myrtaceae).

Acknowledgements The following colleagues validated the checklists presented in this paper, our gratitude for their time and for sharing with us their unpublished results; B. Bartholomew (Theaceae), P. Bruyns (Apocynaceae), Z.-Y. Cao (Moraceae), J. Chen (Melastomataceae), T. Chen (Rubiaceae), Y.-L. Chen (Balsaminaceae, Rhamnaceae), Y.-F. Deng (Acanthaceae), J. Dransfield (Arecaceae), H.-J. Esser (Euphorbiaceae), P. Fritsch (Styracaceae, Symplocaceae), T.-G. Gao (Asteraceae), X.-F. Gao (Fabaceae), X.-L. Gong (Balsaminaceae, Boraginaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rhamnaceae), R. Govaerts (Rubiaceae), S. Hang (Melastomataceae), I. C. Hedge (Lamiaceae), D.-Y. Hong (Campanulaceae), X.-L. Hou (Annonaceae), C.-F. Hsieh (Eriocaulaceae), C.-M. Hu (Myrsinaceae), L.-G. Lei (Aquifoliaceae), H. Li (Araceae), H.-W. Li (Clusiaceae), J. Li (Lauraceae), P.-T. Li (Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae), X.-W. Li (Lauraceae), W.-B. Liao (Hamamelidaceae), Q. Liu (Celastraceae), P. A. Loizeau (Aquifoliaceae), A. Lu (Juglandaceae), J. Ma (Aristolochiaceae), D. Middleton (Apocynaceae), A. Paton (Lamiaceae), C.-I. Peng (Begoniaceae), H. Peng (Icacinaceae), J. Pipoly (Myrsinaceae), Y. Qi (Thymelaeaceae), H. Qin (Lardizabalaceae), X.-S. Qin (Begoniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sterculiaceae), H. Robinson (Asteraceae), S. Shi (Hamamelidaceae), G. Staples (Convolvulaceae), S. Suddee (Lamiaceae), Y. Tang (Elaeocarpaceae, Malvaceae), C. Taylor (Rubiaceae), R.-J. Wang (Rubiaceae), W.-T. Wang (Boraginaceae, Ranunculaceae), Y.-Z. Wang (Gesneriaceae), F.-N. Wei (Lauraceae, Myrtaceae), J. Wen (Araliaceae, Leeaceae, Vitaceae), H. Van Der Werff (Lauraceae), D.-L. Wu (Fabaceae, Lowiaceae, Zingiberaceae) N.-H. Xia (Piperaceae, Sapindaceae), C. Xiang (Icacinaceae), Q. Xiang (Pinaceae), W.-B. Xu (Ebenaceae), S. Zhang (Cyperaceae), Z.-Y. Zhang (Solanaceae), Z.-K. Zhou (Fagaceae), X.-Y. Zhuang (Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae), S. Zona (Arecaceae). This is contribution 183 from the Tropical Biology Program of Florida International University. The Nanjing University (NU) 985 II program supported a research visit by HL and JF.-O. to the School of Life Science of NU during the summer of 2008. Summer research funds during 2008 and 2009 from Fairchild Tropical Garden supported HL and JF.-O. studies in China.

DOI 10.1007/s12229-010-9054-8

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Published online: 12 June 2010

Javier Francisco-Ortega (1,2) * Fa-Guo Wang (3,12) * Zhong-Sheng Wang (4) * Fu-Wu Xing (4) * Hong Liu (5,2) * Han Xu (6) * Wei-Xiang Xu (3) * Yi-Bo Luo (7) * Xi-Qiang Song (8) * Stephan Gale (9) * David E. Boufford (10) * Mike Maunder (1,2,11,) * Shu-Qing An (4,12)

(1) Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA

(2) Center for Tropical Plant Conservation, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33156, USA

(3) South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, People's Republic of China

(4) Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Global Change, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China

(5) Department of Earth and Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA

(6) Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520, People's Republic of China

(7) Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, People's Republic of China

(8) Key Laboratory of Tropical Horticultural Plant Resources and Genetic Improvement, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, People's Republic of China

(9) Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Lain Kam Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China

(10) Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

(11) Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, PO Box 1204, A1 Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

(12) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: wangfg@scib.ae.cn; anshq@nju.edu.cn
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Author:Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Wang, Fa-Guo; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Xing, Fu-Wu; Liu, Hong; Xu, Han; Xu, Wei-
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Date:Sep 1, 2010
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