Printer Friendly

Emotional behaviour and academic achievement in middle school children.

Byline: Nazar Hussain Soomro and Jane Clarbour

The present study investigates the relationship between emotional behaviour and academic achievement in middle school children in Hyderabad, Pakistan. One hundred and forty-six students of grade 8 completed the Emotional Behavioural Scale for Pakistani Adolescents (EBS-PA; Soomro, 2010), and rendered measures of their social anxiety, malevolent aggression, and social self-esteem scores. These measures cumulatively represented emotional behaviour in these children, based upon Clarbour and Roger's (2004) model of emotional style, on which the EBS-PA scale is based. We then ascertained academic grades of these students from their school records and ran correlation between academic achievement (grades) and emotional behaviour measures. Results revealed academic achievement to be negatively associated with malevolent aggression, but positively related to social self-esteem.

In addition, mediator analysis indicated social self-esteem to partially mediate the relationship between malevolent aggression and academic achievement.

Keywords: emotional behaviour, academic achievement, adolescents, Pakistani

There is robust evidence that emotional and behavioural problems are related with academic difficulties (Arnold, 1997; Hinshaw, 1992). These associations predict school drop-out rate, academic failure, delinquency, drug abuse, and unemployment which not only affect the individual but impacts the society as well (Lane, Carter, Pierson, and Glaeser, 2006; Trout, Nordness, Pierce, and Epstein, 2003). In developed countries, emphasis on developing a healthy personality during childhood has led to life successes in the individuals' adult life (Shiner and Caspi, 2003). However, such emphasis in developing countries like Pakistan lack major thrust (Stewart and Bond, 2002), with little awareness in professionals and caregivers of the mental and psychological well-being of children (Karim, Saeed, Rana, Mubbashar, and Jenkins, 2004).

General observations suggest that when children go to paediatricians or general practitioners of medicine for their routine medical checkups, medical professionals may neglect assessing psychological problems and health (Ozer et al., 2009). Ignoring emotional and behavioural problems leads to impoverished scholastic performance (Simpson, Patterson, and Smith, 2011). Consequently, many children fail to thrive or meet their potential during their academic and later in their occupational life (Khalid, 2003).

Anxiety and aggressive emotional styles pose problems for students and challenges for educators (Simpson et al., 2011).

Students with internalising behaviour problems often do not pay attention to their teachers to avoid challenging them and interrupting instructional process (Lane, 2007). If such problems are left undiagnosed, scholastic performance, social interactions, self- esteem, and life skills are affected (Goldman, 2009). In addition, internalising and externalising behavioural problems are linked with academic difficulties (Arnold, 1997; Frick et al., 1991; Hinshaw, 1992). For instance, Hinshaw (1992) reported that inattention and hyperactivity are the stronger correlates of academic achievement problems than aggressive behaviours during childhood whereas anti-social behaviours and delinquency are considered as the stronger correlates with low academic achievement during adolescence.

A preliminary study has also indicated that adolescents diagnosed with externalising and/or internalising disorders attending psychiatric clinics scored higher on malevolent aggression and social anxiety respectively than normal school children (Soomro and Clarbour, 2010).

The evidence linking internalising problems to academic achievement over time is less consistent (Masten et al., 2005). For example, studies linking these problems with academic achievement suggest that objective and perceived academic failures in an inconsistent manner are related to change in internalising symptoms (Chen, Rubin, and Li, 1997; Cole, Martin, and Powers, 1997; Maughan, Rowe, Loeber, and Stouthamer-Loeber, 2003). Serious academic problems have been noted for those adolescents who meet the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses of internalising disorders such as anxiety disorders and depression (Bardone, Moffitt, Caspi, Dickson, and Silva, 1996; Kovacs and Devlin, 1998).

Further support for associating poor academic consequences with internalising problems is also limited and mixed. Strahan (2003) conducted a longitudinal study over a two year period on college students to examine whether social anxiety, social skills, and other academic variables affects grade point average (GPA). He reported that social anxiety did not emerge as a significant predictor of GPA. However, in adolescents who met the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses of anxiety disorders and depression, serious academic problems had been noted (Bardone et al., 1996; Kovacs and Devlin, 1998). However, findings have been equivocal in broader studies of the predictive significance of scores on a continuously distributed internalising symptom dimension (Cole, Martin, Powers, and Truglio, 1996; Roeser, Eccles, and Sameroff, 2000).

Self-esteem has been found to be an important precursor of school achievement and related adjustment (Carr, Borkowski, and Maxwell, 1991; Lau and Leung, 1992; Midgely, Arunkumar, and Urdan, 1996). For example, individuals who have high self-esteem and have greater confidence in their own abilities to cope with challenging tasks are likely to apply adaptive strategies (Dweck and Leggett, 1988; Gottfried, 1985). Aunola, Stattin, and Nurmi (2000) found that low self-esteem was associated with maladaptive achievement strategies, which in turn, was associated with maladjustment at school and internalising and externalising problem behaviours. Clarbour and Roger (1999) also reported a positive association between social self-esteem, based on a subscale of Emotional Behavioural Scale (EBS) and scholastic competence using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) developed by Harter (1985).

Khalid (2003) examined the relationship between children self- esteem and academic performance of Pakistani and Scottish 10-11 year old students of multi-ethnic schools in Scotland. He found significant correlation between self-esteem and academic performance. Children in high self-esteem group performed significantly better at school than the children in low self-esteem group. Roeser, Van der Wolf, and Strobel (2001) in a cross-national study examined the relationship between social-emotional and school functioning in American and Dutch adolescents. They found academic efficacy to be positively correlated with self-esteem (US and Dutch samples) but negatively correlated with emotional behavioural problems as assessed by Youth Self-Report (YSR) of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) developed by Achenbach (1991). Though externalising behavioural problems were strongly (negatively) correlated with academic achievement in the US sample, but in the Dutch sample this was not the case.

Based on the above evidence, though inconsistent at times, one may be driven to conclude that behavioural problems have a negative influence on academic achievement fostering other maladaptive behaviours in turn. Studies show that many children in Pakistan demonstrate behavioural problems (Hussain, 2009; Samad, Hollis, Prince, and Goodman, 2005; Syed, Hussein, and Mahmud, 2007), which may also impact their academic achievement. Therefore, it is important to explore the relationship between emotional behaviour and academic achievement among Pakistani students, especially adolescents who are preparing for higher studies. The present study is aimed to explore this relationship using a newer scale that measures emotional and behavioural problems (Soomro, 2010).

Hypotheses

Malevolent aggression would be negatively associated with academic achievement (grades) but social self-esteem would be positively related to academic achievement in adolescent Pakistani students. Further social self-esteem would mediate as a potential factor between malevolent aggression and academic achievement. Our hypothesis about social anxiety is exploratory, and we wish to identify if social anxiety would negatively associate with academic achievement and positively with malevolent aggression.

Method

Participants

We drew 72 boys (49.31%) and 74 girls (50.69%) of 8th grade from two separate gender specific secondary schools in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Their age ranged from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.42, SD = 0.84) with boys (M =13.64, SD = 0.93) being slightly older than girls (M = 13.20, SD = 0.68).

Instruments

1. Emotional Behaviour Scale for Pakistani Adolescents (EBS-PA; Soomro, 2010). The EBS-PA is derived from the Emotional Behaviour Scale (Clarbour and Roger, 2004). It is a self-reporting instrument, which is designed to measure emotional behaviour in Pakistani adolescents. It consists of 49 items and has three subscales; Social Anxiety subscale (19 items) which measures concerns about behaving appropriately in social settings as well as empathic concern for others, e.g., 'I easily become upset'; Malevolent Aggression subscale (20 items) which assesses the capacity to harm others and measures the tendency to manipulate others for self-gain and a desire for revenge, e.g., 'I feel happy when I get my revenge'; and Social Self-Esteem subscale (10 items) which refers to feelings of self-worth in social situations, e.g., 'Sometimes I really feel unwanted'. The response format for each item is dichotomous: 'more like me' (1) or 'less like me' (0).

Adding scores for each subscale gives their respective composite scores, which range from 0-19 for Social Anxiety subscale; 0-20 for Malevolent Aggression subscale; and 0-10 for Social Self-Esteem subscale. The three-factor structure of this scale has been confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis in samples of adolescents taken from United Kingdom (Clarbour and Roger, 2004) and Pakistan (Soomro and Clarbour, 2010). Validation studies have shown that scores on the Social Anxiety subscale are positively related to measures of emotional symptoms, prosocial behaviour, empathy, and internalising behaviour problems while scores on Malevolent Aggression subscale have been found to correlate positively with psychoticism, poor behavioural conduct, conduct problems, hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, measures of aggression, and externalising behaviour problems (Clarbour and Roger, 2004; Soomro and Clarbour, 2009, 2010).

The scale has also demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Soomro and Clar bour, 2010). The reliability coefficients for the current sample was a =.82 for social anxiety, a =.83 for malevolent aggression, and a =.76 for social self-esteem.

2. Academic Achievement. To determine students' academic achievement, grades and percentages were accessed by the class teachers from the school academic records with permission and were converted to 1-6 scale. This scale consisted of: 1 (below 50%, Fail); 2 (50-59%, Pass); 3 (60-69%, C-grade); 4 (70-79%, B-grade); 5 (80-89%, A-grade); and 6 (90-100%, A+-grade).

Procedure

Ethical approval for the study was taken from the University of York ethics committee prior to data collection. Following ethical guidelines, full consent was gained from the parents, children, and teachers prior to undertaking this research. The aims of the study were explained, highlighting that participation was voluntary and assurance was given that all participants' responses would remain anonymous and would only be used for research purposes. The EBS-PA was administered in groups of 25-30 students during school periods. Each group of participants took two school periods to complete the measures. Class teachers were also requested to provide students' academic grades of the previous academic year.

Statistical Analyses

Data analyses proceeded in steps using a variety of statistical methods. First, a Mann-Whitney U test was computed to examine any gender difference in academic achievement. We then carried out Spearman's correlations to explore the relationship between emotional behaviours and academic achievement; and a series of regression analyses to examine the role of social self-esteem as a mediator variable between academic achievement and malevolent aggression, as its predictor.

Results

Descriptive Analyses

The Mann-Whitney U test revealed no significant differences in academic achievement of girls and boys.

Table 1 shows academic achievement of all participants to be significantly negatively correlated with malevolent aggression (r = - .20, p less than .05) and strongly positively related with social self-esteem (r = .37, p less than .01). As expected, social self-esteem was significantly negatively correlated with malevolent aggression (r = -.24, p less than .01). A significant negative correlation between social anxiety and malevolent aggression (r = -.27, p less than .01) was surprising and against our intuitions.

To tease out gender differences among these factors, we analyzed this data for boys and girls separately. Though social self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with academic achievement for both boys (r = .34, p less than .01) and girls (r = .41, p less than .01), malevolent aggression was significantly negatively correlated with academic achievement (r = -.28, p less than .05), social anxiety (r = -.35, p less than .01) and social self-esteem (r = -.31, p less than .01) for boys only.

Regression Analyses

To explore further the relationship between emotional behaviour and academic achievement, regression analyses were performed and a mediation model for social self-esteem was analyzed using path analysis to test the hypothesis whether social self-esteem would mediate between malevolent aggression and social anxiety with academic achievement. According to Baron and Kenny (1986), one of the prerequisites of a mediation model is to have a significant relationship between the predictor and its outcome variables. Such a relationship was not found in girls between malevolent aggression and social anxiety for academic achievement. Similarly for boys there was no significant relationship between social anxiety and academic achievement. Therefore, subsequent analyses were conducted on the overall sample. Academic achievement did not have a significant relationship with social anxiety therefore mediation analysis for social anxiety was meaningless (Table 1).

Table 1: Correlations amongst Factors for EBS-PA and Academic Achievement

Variables###SA###MA###SSE

Combined Sample (N = 146)

Academic Achievement (AA)###-.13###-.20###.37

Social Anxiety (SA)###-.27###-.13

Malevolent Aggression (MA)###-.24###

Boys (n = 72)

Academic Achievement (AA)###-.08###-.28###.34

Social Anxiety (SA)###-.35###-.20

Malevolent Aggression (MA)###-.31###

Girls (n = 74)

Academic Achievement (AA)###-.17###-.10###.41

Social Anxiety (SA)###-.18###.11

Malevolent Aggression (MA)###-.09

Note. SSE = Social Self-Esteem.

p less than .05. p less than .01.

To test the hypothesis that social self-esteem mediates a relationship between malevolent aggression and academic achievement, a series of regression analyses were then carried out. Baron and Kenny (1986) have suggested that in order to detect a mediator relationship, a series of four steps must be implemented. In this case, a model was developed with malevolent aggression as the predictor variable, social self-esteem as the mediator and academic achievement as the outcome variable (Figure 1).

Malevolent aggression significantly predicted academic achievement, R2 = .048, F(1, 144) = 7.32, p less than .01, and the mediator variable, in this case social self-esteem, R2 = .037, F(1, 144) = 5.54, p less than .05. When the malevolent aggression scores and the social self- esteem scores were entered into a regression analysis with academic achievement scores again as the outcome, the model was significant, R2 = .133, F(2, 143) = 13.22, p less than .01, with social self- esteem as a significant predictor, b = .36, t(2, 143) = 4.69, p less than .01. Baron and Kenny (1986) suggest that if the relationship between the predictor and the outcome is zero, it is a complete mediator. If the regression coefficient is only reduced then it is a partial mediator.

Malevolent aggression scores remained a significant predictor after accounting for academic achievement, b = -.16, t(2, 143) = 1.98, p less than .05, however, the standardised beta in this equation was reduced from, b = -.22, t(2, 143) = 2.70, p less than .01, as observed when it was the only predictor. This would appear to indicate that social self- esteem mediates some, but not all, of the relationship between malevolent aggression and academic achievement (Table 2).

Table 2: Mediator Analysis for Academic Achievement Predicted by Malevolent Aggression Mediated by Social Self-Esteem

###b

Stage 1

Malevolent Aggression - Academic Achievement###-.22

Stage 2

Malevolent Aggression - Social Self-esteem###-.19

Stage 3 and 4

Malevolent aggression - Academic Achievement###-.15

Social Self-esteem - Academic Achievement###.33

Note. R2 = .048 for Stage 1 ( p less than .01); R2 = .037 for Stage 2 ( p less than

.05); R2 = .156 for Stage 3 and 4 ( p less than .01).

p less than .05. p less than .01.

relationship between externalising problems and academic achievement. Thus, effective interventions may focus on the enhancement of self-esteem along with other academic strategies, which might reduce the behavioural problems so that learning may not be interrupted. Several researchers (e.g., Clarbour and Roger, 2000; Gold, 1978; Houlston and Smith, 2009) have suggested changes that should be introduced into the school system to enhance self-esteem.

Limitations

There are some limitations which should be taken into account in any attempt to generalize the findings of this study. First, because the study was correlational, no conclusion can be drawn concerning the causal relationships between the variables. For example, although it may be assumed that an aggressive emotional style leads to academic under-achievement; it is also possible that underachievement may lead to emotional problems.

Second, the study was carried out in a relatively small sample in Pakistan. A more diverse sample across the nation could cater for specific features of schooling, educational system, and traditions of instruction and the associations between adolescents' emotional styles and academic achievement may account for differences in other cultural environments.

Conclusion

Overall, the results revealed that low academic achievement is associated with increasing externalising behaviour problems and that high social self-esteem is related with higher academic achievement. Furthermore, the association between aggressive emotional style and academic achievement is partially mediated by social self-esteem. Thus, this finding is useful in supporting the argument for introducing interventions (perhaps raising social self- esteem) in school children to counter behavioural problems, thereby improving academic achievement.

References

Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

Arnold, D. H. (1997). Co-occurrence of externalising behaviour problems and emergent academic difficulties in young high-risk boys: A preliminary evaluation of patterns and mechanisms. Journal of Applied Developmental psychology, 18, 317-330.

Aunola, K., Stattin, H., and Nurmi, J. (2000). Adolescents achievement strategies, school, adjustment, and externalising and internalising problem behaviours. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 289-306.

Bardone, A. M., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., and Silva, P. A. (1996). Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 811-829.

Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Campbell, J. D., and Lavallee, L. F. (1993). Who am I? The role of self-concept confusion in understanding the behavior of people with low self-esteem. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem-the puzzle of low self-regard (pp. 13-20). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Carr, M., Borkowski, J. G., and Maxwell, S. E. (1991). Motivational components of under-achievement. Developmental Psychology, 27, 108-118.

Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., and Li, D. (1997). Relation between academic achievement and social adjustment: Evidence from Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 518-525.

Clarbour, J. (2001). Adolescents emotional behaviour: A psychometric and experimental study (PhD Dissertation). Department of Psychology, University of York, UK.

Clarbour, J., and Roger, D. (1999, September). The role of social anxiety, malevolent aggression, and social self-esteem in adolescent emotional behaviour. Paper presented at the annual conference of the British Psychological Society Division of Developmental Psychology, Nottingham University.

Clarbour, J., and Roger, D. (2000). Play intervention. Northallerton: The Department of Health Studies.

Clarbour, J., and Roger, D. (2004). The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring emotional response style in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 496-509.

Clarbour, J., Roger, D., Miles, J., and Monaghan, R (2009). Individual differences in young offenders emotional behaviour. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 14, 227-240.

Cole, D. A., Martin, J. M., and Powers, B. (1997). A competency- based model of child depression: A longitudinal study of peers, parents, teachers and self-evaluations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 505-514.

Cole, D. A., Martin, J. M., Powers, B., and Truglio, R. (1996). Modeling causal relations between academic and social competence and depression: A multitrait-multimethod longitudinal study of children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 258-270.

Deater-Deckard, K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 565-579.

Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., and Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with anti-social peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172-180.

Dweck, C. S., and Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.

Frick, P. J., Kamphaus, R. W., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Christ, M. A. G., Hart, E. L.,....Tannenbaum, L. E. (1991). Academic underachievement and the disruptive behaviour disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 289-294.

Gold, M. (1978). Scholastic experiences, self-esteem and delinquent behaviour: A theory of alternative schools. Crime and Delinque- ncy, 24(3), 290-308.

Goldman, W. (2009). Depression in children. Retrieved from http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/welcome/conditions/depress ion.html.

Gottfried, A. E. (1985). Academic intrinsic motivation in elementary and junior high school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 631-645.

Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for childr-en. Denver, CO: University of Denver.

Harter, S. (1990). Self and identity development. In S. S. Feldman and G. R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: Developing adolescent (pp. 352-287). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalising behaviour problems and academic under-achievement in childhood and adolescence: Causal relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127-155.

Houlston, C., and Smith, P. K. (2009). The impact of a peer counselling scheme to address bullying in an all-girl London secondary school: A short-term longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 69-86.

Hussain, S. A. (2009). A review of global issues and prevalence of child mental health problems: Where does CAMH stand in Pakistan? Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society, 6, 1-5.

Karim, S., Saeed, K., Rana, M. H., Mubbashar, M. H., and Jenkins, R. (2004). Pakistan mental health country profile. International Review of Psychiatry, 16, 83-92.

Khalid, M. (2003). The relationship of personality factors and academic achievement in Pakistan (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Institute of Professional Psychology, Bahria University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Kovacs, M., and Devlin, B. (1998). Internalising disorders in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(1), 47-63.

Lane, K. L. (2007). Identifying and supporting students at risk for emotional and behavioural disorders within multi-level models: Data driven approaches to conducting secondary interventions with an academic emphasis. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 135-164.

Lane, K. L., Carter, E. W., Pierson, M. R., and Glaeser, B. C. (2006). Academic, social, and behavioural characteristics of high school students with emotional disturbances or learning disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioural Disorders, 14(2), 108-117.

Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., and O'Shaughnessy, T. E. (2002). Serving students with or at-risk for emotional and behaviour disorder: Future challenges. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 507-521.

Lau, S., and Leung, K. (1992). Relations with parents and school and Chinese adolescents self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 193-202.

Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradovic, J., Riley, J.,...Tellegen, A. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalising and internalising symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733-746.

Maughan, B., Rowe, R., Loeber, R., and Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2003). Reading problems and depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 219-229.

McLeod, J. D., and Kaiser, K. (2004). Childhood emotional and behavioural problems and educational attainment. American Sociological Review, 69, 636-658.

Midgely, C., Arunkumar, R., and Urdan, T. C. (1996). "If I don't do well tomorrow, there's a reason": Predictors of adolescents use of academic self-handicapping strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 423-434.

Ozer, E. M., Zahnd, E., Adams, S., Husting, S., Wibbelsman, C., Norman, K., Smiga, S. (2009). Are adolescents being screened for emotional distress in primary care? Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 520-527.

Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., and Dishion, T. J. (1992). A social interactional approach: Antisocial boy (Vol. 4). Eugene, OR: Castalia.

Prior, M., Virasinghe, S., and Smart, D. (2005). Behavioural problems in Sri Lankan school children: Association with socio- economic status, age, gender, academic progress, ethnicity and religion. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 654-662.

Robinson, W. P., and Tayler, C. A. (1989). Correlates of low academic attainment in three countries. International Journal of Educational Research, 13, 581-594.

Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., and Sameroff, A. J. (2000). School as a context of early adolescents' academic and social-emotional development: A summary of research findings. The Elementary School Journal, 100, 443-471.

Roeser, R. W., Van der Wolf, K., and Strobel, K. R. (2001). On the relation between social-emotional and school functioning during early adolescence: Preliminary findings from Dutch and American samples. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 111-139.

Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., and Schoenbach, C. (1989). Self-esteem and adolescent problems: Modelling reciprocal effects. American Sociological Review, 54, 1004-1018.

Samad, L., Hollis, C., Prince, M., and Goodman, R. (2005). Child and adolescent psychopathology in a developing country: Testing the validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Urdu version). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 14, 158-166.

Shiner, R., and Caspi, A. (2003). Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: Measurement, development, and consequence. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 44, 2-32.

Simpson, R. L., Patterson, R. L., and Smith, C. R. (2011). Critical educational program components for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Science, policy, and practice. Remedial and Special Education, 32, 230-242.

Soomro, N. H. (2010). Externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems in Pakistani adolescents (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Department of Psychology, University of York. Soomro, N. H., and Clarbour, J. (2009, December). Emotional and behavioural problems of Pakistani adolescents. Conference proceedings of the annual conference of the British Psychological Society, Division of Clinical Psychology, London.

Soomro, N. H., and Clarbour, J. (2010, May). Internalising and externalising behaviour problems in Pakistani adolescents. Paper presented at fourth World Congress of the Auburn Placer Performing Arts Center, Athens, Greece.

Stewart, S. M., and Bond, M. H. (2002). A critical look at parenting research from the mainstream: Problems uncovered while adapting Western research to non-Western culture. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 339-379.

Stone, W. I., and LaGreca, A. M. (1990). The social status of children with learning disabilities: A re-examination. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 32-37.

Strahan, E. Y. (2003). The effects of social anxiety and social skills on academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 247-266.

Syed, E. U., Hussein, S. A., and Mahmud, S. (2007). Screening of emotional and behavioural problems amongst 5-11 year old school children in Karachi, Pakistan. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 42, 421-427.

Trout, A. L., Nordness, P. D., Pierce, C. D., and Epstein, M. H. (2003). Research on the academic status of children with emotional and behavioural disorders: A review of the liter- ature from 1961 to 2000. Journal of Emotional and Behavioural Disorders, 11, 198-210.

Department of Psychology, University of York, USA, Nazar Hussain Soomro and Jane Clarbour, Department of Psychology, University of York, USA., Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nazar Hussain Soomro, Department of Psychology, University of York, USA. E-mail: nazar.soomro@gmail.com
COPYRIGHT 2012 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2012
Words:4344
Previous Article:Students' attitude towards Science: a case of Pakistan.
Next Article:Leadership styles as predictors of innovative work behavior.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters