Printer Friendly

Encouraging green purchase behaviours of Hong Kong consumers.

Introduction

Facing the environmental problems such as pollution and global warming, consumers are more aware of the environmental impacts of their consumption activities and are more willing to change their buying decisions and shopping behaviors for environmental reasons (Lyon and Maxwell, 2004). As China turns to be a key market in Asia and it continues its economic development, increasingly affluent and educated Chinese consumers have become more concerned about the adverse impact of pollution on their quality of life (Mohai et al., 2010). Many companies offer green version of products in China and successfully charged consumers with a premium. For example, according to Manget et al. (2009), 59% of respondents were willing to pay a premium to buy some green products. Thus, green marketing strategy becomes an option for international brands to develop competitive advantages in China market.

Some studies investigated the link between environmental consciousness and green purchase behaviors such as Chen (2009) and Kim and Seock (2009). However, the link between attitudinal components and consumer green purchase behavior is still under debated. Positive attitude towards the environment is not necessarily indicative high intention of buying green products (Gill et al., 1986). As such, this paper attempts to supplement the existing literature by proposing a comprehensive model to examine the relationship between environmentl attitudes and green buying behaviors. Thisinvestigation will provide marketer with valuable insights into improving the effectiveness of their green marketing strategies.

Furthermore, most of these studies focused in the western countries and the research studies on green consumer behaviors in Asian countries is still limited (Lee, 2014). This study then aims to fill this gap by examining the green purchase behaviors of consumers in Hong Kong (China). Finally, generational differences between Generation X and Generation Y in consumer purchase patterns may exist and need to be addressed (Norum, 2003, Schewe and Meredith, 2004). Generation Y refers to the individuals born between 1980 and 1994 (Chung and Holdsworth, 2012). Although boomers and Generation X still dominated the eco-friendly marketplace, the percentage of eco-friendly Generation Y is increasing (Hill and Hyun-Hwa, 2012). Currently, the Generation Y population of China consists of approximately 200 million people (Kwok, 2012). Given the size and importance of the green product, a better understanding of this young consumer segment is vital.

Theoretical framework

Environmental attitude

Environmental attitude is defined as "a collection of beliefs, affect, and behavioral intentions a person holds regarding environmentally related activities or issues" (Schultz et al., 2004). It refers to consumers' evaluation of environmental protection activities (Lee, 2009). Many studies support the use of environmental attitude as a predictor to individuals' environmentally related behaviors such as organic food consumption (Chen, 2009), recycling (Park and Ha, 2012) and ecological behaviors (Lynne and Rola, 1988).

However, the predictive ability of attitude is still being debated by researchers. Earlier studies suggest that there is no significant correlation between attitudes and proenvironmental behaviors (Tracy and Oskamp, 1984).The relationship between environmental attitude and ecological behavior is from weak to moderate in a number of studies (Berger and Corbin, 1992, Smith et al., 1994). The inconsistency of results stemmed from researchers' use of more generalized measurement of proenvironmental behaviors (Gadenne et al., 2011, Mainieri et al., 1997). To avoid this problem, this study would focus on consumers' buying intention of green products. Consumers with more positive attitude toward environment al issues tend to have positive attitude toward green products and higher intention of using green products (Kotchen and Reiling, 2000). This study would further ascertain the relationship between consumers' environmental attitude and buying behaviors. Thus, we propose the following hypothesis:

H1: Consumers' environmental attitude is positively related to their attitudes toward green products.

Environmental concern

Environmental concern refers to consumers' emotional reactions such as worries, dislikes, and compassions, toward the environmental problems (Milfont and Gouveia, 2006, Yeung, 2004). Many studies examined the effects of environmental concern on the choice of products such as laundry detergents (Kinnear and Taylor, 1973), cosmetics and toiletries (Prothero and McDonagh, 1992), renewable energy (Bang et al., 2000), and organic food (Hoffmann and Schlicht, 2013).People with more environmental knowledge and concern tend to have positive attitudes toward environmental products (Suki, 2014, Karatu and Mat, 2014). The deteriorating environmental conditions in China have lead increasing numbers of people to become aware of the need for environmental protection (Wong, 2003). As in the case of environmental attitudes, some researchers find that the relationship between environmental concern and behaviors are weak or insignificant (Bamberg, 2003, Davis, 1995). Further study is required to clarify the relationship between environmental concern and consumers' intention of buying green products. The following hypothesis is proposed:

H2: Consumers' environmental concern is positively related to their attitudes toward green products.

Perceived responsibility

Perceived environmental responsibility refers to consumers' intention to take-action directed toward pro-environmental behaviors (Stone et al., 1995). The use of green products usually involve altruistic helping behaviors whereby consumers buying green product may need to pay higher price, or sacrifice their time and resources to protect the environment (Zelezny et al., 2000). According to the norm activation model, altruistic helping behavior is most likely to occur when an individual is aware of harmful consequences and feel responsible for these consequences (Schwartz, 1977, Schwartz and Howard, 1981).Consumers who perceived that they are responsible for handling environmental problems are more likely to engage in green consumption activities (Nyborg et al., 2006). They tend to display more ecological behavior including buying (Kim and Damhorst, 1998) and using green products (Kaiser et al., 1999).

In general, people having higher environmental attitude and environmental concern tend to perceive that they are responsible to take environmental protection measures, who are more likely to have positive attitude toward eco-friendly products and promotions (Kaiser et al., 1999, Yusof et al., 2013). However, Lai (2000) reported that Hong Kong consumers are concern about the environmental problems but their perceived environmental responsibilities were weak, which affect their use of green products. Young people do not perceive or accept their responsibilities toward environment would reduce their intention to make green purchase (Lee, 2008). Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H3a: Consumers' environmental concern is positively related to their perceived responsibility to environmental protection.

H3b: Consumers' environmental attitude is positively related to their perceived responsibility to environmental protection.

H3c: Consumers' perceived responsibility to environmental protection is positively related to their attitudes toward green products.

H3d: Consumers' perceived responsibility to environmental protection is positively related to their intention to buy green products.

Perceived effectiveness

Consumers' environmental concern may not necessarily translate into action without a sense of empowerment. Self-efficacy theory suggested that people's beliefs in his or her ability to accomplish a specific task play key roles in shaping their approaches to goals, tasks, and challenges (Bandura, 1977). Perceived consumer effectiveness refers to the extent to which consumers believe that their actions can contribute to solving a problem (Ellen et al., 1991). Consumers tend to purchase eco-friendly products if they perceived that their purchase could help protecting the environment (Haytko and Matulich, 2008).

Perceived effectiveness and environmental concern are different concepts as perceived effectiveness involves consumers' evaluation of the self in the context of the issue (Berger and Corbin, 1992). Environmentally concerned consumers may not buy those eco-friendly products if they perceived that these products did not offer benefits to environment (Dobscha and Ozanne, 2001, Polonsky and Rosenberger III, 2001). Thus, we hypothesize that:

H4a: Consumers' perceived effectiveness is positively related to their attitudes toward green products.

H4b: Consumers' perceived effectiveness is positively related to their intention to buy green products.

Proposed model

Consumers' green attitudes and buying behavior intention have been actively studied (Chang, 2011). Chen and Chang (2012) used perceived values, perceived risks and green trusts to predict consumers' green buying behaviors. One of the most popular theories explains the attitude-behavior relationship is theory of planned behavior (TPB)(Ajzen, 2005). TPB regards a consumers' behavior as determined by their behavioral intention, where behavioral intention is a function of their attitude toward the behavior and perceived control (Huang et al., 2014). TPB was applied in many different studies in green marketing (Albayrak et al., 2013, Kim and Choi, 2004). In general, the attitude-behavior hierarchy model received support from different empirical studies(Homer and Kahle, 1988, McCarty and Shrum, 1994, Milfont et al., 2010). In the context of green consumer behavior, perceived behavioral control refers to perceived consumer effectiveness (Roberts, 1996) and perceived responsibility of environmental protection (Allen and Ferrand, 1999).

Based on the idea of TPB, a conceptual model is proposed in Figure 1 to illustrate the hypothesized relationship among the constructs environmental attitudes, environmental concern, perceived environmental responsibility, perceived effectiveness, attitudes toward green products, and intention of green buying behavior. The present model was conceived based on the ideas of previous researchers and their models such as Kim (2005),Chan (2001) and Lee (2008).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Generational Theory: Generation X and Generation Y

Generational theory proposes that similar life experiences and social context make consumers in the same age cohorts develop similar attitudes and beliefs (Meriac et al., 2010). It suggests that the sociocultural background helps create some homogenous traits among generations (Pendergast, 2009). Generational cohorts differ not only in their age, but also their values (Schewe and Meredith, 2004), and attitudes and beliefs (Meriac et al., 2010). The use of generational cohorts allows marketers to identify the key characteristics of different generations and develop more effective marketing activities for them (Meredith et al., 2002).

Previous research studies identified many key features of Generation Y consumers. For example, some studies suggested Generation Y is less loyal consumers than Generation Y (Bush et al., 2004, Wood, 2004).They are better educated and more aware of marketing tactics than previous generations (Tsui and Hughes, 2001). Growing up in a marketing saturated environment, Generation Y consumers utilize brands as an extension of themselves (Nowak et al., 2006). They are more concerned about the symbolic meaning of the brands in comparison with Generation X. Lee (2008) also suggested that the green purchasing behavior of adolescents in Hong Kong are more likely activated by their environmental attitude and concern. In contrast, Generation X consumers generally respond to brands in a more pragmatic way (Ritchie, 2002). They seek products that help them solve their problems. Thus, we hypothesize that:

H6: When compared with Generation X consumers, environmental concern is a stronger predictor to intention of buying green products for Generation Y consumers.

H7: When compared with Generation X consumers, environmental attitude is a stronger predictor to intention of buying green products for Generation Y consumers.

H8: When compared with Generation Y consumers, perceived effectiveness is a stronger predictor to intention of buying green products for Generation X consumers.

Research Methodology

Participants and data collection

This research was conducted using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Snowball sampling procedure was adopted to collect the responses. The link to questionnaire was sent through e-mail with a covering letter explaining the topic and goals of the research. Total 600 questionnaires were administered through social networking sites, resulting in 457 valid responses, with an overall response rate of 76.17 per cent. There were 188 men (41.1%) and 269 women (58.9%) among respondents. Most of them were university students and graduates (50.0%), followed by participants with secondary school or below educational level (42.5%) and primary education level (7.5%). 234 respondents were aged below 25 (51.2%) as Generation Y whereas 223 of them were from 25 to 45 (48.8%) for the group of Generation X.

Instrument and measures

This study was designed to investigate the key determinants of attitudes towards and intention of purchasing environmental friendly products. The questionnaire consisted of three sections. The first part was intended to collect participants' attitudes and perceptions toward environmental protection. The second part consisted of scales measuring their attitudes and purchase intention toward green products. Measures for the variables in the proposed model were adapted from previous studies (Lee, 2008, Pickett-Baker and Ozaki, 2008) (Table 1). The measurement items used seven-point Likert's scale anchored by "strongly disagree" and "strongly agree" with a point of neutrality in the middle. The last part was about the participants' personal backgrounds.

Data analysis

The objective of this study is to analyze different factors in predicting local customers' attitude and behavioral intention towards green products. Partial least squares path modeling (PLS) with reflective indicators was applied in this study, utilizing the software package SmartPLS. While other methods of structural equation modeling are more widespread indeed, PLS was used due to its enhanced ability to process complicated models and does not require distributional assumptions of the sample (Chin, 1998).

To overcome the problem of no formal significance tests for the estimated parameters in non-parametric method, the t-statistic and standard deviation of each parameter is calculated by bootstrap technique (Chin, 1998). Bootstrapping was used to draw 5000 random bootstrap set to obtain stable standard errors and low differences between entire sample estimates and means of subsamples (Leger et al., 1992). After establishing the validity and reliability of measurement and structural model, a parametric multi-group analysis was used to examine the differences between generation X and Y customers.

Finding

Measurement model (Outer model)

There are several analyses to assess the adequacy of the measurement model: Evaluation of component loadings of the items for each measure, the reliability of the measures, convergent validity, and the discriminant validity of the constructs (Hair et al., 2014).

Reliability of the measures is evaluated by both Cronbach's alpha and composite reliabilities (CR). Cronbach's alpha is estimated using reliability analysis procedure in SPSS and composite analysis are obtained from principal component analysis procedure in PLS (Chin, 1998). As recommended by Nunnally (1978), the reliability indicators of each construct should meet the desired criteria of 0.70. As shown in Table 1, most of the reliability measures exceed 0.70, which indicates that the measurement model possessed good internal consistency reliability.

All constructs have achieved an AVE greater than 0.50 and most factor loading measures are near/above 0.70, thus meeting the recommended criteria for convergent validity (Hair et al., 2011). The measurement model possessed adequate convergent validity. Discriminant validity was assessed by the examination of cross loadings of the indicators and Fornell-Larcker criterion (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). Table 2 summarizes the range of factor loading and cross loading of each construct. The item's factor loadings on its construct is higher than all of its cross loadings with other constructs, which provides support to discriminant validity. The Fornell-Larckercriterion assessment, which compare the square roots of the reflective construct's AVE with the correlations between the constructs, further confirms the discriminant validity of the measurement model (Table 3).The measure of each item strongly related to the construct it attempts to reflect and did not have a strong connection with another construct. Hence, this measurement model provides acceptable discriminant validity.

Structural Model (Inner model)

After establishing the reliability and validity of the measurement model, this section presents the results of the hypothesis testing of the proposed model. Hair et al. (2014) outlines the procedure in assessing structural model by PLS, which included collinearity assessment, significance and relevance of structural model relationships, the r-square ([R.sup.2]) for exogenous-endogenous relationships, effect size and predictive relevance of the model (Hair et al., 2014).

Before assessing the structural model, we need to analyze the collinearity issue of the model by variance inflation factor (VIF), which is the reciprocal of the tolerance. The VIF of EA, EC, PEE, and PER were 2.173, 1.807, 1.502, and 2.318, respectively. All VIF values are clearly below the threshold of 5 (Hair et al., 2011). Therefore, collinearity among the predictor constructs is not an issue in this model.

The variance explained in three endogenous variables, which included intention of buying green products, attitudes towards green products, and perceived responsibility of environmental, was 0.438, 0.282, and 0.497, respectively, which demonstrates moderate predictive power (Henseler et al., 2009). The structural model demonstrates acceptable predictive power as the average explained variance [R.sup.2] is 0.406. The effect size [f.sup.2] assesses an exogenous constructs' contribution to an endogenous latent variable's [R.sup.2] values. The effect size [f.sup.2] ranged from 0.020 to 0.310, which reflects that the effect sizes of different endogenous constructs on exogenous constructs are from small to medium. Predictive accuracy [Q.sup.2] of the model was assessed by using the blindfolding procedure (Wold, 1982). The cross-validated redundancy values for all three endogenous constructs well above zero (PER: 0.394; GA: 0.161; GB: 0.255), providing support for the model's predictive relevance (Table 4).

Finally, the significance of path coefficients was assessed by bootstrapping. Results from the bootstrapping procedure (5000 samples, no sign changes option) reveals that eight of nine structural relationships are significant (p<0.01).Figure 2 depicts my final model as well as the path coefficients, p-values, and [r.sup.2]. The attitudes toward environmental protection, perceived environmental responsibility, and perceived effectiveness of environmental protection are key determinants of consumers' attitudes toward green products with path coefficients of 0.152, 0.195 and 0.241, respectively. Surprisingly, environmental concern has no direct and significant effect on consumers' attitudes toward green products.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Mediation analysis

The results from the path model suggest that perceived environmental responsibility and consumers' attitudes toward green products were mediators of consumers' intention of buying green products. Thus, it is worthwhile to test for this potential mediating effect by procedures suggested by Hair, et al. (2014). After confirming the significance of indirect effects by bootstrapping, we compute the variance accounted for (VAF) of each constructs. The results suggested that the relationship between two general attitudes, which included "attitudes toward environmental protection" and "environmental concerns", and intention of purchasing green products, are fully mediated by consumers' perceived environmental responsibility and attitudes toward green products. VAF value of PER and PEE are 0.310 and 0.363, respectively, which, according to Hair et al. (2014), consumers' attitudes toward green products partially mediates the relationship between these two constructs and their buying intention.

Generational differences

After establishing the validity of the structural model, multi-group analysis was adopted to examine the differences between generation X and generation Y in their consumption behavior. Following the parametric approach introduced by Keil et al. (2000), we ran the PLS path modeling of each group and obtained standard errors of each group by bootstrapping procedure (Henseler et al., 2009). An empirical t-value was obtained to test the path differences. Table 5 shows that there are two significant path differences between Gen X and Gen Y consumers. Gen Y consumers with higher environmental concern tend to have more positive attitude toward green products. In contrast, perceived effectiveness of environmental protection has direct effect on intention of purchasing green product for Gen X.

Discussion and Implications

Previous studies questioned the relationship between consumers' environmental attitudes and concern and their intention to buy environmentally friendly products. Few studies have attempted to model the mediation of ecological consumption and limited empirical research has tested a theoretical model integrating consumer environmental attitudes, perceived responsibility and perceived effectiveness, and assessing their influence on green purchase decisions in Chinese context. Consistent with the finding in earlier research studies, the model supports the validation and use of theory of planned behavior to predict the green purchase behavior of consumers (Dagher and Itani, 2014, Lee, 2008).

The results support the view that increased environmental concern and environmental attitudes lead to higher buying intention of eco-friendly products, which is consistent with previous research studies (Polonsky et al., 2014). Bang et al. (2000) suggested that consumers emotionally involved with the environmental issues were more willing to pay a premium price for renewable energy. To motivate consumers to pay a premium price for eco-friendly products, marketer should get consumers emotionally involved into specific environmental problems.

Consumers with high perceived consumer effectiveness tended to have more positive attitudes toward eco-friendly products and engage in green purchase behavior. Marketing communication should provide specific environmental claims with meaningful benefits, which shows consumers how these products may contribute to environmental improvement (Frankel, 1994). Marketers should demonstrate how consumers could contribute to the benefits for the entire society by using these products. The reinforcement of the usefulness of these products could further promote consumers' commitment to green purchase (Kim and Choi, 2004).

Perceived environmental responsibility also had a direct, positive influence on green purchase, suggesting that consumers who accepted their responsibility to environmental protection are more likely to buy environmental products. Green marketers may make use of marketing communication campaign with strong emphasis in environmental problems and the urgency of environmental protection to raise people's environmental concern, which may lead to increase in perceived responsibility of environmental protection. In contrast to previous studies, this study found that the relationship between environmental attitudes and environmental concern and buying intentions of green products were fully mediated by consumers 'perceived environmental responsibility and consumers' attitudes toward green product on their purchase of green products.

The environmental buying behaviors between Generation X and Y were similar to each other. Perceived effectiveness and perceived environmental responsibility were strong predictors to their buying intention of green products for both Generation X and Generation Y consumers. However, environmental concern is a stronger predictor for Generation Y consumers, while perceived effectiveness is a stronger predictor for Generation X consumers. These differences support the hypotheses that Gen X consumers are more concerned about the effectiveness of their pro-environmental behaviors, while Gen Y consumers' pro-environmental behaviors are more likely stimulated by their environmental attitude and concern (Lee, 2008).

Taken together, this research supports past studies of green marketing by identifying the key determinants of consumers' attitudes and buying intention of eco-friendly products. This study reveals several implications for theory and practice relating to the green marketing among consumers in Hong Kong. Theoretically, the findings firstly enriched the current green marketing literature by support the validation and use of theory of planned behavior in predicting consumers' green buying behaviors. Second, the model proposed also extended the past studies of green marketing by identifying the key mediators between consumers' green attitudes and their intention of buying green products. Finally, this study also explored the generational effects of pro-environmental buying behaviors. The findings supported that Generation X consumers were more pragmatic than Generation Y consumers in their buying decision.

The findings also offer practical implications for marketers of green products and public policy makers who promote pro-environmental behavior. To increase the number and degree to which consumer engage in pro-environmental behaviors, it is necessary to increase not only individual's environmental attitude and concern, but their acceptance of personal responsibility for the environmental action, and their ability to contribute to environmental protection (Cleveland et al., 2012). Social marketing campaigns of policy makers should not only emphasize on the responsibility of environmental protections but also make individuals aware of their ability to make differences over environmental outcomes, which may encourage more people to engage in pro-environmental behaviors (Allen and Ferrand, 1999). Applied to the segmentation and targeting strategies, promotional messages can be tailored to young people with an appeal that emphasizes the seriousness of environmental problem and their roles in improving the environment. For those Generation X consumers, an emphasis on their contributions to environmental protection and the environmental benefits created by using the products.

Limitations and Future Research

In conclusion, this study extends previous research on green marketing, by showing how different environmental attitudes and perceptions are related to each other. Our findings highlight the importance of perceived responsibility and effectiveness of environmental behavior in affecting their attitudes toward green products. Several major limitations concerning this study need to be acknowledged. First, the sampling method limited the external validity of our finding. A replication of this study with randomized sample might be necessary to attest the applicability of the model. Second, the focus of this research was consumers' purchase intention of eco-friendly products. The key determinants identified in this study might not be applicable to predict other types of pro-environmental behaviors of consumers. Third, the present study measures consumers' attitudes toward green products but not their actual purchase behaviors. Future research may address this limitation by linking the attitudes with the behavior. For example, a longitudinal research follows the consumer's green behavior over time in respect to their willingness of green purchase would be able to draw conclusion on whether relationships accounted for here are consistent over time.

This study supported that the attitude-behavior model could be used for predicting consumers' intention of buying green products. However, some researchers have argued that contextual factors such as external drivers and barriers would also affect the environmental behaviors of respondents. Future research should continue to identify what other factors drive these variables by incorporating more psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors such as values (Leonidou et al., 2010), norms, peer influences (Lee, 2011)and habit strengths (Jansson et al., 2010). Inclusion of these factors in further research may develop a more comprehensive model with better explanatory power. Further research may also look into how corporations can build effective marketing campaigns that convey the green messages to their audiences.

DOI 10.14707/ajbr.150013

Reference

Ajzen, I., (2005), Attitudes, personalities and behavior, Open University Press, Berkshire, England.

Albayrak, T., Aksoy, S. and Caber, M., (2013), "The effect of environmental concern and scepticism on green purchase behaviour", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 27-39.

Allen, J. B. and Ferrand, J. L., (1999), "Environmental Locus of Control, Sympathy, and Proenvironmental Behavior: A Test of Geller's Actively Caring Hypothesis", Environment and Behavior, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 338-353.

Bamberg, S., (2003), "How does environmental concern influence specific environmentally related behaviors? A new answer to an old question", Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 21-32.

Bandura, A., (1977), Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, W.H. Freeman, New York.

Bang, H.-K., Ellinger, A. E., Hadjimarcou, J. and Traichal, P. A., (2000), "Consumer concern, knowledge, belief, and attitude toward renewable energy: An application of the reasoned action theory", Psychology and Marketing, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 449-468.

Berger, I. E. and Corbin, R. M., (1992), "Perceived Consumer Effectiveness and Faith in Others as Moderators of Environmentally Responsible Behaviors", Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 79.

Bush, A. J., Martin, C. A. and Bush, V. D., (2004), "Sports Celebrity Influence on the Behavioral Intentions of Generation Y", Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 44, no. 01, pp. 108-118.

Chan, R. Y. K., (2001), "Determinants of Chinese consumers' green purchase behavior", Psychology & Marketing, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 389-413.

Chang, C., (2011), "Feeling ambivalent about going green: Implications for green advertising processing", Journal of Advertising, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 19-31.

Chen, M.-F., (2009), "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle", British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-178.

Chen, Y.-S. and Chang, C.-H., (2012), "Enhance green purchase intentions", Management Decision, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 502-520.

Chin, W. W., (1998), "The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling", in Marcoulides, G. A. (Ed.) Modern Methods for Business Research, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 295-358.

Chung, K.-C. and Holdsworth, D. K., (2012), "Culture and behavioural intent to adopt mobile commerce among the Y Generation: comparative analyses between Kazakhstan, Morocco and Singapore", Young Consumers, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 224-241.

Cleveland, M., Kalamas, M. and Laroche, M., (2012), ""It's not easy being green": Exploring green creeds, green deeds, and internal environmental locus of control", Psychology & Marketing, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 293-305.

Dagher, G. K. and Itani, O., (2014), "Factors influencing green purchasing behaviour: Empirical evidence from the Lebanese consumers", Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 188-195.

Davis, J. J., (1995), "The Effects of Message Framing on Response to Environmental Communications", Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 285-299.

Dobscha, S. and Ozanne, J. L., (2001), "An Ecofeminist Analysis of Environmentally Sensitive Women Using Qualitative Methodology: The Emancipatory Potential of an Ecological Life", Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 201-214.

Ellen, P. S., Wiener, J. L. and Cobb-Walgren, C., (1991), "The role of perceived consumer effectiveness in motivating envionmentally conscious behaviors", Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 102-117.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F., (1981), "Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error", JMR, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 39.

Frankel, C., (1994), "The green-person's guide to credibility", The Public Relations Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 24.

Gadenne, D., Sharma, B., Kerr, D. and Smith, T., (2011), "The influence of consumers' environmental beliefs and attitudes on energy saving behaviours", Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 12, p. 7684.

Gill, J. D., Crosby, L. A. and Taylor, J. R., (1986), "Ecological Concern, Attitudes, and Social Norms in Voting Behavior", Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 537-554.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. and Sarstedt, M., (2014), A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M. and Sarstedt, M., (2011), "PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet", Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 139-151.

Haytko, D. L. and Matulich, E., (2008), "Green advertising and environmentally responsible consumer behaviors: Linkages examined", Journal of Management and Marketing Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5-14.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. and Sinkovics, R. R., (2009), "The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing", in Sinkovics, R. R. and Ghauri, P. N. (Eds.)

New Challenges to International Marketing (Advances in International Marketing), Emerald Group Publishing, pp. 277-319.

Hill, J. and Hyun-Hwa, L., (2012), "Young Generation Y consumers' perceptions of sustainability in the apparel industry", Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 477-491.

Hoffmann, S. and Schlicht, J., (2013), "The impact of different types of concernment on the consumption of organic food", International Journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 625-633.

Homer, P. M. and Kahle, L. R., (1988), "A structural equation test of the value-attitude-behavior hierarchy", Journal of personality and social psychology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 638-646.

Huang, Y.-C., Yang, M. and Wang, Y.-C., (2014), "Effects of green brand on green purchase intention", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 250-268.

Jansson, J., Marell, A. and Nordlund, A., (2010), "Green consumer behavior: determinants of curtailment and eco-innovation adoption", The Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 358-370.

Kaiser, F. G., Ranney, M., Hartig, T. and Bowler, P. A., (1999), "Ecological behavior, environmental attitude, and feelings of responsibility for the environment", European Psychologist, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 59-74.

Karatu, V. M. H. and Mat, N. K. N., (2014), "A New Model of Green Purchase Intention and its Derivatives: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Validation of Constructs", Information Management and Business Review, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 261-268.

Keil, M., Tan, B. C. Y., Kwok-Kee, W., Saarinen, T. and et al., (2000), "A cross-cultural study on escalation of commitment behavior in software projects", MIS Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 299-325.

Kim, H.-S. and Damhorst, M. L., (1998), "Environmental Concern and Apparel Consumption", Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 126-133.

Kim, S. and Seock, Y.-K., (2009), "Impacts of health and environmental consciousness on young female consumers' attitude towards and purchase of natural beauty products", International Journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 627-638.

Kim, Y. and Choi, S. M., (2004), "Antecedents of Green Purchase Behavior: An Examination of Collectivism, Environmental Concern, and PCE", Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 32, pp. 592-599.

Kinnear, T. C. and Taylor, J. R., (1973), "The effect of ecological concern on brand perceptions", JMR, Journal of Marketing Research (pre-1986), vol. 10, no. 000002, p. 191.

Kotchen, M. J. and Reiling, S. D., (2000), "Environmental attitudes, motivations, and contingent valuation of nonuse values: a case study involving endangered species", Ecological Economics, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 93-107.

Kwok, H.-k., (2012), "The Generation Y's Working Encounter: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong and other Chinese Cities", Journal of Family and Economic Issues, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 231-249.

Leger, C., Politis, D. N. and Romano, J. P., (1992), "Bootstrap Technology and Applications", Technometrics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 378-398.

Lai, K. O., (2000), "Greening of Hong Kong? Forms of manifestation of environmental movements", in Chiu, S. W. K. and Lui, T. L. (Eds.) The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong: Real and financial linkages, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 259-296.

Lee, K., (2008), "Opportunities for green marketing: young consumers", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 573-586.

Lee, K., (2009), "Gender differences in Hong Kong adolescent consumers' green purchasing behavior", The Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 87-96.

Lee, K., (2011), "The Green Purchase Behavior of Hong Kong Young Consumers: The Role of Peer Influence, Local Environmental Involvement, and Concrete Environmental Knowledge", Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 21.

Lee, K., (2014), "Predictors of Sustainable Consumption among Young Educated Consumers in Hong Kong", Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 217.

Leonidou, L. C., Leonidou, C. N. and Kvasova, O., (2010), "Antecedents and outcomes of consumer environmentally friendly attitudes and behaviour", Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 26, no. 13/14, p. 1319.

Lynne, G. D. and Rola, L. R., (1988), "Improving Attitude-Behavior Prediction Models with Economic Variables: Farmer Actions toward Soil Conservation", The Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 19-28.

Lyon, T. P. and Maxwell, J. W., (2004), Corporate environmentalism and public policy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mainieri, T., Barnett, E. G., Valdero, T. R., Unipan, J. B. and Oskamp, S., (1997), "Green buying: The influence of environmental concern on consumer behavior", The Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 189-204.

Manget, J., Roche, C. and Munnich, F., (2009), Capturing the green advantage for consumer companies, Boston Consulting Group, Boston, MA.

McCarty, J. A. and Shrum, L. J., (1994), "The recycling of solid wastes: Personal values, value orientations, and attitudes about recycling as antecedents of recycling behavior", Journal of Business Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 53-62.

Meredith, G., Schewe, C. D. and Karlovich, J., (2002), Defining markets, defining moments: America's 7 generational cohorts, their shared experiences, and why businesses should care, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Meriac, J., Woehr, D. and Banister, C., (2010), "Generational Differences in Work Ethic: An Examination of Measurement Equivalence Across Three Cohorts", Journal of Business and Psychology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 315-324.

Milfont, T. L. and Gouveia, V. V., (2006), "Time perspective and values: An exploratory study of their relations to environmental attitudes", Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 72-82.

Milfont, T. L., Sibley, C. G. and Duckitt, J., (2010), "Testing the Moderating Role of the Components of Norm Activation on the Relationship Between Values and Environmental Behavior", Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 124-131.

Mohai, P., Simoes, S. and Brechin, S. R., (2010), "Environmental Concerns, Values and Meanings in the Beijing and Detroit Metropolitan Areas", International Sociology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 778-817.

Norum, P. S., (2003), "Examination of Generational Differences in Household Apparel Expenditures", Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 52-75.

Nowak, L., Thach, L. and Olsen, J. E., (2006), "Wowing the millennials: creating brand equity in the wine industry", Journal of Product and Brand Management, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 316-323.

Nunnally, J. C., (1978), Psychometric theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Nyborg, K., Howarth, R. B. and Brekke, K. A., (2006), "Green consumers and public policy: On socially contingent moral motivation", Resource and Energy Economics, vol. 28, no. 4, p. 351.

Park, J. and Ha, S., (2012), "Understanding pro-environmental behavior", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 388-403.

Pendergast, D., (2009), "Generational Theory and Home Economics1: Future Proofing the Profession", Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 504-522.

Pickett-Baker, J. and Ozaki, R., (2008), "Pro-environmental products: marketing influence on consumer purchase decision", Journal of consumer Marketing, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 281 293.

Polonsky, M., Kilbourne, W. and Vocino, A., (2014), "Relationship between the dominant social paradigm, materialism and environmental behaviours in four Asian economies", European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48, no. 3/4, pp. 522-551.

Polonsky, M. J. and Rosenberger III, P. J., (2001), "Reevaluating green marketing: a strategic approach", Business Horizons, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 21-30.

Prothero, A. and McDonagh, P., (1992), "Producing Environmentally Acceptable Cosmetics? The Impact of Environmentalism on the United Kingdom Cosmetics and Toiletries Industry", Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 147-166.

Ritchie, K., (2002), Marketing to Generation X, The Free Press, New York, NY.

Roberts, J. A., (1996), "Green consumers in the 1990s: Profile and implications for advertising", Journal of Business Research, vol. 36, no. 3, p. 217.

Schewe, C. D. and Meredith, G., (2004), "Segmenting global markets by generational cohorts: Determining motivations by age", Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 51-63.

Schultz, P. W., Shriver, C., Tabanico, J. J. and Khazian, A. M., (2004), "Implicit connections with nature", Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 24, pp. 31-42.

Schwartz, S. H., (1977), "Normative Influences on Altruism", in Leonard, B. (Ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, pp. 221-279.

Schwartz, S. H. and Howard, J. A., (1981), "A Normative Decision-Making Model of Altruism", in Rushton, J. P. and Sorrentine, R. M. (Eds.) Altruism and Helping Behavior: Social, Personality, and Developmental Perspectives, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 189-211.

Smith, S. M., Haugtvedt, C. P. and Petty, R. E., (1994), "Attitudes and recycling: Does the measurement of affect enhance behavioral prediction?", Psychology & Marketing, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 359.

Stone, G., Barnes, J. H. and Montgomery, C., (1995), "Ecoscale: A scale for the measurement of environmentally responsible consumers", Psychology and Marketing, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 595-612.

Suki, N. M., (2014), "Investigating the Measurement of Consumer Ecological Behaviour, Environmental Knowledge, Healthy Food, and Healthy Way of Life", International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 12-21.

Tracy, A. P. and Oskamp, S., (1984), "Relationships among ecologically responsible behaviors", Journal of Environmental Systems, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 115-126.

Tsui, B. and Hughes, L. Q., (2001), "Generation next", Advertising Age, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 1416.

Wold, H., (1982), "Soft modeling: the basic design and some extensions", Systems under indirect observation, vol. 2, pp. 589-591.

Wong, K.-K., (2003), "The Environmental Awareness of University Students in Beijing, China", Journal of Contemporary China, vol. 12, no. 36, pp. 519-536.

Wood, L., (2004), "Dimensions of brand purchasing behaviour: consumers in the 18-24 age group", Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 9-24.

Yeung, S. P.-M., (2004), "Teaching Approaches in Geography and Students' Environmental Attitudes", Environmentalist, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 101-117.

Yusof, J. M., Singh, G. K. B. and Razak, R. A., (2013), "Purchase Intention of Environment-Friendly Automobile", Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 85, no. 0, pp. 400-410.

Zelezny, L. C., Chua, P.-P. and Aldrich, C., (2000), "New Ways of Thinking about Environmentalism: Elaborating on Gender Differences in Environmentalism", Journal of Social Issues, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 443-457.

Mark, Ng

Hong Kong Shue Yan University

Monica Law

Hong Kong Shue Yan University
Table 1: Quality criteria of the constructs

Item                             Mean      SD        Standardize
                                                     d loading

Attitude toward environmental protection (Lee, 2009) AVE=0.694,
  CR=0.919, CA=0.889

It is essential to promote       5.888     1.001     0.821
green living in HK

I strongly agree that more       6.114     0.866     0.831
environmental protection works
are needed in HK

It is very important to raise    5.941     1.112     0.855
environmental awareness among
HK people.

Environmental protection works   6.092     1.078     0.878
are simply a waste of money
and resources

Environmental protection         5.755     1.298     0.777
issues are none of my business
(R)

Environmental concern (Lee, 2009) AVE=0.643, CR=0.877,
  CA=0.822

I am worried about the           5.735     1.254     0.689
worsening of the quality of
HK's environment

Hong Kong's environment is my    5.546     1.093     0.835
major concern

I am emotionally involved in     5.311     1.156     0.857
environmental protection
issues in

I often think about how the      5.711     0.964     0.816
environmental quality in HK
can be improved

Perceived environmental responsibility (Lee, 2009) AVE=0.807,
  CR=0.926, CA=0.881

I should be responsible for      5.797     0.951     0.904
protecting our environment.

Environmental protection         5.558     1.050     0.919
starts with me.

Environmental protection is      5.494     1.019     0.872
the responsibility of the
government, not me.

Perceived effectiveness of environmental protection (Lee, 2008)
  AVE=0.536, CR=0.822, CA=0.724

I think if I carry out some      5.768     0.961     0.740
pro-environmental behaviours
in my everyday life, I would
contribute a lot to our
environment.

I think my participation in      5.066     1.104     0.721
environmental protection would
influence myfamily and friends
to participate too.

The environmental quality of     4.420     1.486     0.735
HK will stay the same even if
I engage in
somepro-environmental
behaviours. (R)

Even if I recycle and reuse      4.482     1.493     0.733
things, the environmental
quality of HK will remainas it
currently is (R)

Attitudes toward green product (Pickett-Baker and Ozaki, 2008)
  AVE=0.574, CR=0.800, CA=0.634

I feel good about buying         5.274     1.097     0.833
brands which are less damaging
to the environment

It is easy for me to identify    4.536     1.274     0.651
these products

Some multi-national              4.692     1.297     0.777
corporations who manufacture
well-known consumer brands are
redesigning their factory
processes, their products and
their packaging to be more
environmentally friendly. If
they advertised this fact I
would be much more likely to
choose that brand

Buying intention of green product (Pickett-Baker and Ozaki, 2008)
  AVE=0.617, CR=0.828, CA=0.689

I buy green products even if     4.384     1.391     0.724
they are more expensive than
the non-green ones

I choose to buy products that    5.282     1.070     0.840
are environmentally-friendly

When I want to buy a product,    4.853     1.240     0.789
I look at the ingredients
label to see if it, contains
things that are
environmentally-damaging

Recommended criteria of acceptance of composite reliability and
Cronbach's Alpha is 0.7 (Hair, 1997), and criteria of AVE is 0.5
(Fornell and Larcker, 1981).

Table 2: Examination of Cross Loadings

                                Range of Factor Range of Cross
                                Loading       Loading

Attitude toward environmental   0.777-0.878   0.177-0.641
protection (EA)

Environmental concern (EC)      0.689-0.857   0.154-0.581

Perceived environmental         0.872-0.919   0.283-0.584
responsibility (PER)

Perceived effectiveness (PEE)   0.721-0.740   0.199-0.578

Attitudes toward green          0.651-0.833   0.201-0.510
product (GA)

Buying intention of green       0.724-0.840   0.267-0.532
product (GB)

Table 3: Square root of AVE (diagonal elements) and inter-construct
correlations

                           EA      EC      PER

Attitude toward environ-   0.833
mental protection

(EA) Environmental         0.563   0.802
concern (EC)

Perceived environmental    0.467   0.394   0.898
responsibility

(PER) Perceived            0.655   0.584   0.612
effectiveness (PEE)

Attitudes toward green     0.421   0.345   0.452
product (GA)

Buying intention of        0.455   0.401   0.489
green product (GB)

                           PEE     GA      GB

Attitude toward environ-
mental protection

(EA) Environmental
concern (EC)

Perceived environmental
responsibility

(PER) Perceived            0.732
effectiveness (PEE)

Attitudes toward green     0.472   0.758
product (GA)

Buying intention of        0.499   0.598   0.786
green product (GB)
COPYRIGHT 2015 Asia Business Research Corporation Ltd.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Mark, Ng; Law, Monica
Publication:Asian Journal of Business Research
Article Type:Statistical data
Geographic Code:9HONG
Date:Jul 1, 2015
Words:7311
Previous Article:Attitude towards advertising: a young generation cohort's perspective.
Next Article:Religiosity and ecologically conscious consumption behaviour.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters