Elemental composition of incisors in Nova Scotia moose: evaluation of a population with abnormal incisor breakage.
Key words: Alees alces, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, gallium, incisor, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, lead, moose, Nova Scotia, strontium, teeth, trace elements, yttrium
The role that major and trace elements play in the metabolism of organisms has been the focus of intense, well-documented research (Underwood 1977, Prasad 1993, Underwood and Suttle 1999, Bogden and Klevay 2000). Disease may result from either a toxic or a deficient dietary intake of elements, and is often a reflection of geo-environmental factors (Maisironi 2000). Teeth are good indicators of the abundance of many elements (Brown et al. 2004, Kang et al. 2004, Dolphin et al. 2005) due to the crystal structure of enamel (Sharaway and Yeager 1991, Simmelink 1994). Major and trace elements are incorporated within the hydroxyapatite crystal framework during the mineralization period (Sharaway and Yeager 1991, Simmelink 1994) and, due to the semi-permeable nature of hydroxyapatite, small ions and molecules are able to pass through the enamel framework preceding eruption (Cutress 1983). Therefore, to an extent, teeth remain in chemical equilibrium with the oral environment (Zimmerman 1976, Driessens 1982).
Strength and solubility of enamel is influenced by the concentration of major and trace elements (Zimmerman 1976), which is affected by various factors such as normal wear, food composition, and regional geochemistry (Cutress 1983). Therefore teeth are an excellent bio-indicator of local environmental conditions (Lee et al. 1999, Lochner et al. 1999, Gdula-Argasinska et al. 2004). This is especially true for non-migratory ruminant herbivores such as moose (Alces alces) that obtain their entire dietary mineral intake from distinct regional geological localities (Cederlund and Okarma 1988, Lepitch and Gilbert 1989, Hundertmark 1998).
Observations of physical and behavioral anomalies suggest that the moose population is stressed in the Cape Breton Highlands (A. a. andersoni) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Wildlife authorities have observed osteophagia (Roger and Nette 2002), an increased incidence of bark stripping, and tooth breakage (Fig. 1) in Cape Breton Highlands moose where densities are high and heavy browsing of preferred vegetation is evident. Distinct browse lines 2-3 meters off the ground extend several kilometers through the forest (Basquill and Thompson 1997).
The only previously reported case of incisor breakage was in a moose (A. a. gigas) population on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Smith (1992) documented 'incisiform breakage' over a 2-year period (1988-1990), which closely resembles the breakage observed in Cape Breton Highlands moose. The breakage observed in the Cape Breton Highlands is markedly different from the tooth wear frequently reported in other ungulate species (Hewison et al. 1999, Loe et al. 2003). It also differs from the incisiform wear reported in Kenai Peninsula moose by Peterson et al. (1982), and the unusual wear described by Young and Many (1986) in a Manitoban moose population. The distinctive incisor breakage begins as a brown stained crack on the tooth surface (Fig. 1) that is a precursor to breakage. Where breakage has occurred, the tooth is subsequently rounded down and stained brown. This rounded, staining characteristic is important because it indicates that breakage occurred during the lifetime and not at, or after, death.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether concentrations of major and trace elements in incisors might explain breakage. To do this we compared trace element concentrations of teeth from Cape Breton Highlands moose to those of a control population on mainland Nova Scotia (A. a. americana) without evidence of abnormal incisor breakage.
The Highlands region is located in northern Cape Breton Island, in northeastern Nova Scotia, and covers an area of approximately 3,900 [km.sup.2]. The area is a characteristic boreal region (Pulsifer and Nette 1995) with a peak elevation of approximately 535 m above sea level (Canada: National and Historic Parks Branch 1970). Approximately 1,600 mm of precipitation is recorded annually, with > 400 cm falling as snow, resulting in snow pack that lasts 181-212 days (Phillips 1990).
The control area was the Tobeatic Wilderness Area, which is a characteristic Acadian Forest Region (Farrier et al. 1991). The area receives approximately 1,400 mm of precipitation annually, with 150-200 cm falling as snow, resulting in a snow pack that lasts 110-140 days (Phillips 1990).
In the Cape Breton Highlands, incisor samples were obtained from hunters during the 2001 hunting season from management zones immediately north and south of Cape Breton Highlands National Park (Fig. 2). In the Tobeatic Wilderness area in southwestern Nova Scotia, incisors were obtained by the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources (NSDNR) from accidental kills, illegal kills, and live extraction when collaring animals as part of ongoing studies (Fig. 2).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Based on the work of Smith (1992), Nette and Power (NSDNR 1999) devised a 3-level classification system for categorizing the degree of incisor breakage used in this study: slight--indicates < 30% of tooth material missing from the incisal surface; moderate--indicates 30-60% of tooth material missing from the incisal surface; and severe--indicates > 60% of tooth material missing from the incisal surface. Individual I1s were used to determine age from cementum annuli measurements (Matson 1981).
The concentrations of 37 elements and the 14 rare earth elements (REE) were determined from the I2s. The REE comprising the lanthanide series were summed and considered as one element (Brown et al. 2000). The root was separated from the crown with a Buhler Isomet low speed saw with a diamond tip blade. Crowns were crushed with a percussion cutter and enamel fragments were retrieved under a binocular microscope using a fine tipped paintbrush. Enamel was reduced to a fine powder using an agate mortar and pestle with ethanol as a lubricant. An ultrasound bath filled with distilled water was used to clean the agate mortar pestle between samples to prevent cross-contamination. Enamel was placed in drying dishes and dried at room temperature for 3-5 hours, recovered, and placed into labeled vials. Samples were sent to Geo Labs laboratory (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and analyzed for element content using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Two-sample t-tests were used to compare element concentrations of the two populations. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between age and breakage score (Sokal and Rohlf 1995) using 46 I2s collected during the 2001 hunting season. Age/breakage data compiled between 1996-2002 (NSDNR 2002) were analyzed using Chi-square analysis to test for significant differences in frequency of breakage between the I1s and I2s. Statistical significance was set at a = 0.05.
There was a positive relationship between incisor breakage and age in Cape Breton Highlands moose (BREAKAGE SCORE = 1.28 + 0.158 AGE, P< 0.05, [R.sup.2] = 0.203). The I1 had a higher frequency of breakage than the 12 ([chi square] = 189.7, P < 0.001, df = 1). The frequency of breakage of I1 was 2-3x that of 12 at > 2.5 years old and 2 out of 3 moose had a broken I1 after 4.5 years. Breakage of I1 in moose > 3.5 years old was > 50% and more than doubled from 3.5 to 5,5 years old. Breakage of I2 was < 30% in moose < 6.5 years old (Table 1).
Relative to the control population in southwest Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Highlands moose had lower (P < 0.051) concentrations of barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr), tin (Sn), and yttrium (Y), and higher concentration of gallium (Ga) in the enamel of their teeth (Table 2). Largest absolute differences occurred in Cd, Co, Pb, Sn, Sr, and Y. Although not different, relatively large absolute differences were found in chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and vanadium (V) (Table 2).
Breakage type and trends measured in Cape Breton Highland moose were similar to results from Alaskan moose that indicated that breakage severity increased with age, and breakage severity was greater in I1 s than I2s (Smith 1992). There were no differences in elemental concentrations of 40 teeth collected from the Seward Peninsula and 20 teeth from a control population near Galena, Alaska (Smith 1992). The results for their microbeam analysis were not presented, therefore, comparisons between Nova Scotia and Alaska moose were not possible. Because of inter specific variation in mineral requirements, diagnosis of problems related to elemental deficiency/toxicity is not possible without species-specific information (Underwood and Suttle 1999).
However, the lower concentrations of Ba, Be, Co, Sr, and Y within the Cape Breton Highlands population are consistent with previous studies that concluded that a reduction of these elements may result in higher enamel solubility and compromised strength that lead to dental disease (Bibby and Losee 1970, Curzon 1983a, b, c, d). Barium, Be, Co, and Sr depletion result in depressed growth, reduced calcification of bones and teeth, and even evidence of hypoplasia within erythrogenic tissue and bone marrow (Underwood 1971, Curzon 1983a, d). Strontium may also share a synergistic relationship with fluoride that results in retardation of apatite dissolution (Curzon 1983d).
The effects that deficient/toxic concentrations of Cd, Ga, Pb, and Sn may have on enamel strength and solubility are unclear (Curzon 1983c, Stack 1983a, b), although Sn may inhibit the dissolution of enamel via acid neutralization within the oral environment (Curzon 1983c). Knowledge of essential vitamins and minerals within the diet of moose is limited (Schwartz and Renecker 1998). Frank et al. (2004) examined elemental concentrations from various tissues of Nova Scotia moose and found that Tobeatic moose displayed unusually high levels of Cd within kidney tissue as compared to Cape Breton Highlands moose; Cd concentration in enamel was also high in Tobeatic moose (Table 2). They also found that both Tobeatic and Cape Breton Highland moose had lower Co concentrations than Swedish and Alaskan moose. These data and the low concentration value of Co in the Cape Breton Highlands population (Table 2) suggest that Nova Scotia populations may suffer a Co deficiency.
Though not different, it is important to note that the relative concentrations of Cr, Fe, and V were low, and magnesium (Mg) high in the Cape Breton Highlands population (Table 2). With the exception of Mg, these results were not surprising because geochemical properties of elements are reflected by their position within the periodic table (Albarede 2003). Elements of the same group would be expected to have similar, relative availability within the environment. Cadmium, Fe, and V are all grouped in the transition metals of the periodic table with Cd, Co, and Y that had lower concentration in the Cape Breton Highlands population. However the alkaline--earth metal Mg has a higher concentration in the Cape Breton Highlands population than the Tobeatic population, unlike the other alkaline earth metals (Ba, Be, and Sr). The reason for this is unclear, however it may be a result of isobaric interference during the ICP-MS analysis, which is a common issue with biological applications (Taylor et al. 2005).
Mineral deficiency appears to be the underlying cause for the incisor breakage observed in the Cape Breton High lands moose population. Osteophagia is generally considered to occur within ruminant species as a result of phosphorous deficiency (Bowyer 1983, Barrette 1985, Denton et al. 1986). Bark stripping by moose is generally considered to be a sign of starvation (Renecker and Schwartz 1998), and heavily browsed plants generally contain less nutritive value for moose (Schwartz and Renecker 1998). It is important for moose to consume a wide variety of plant species, or they may risk toxic/deficient mineral nutrition (Ohlson and Staaland 2001).
Whether tooth breakage is a result of osteophagia or bark stripping, or even a combination of the two, is unclear. However, these phenomena have been well documented in other ungulate species (Bowyer 1983, Barrette 1985, Denton et al. 1986, Duthie and Skinner 1986, Kierdorf 1994, Baker et al. 1997, Yokoyama et al. 2001, Ueda et al. 2002) with no reports of breakage similar to that observed in Cape Breton Highlands moose.
It was interesting that teeth from the control area were consistently richer in tin by one order of magnitude, which probably reflects differences in bedrock geology. Southwestern Nova Scotia contains significant (formerly economic) deposits of tin and the glacial deposits and soils are locally enriched with this and other elements common in granitoid intrusive rocks. This correlation of enamel geochemistry and bedrock geology may have valuable forensic usefulness.
Continued use of a broken incisor results in the incisal surface becoming rounded (Fig. 1) and this probably reduces foraging efficiency. The gradual degradation of teeth likely has negative implications for the overall health and vitality of individual moose. To determine tile influence of incisor breakage on population dynamics, it would be necessary to compare the mortality rate of older age classes and population age structure of several moose populations. We suggest that research on incisor breakage in the Cape Breton Highlands moose continue and be supplemented with more control samples from other populations.
We would like to thank Vince Power (NSDNR) for supplying hunting data, frequency and breakage data, and photos of moose mandibles. Alexander (Sandy) Grist trained MC in sample preparation techniques in the Fission Track Research Laboratory of Dalhousie University. During its early stages this study benefited from valuable contributions by Prof. Milton Graves, Phil Casey and BSc. Honours thesis by Vanessa Walsh. We acknowledge funding from the NSDNR Wildlife Division and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) through Discovery grants to MZ and HGB. We are thankful for the suggestions of two anonymous reviewers, which considerably improved the manuscript.
ALBAREDE, F. 2003. Geochemistry: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
BAKER, W. L., J. A. MUNROE, and A. E. HESSL. 1997. The effects of elk on aspen in the winter range in Rocky Mountain National Park. Ecography 20:155-165.
BARRETTE, C. 1985. Antler eating and antler growth in wild axis deer. Mammalia 49: 492-499.
BASQUILL, S., and R. THOMPSON. 1997. Moose (Alces alces) browse availability and utilization in Cape Breton Highlands National Park. Parks Canada Report 010. Parks Canada, Atlantic Region, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
BIBBY, B. G., and F. L. LOSEE. 1970. Environmental factors and dental disease, Eastman Dental Center, Rochester, New York, USA.
BOGDEN, J. D., and L. M. KLEVAY, editors. 2000. Clinical Nutrition of the Essential Trace Elements and Minerals. The Guide for Health Professionals. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, USA.
BOWYER, R. T. 1983. Osteophagia and antler breakage among Roosevelt elk. California Fish and Game 69: 84-88.
BROWN, C. J., S. R. N. CHENERY, B. SMITH, C. MASON, A. TOMKINS, G. J. ROBERTS, L. SSERUNJOGI, and J. V. TIBERINDWA. 2004. Environmental influences on the trace element content of teeth - implications for disease and nutritional status. Archives of Oral Biology 49: 705-717.
BROWN, T. L., H. E. LEMAY, and B. E. BURSTEN. 2000. Chemistry: The Central Science. Eighth edition. Prentice Hall Incorporated, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.
CANADA NATIONAL AND HISTORIC PARKS BRANCH. 1970. Cape Breton Highlands National Park provisional master plan. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
CEDERLUND, G. N., and H. OKARMA. 1988. Home range and habitat use of adult female moose. Journal of Wildlife Management 52: 341-343.
CURZON, M. E. J. 1983a. Barium. Pages 305-310 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. John Wright. PSG, Littleton, Massachusetts, USA.
--. 1983b. Other essential trace elements. Pages 267-282 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. John Wright. PSG, Littleton, Massachusetts, USA.
--. 1983c. Other nonessential trace elements. Pages 339-356 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. Jolm Wright. PSG, Littleton, Massachusetts, USA.
--. 1983d. Strontium. Pages 283-304 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. John Wright. PSG, Littleton, Massachusetts, USA.
CUTRESS, T. W. 1983. Teeth, calculus, and bone. Pages 33-106 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. John Wright. PSG, Littleton, Massachusetts, USA.
DENTON, D. A., J. R. BLAIR-WEST, M. J. McKINLEY, and J. F. NELSON. 1986. Physiological analysis of bone appetite (Osteophagia). Bioessays 4.
DOLPHIN, A. E., A. H. GOODMAN, and D. D. AMARASIRIWARDENA. 2005. Variation in elemental intensities among teeth and between pre- and postnatal regions of enamel. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128: 878-888.
DRIESSENS, F. C. M., editor. 1982. Mineral Aspects of Dentistry. Volume 10. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.
DUTHIE, A. G., and J. D. SKINNER. 1986. Osteophagia in the Cape porcupine Hystrix afkicaeaustralis. South African Journal of Zoology 21: 316-318.
FARRIER, R., C. DRYSDALE, and G. KENNEY. 1991. Kejimkujik National Park seaside adjunct. Resource description and analysis. Parks Canada, Atlantic Region, Maitland Bridge, Nova Scotia, Canada.
FRANK, A., J. MCPARTLIN, and R. DANIELSSON. 2004. Nova Scotia moose mystery --a moose sickness related to cobalt- and vitamin B-12 deficiency. Science of the Total Environment 318: 89-100.
GDULA-ARGASINSKA, J., J. APPLETON, K. SAWICKA-KAPUSTA, and B. SPENCE. 2004. Further investigation of the heavy metal content of the teeth of the bank vole as an exposure indicator of environmental pollution in Poland. Environmental Pollution 131: 71-79.
HEWISON, A. J. M., J. P. VINCENT, J. M. ANGIBAULT, D. DELORME, G. VAN LAERE, and J. M. GAILLARD. 1999. Tests of estimation of age from tooth wear on roe deer of known age: Variation within and among populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 58-67.
HUNDERTMARK, K. J. 1998. Home range, dispersal and migration. Pages 303-336 in A. W. Franzman and C. C. Schwartz, editors. Ecology and Management of the North American Moose. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
KANG, D., D. AMARASIRIWARDENA, and A. H. GOODMAN. 2004. Application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate trace metal spatial distributions in human tooth enamel and dentine growth layers and pulp. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 378: 1608-1615.
KIERDORF, U. 1994. Fork formation and other signs of osteophagia on long bone swallowed by a red deer stag (Cervus elaphus). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 3: 37-40.
LEE, K. M., J. APPLETON, M. COOKE, E KEENAN, and K. SAWICKA-KAPUSTA. 1999. Use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to provide element versus time profiles in teeth. Analytica Chimica Acta 395:179-185.
LEPITCH, D. J., and J. R. GILBERT. 1989. Summer home range and habitat use by moose in Northern Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 880-885.
LOCHNER, F., J. APPLETON, F. KEENAN, and M. COOKE. 1999. Multi-element profiling of human deciduous teeth by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 401: 299-306.
LOE, L. E., A. MYSTERUD, R. LANGVATN, and N. C. STENSETH. 2003. Decelerating and sex-dependent tooth wear in Norwegian red deer. Oecologia 135: 346-353.
MAISIRONI, R. 2000. The epidemiology of trace element deficiencies. Pages 91-97 in J. D. Bogden and L. M. Klevay, editors. Clinical Nutrition of the Essential Trace Elements and Minerals. The Guide for Health Professionals. Humana Press, Tetowa, New Jersey, USA.
MATSON, G. M. 1981. Workbook for Cementum Analysis. Matson's, Milltown, Montana, USA.
(NSDNR) NOVA SCOTIA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 1999. Unpublished Reports and Tables. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources - Wildlife Division, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada.
--. 2002. Unpublished Reports and Tables. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources--Wildlife Division, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada.
OHLSON, M., and H. STAALAND. 2001. Mineral diversity in wild plants: benefits and bane for moose. Oikos 94: 442-454.
PETERSON, R. O., J. M. SCHEIDLER, and P. W. STEPHENS. 1982. Selected skeletal morphology and pathology of moose from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and Isle Royale, Michigan. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 2812-2817.
PHILLIPS, D. W. 1990. The Climates of Canada. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
PRASAD, A. S., editor. 1993. Essential and Toxic Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease: An Update. Wiley-Liss Incorporated, New York, New York, USA.
PULSIFER, M. D., and T. NETTE. 1995. History, status and present distribution of moose in Nova Scotia. Alces 31: 209-219.
RENECKER, L. A., and C. C. SCHWARTZ. 1998. Food habits and feeding behavior. Pages 403-440 in A. W. Franzmann and C. C. Schwartz, editors. Ecology and Management of the North American Moose. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
ROGER, E., and T. NETTE. 2002. Osteophagia among moose of Cape Breton Highlands. Moose Call 14.
SCHWARTZ, C. C., and L. A. RENECKER. 1998. Nutrition and energetics. Pages 441-478 in A. W. Franzmann and C. C. Schwartz, editors. Ecology and Management of the North American Moose. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
SHARAWAY, M., and J. A. YEAGER. 1991. Enamel. Pages 49-105 in S. N. Bhaskar, editor. Orban's Oral Histology and Embryology. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
SIMMELINK, J. W. 1994. Histology of enamel. Pages 228-241 in J. K. Avery, editor. Oral Development and Histology. Thieme Medical Publishers Incorporated, New York, New York, USA.
SMITH, T. E. 1992. Incidence of incisiform tooth breakage among moose from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA. Alces Supplement 1: 207-212.
SOKAL, R. R., and F. J. ROHLF. 1995. Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. Third edition. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, New York, USA.
STACK, M. V. 1983a. Cadmium. Pages 387-400 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. John Wright. PSG, Littleton, Massachusetts, USA.
--. 1983b. Lead. Pages 357-286 in M. E. J. Curzon and T. W. Cutress, editors. Trace Elements and Dental Disease. John Wright. PSG, Littleton, Masschusetts, USA.
TAYLOR, A., S. BRANCH, D. HALLS, M. PATRIARCA, and M. WHITE. 2005. Atomic spectrometry update. Clinical and biological materials, foods and beverages. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 20: 323-369.
UEDA, H., S. TAKATSUKI, and Y. TAKAHASHI. 2002. Bark stripping of hinoki cypress by sika deer in relation to snow cover and food availability on Mt Takahara, central Japan. Ecological Research 17:545-551.
UNDERWOOD, E. J. 1971. Trace Elements in Animal and Human Nutrition. Third edition. Academic Press Incorporated, New York, New York, USA.
--. 1977. Trace Elements in Animal mad Human Nutrition. Fourth edition. Academic Press Incorporated, New York, New York, USA.
__, and N. F. SUTTLE. 1999. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Third edition. CABI Publishing, New York, New York, USA.
YOKOYAMA, N., MAEJI, T. UEDA, M. ANDO, and E. SHIBATA. 2001. Impact of bark stripping by sika deer, Cervus nippon, on subalpine coniferous forests in central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 140: 93-99.
YOUNG, W. G., and T. M. MARTY. 1986. Wear and microwear on the teeth of a moose (Alces alces) population in Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 2467-2479.
ZIMMERMAN, S. 1976. Physicochemical properties of enamel and dentine. Pages 112-133 in E. P. Lazzari, editor. Dental Biochemistry. Lea & Feiger, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Michael Clough (1,2), Marcos Zentilli (1), Hugh G. Broders (3), and Tony Nette (4)
(1) Department of Earth Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4J1 ; (3) Department of Biology, St. Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 3C3, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; (4) Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Division, Kentville, NS, Canada B4N 4E5
(2) present address: Department of Biology, St. Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 3C3
Table 1. Sample size, age, and frequency of incisor breakage of harvested moose from the Cape Breton Highlands, 1999-2002 (NSDNR 2002). Age Incisor 1 Breakage frequency n (%) 1.5 210 2 (1.0%) 2.5 282 33 (11.7%) 3.5 299 299 (32.8%) 4.5 228 122 (53.5%) 5.5 118 86 (72.9%) [greater than or equal to] 6.5 148 (67.9%) Age Incisor 2 Breakage frequency n (%) 1.5 214 1 (0.5%) 2.5 287 8 (2.8%) 3.5 308 24 (7.8%) 4.5 232 49 (21.15) 5.5 120 32 (26.7%) [greater than or equal to] 6.5 220 71 (32.3%) Table 2. Element concentrations in tooth enamel from 2 moose populations in Nova Scotia, Canada. Concentrations are expressed in ppm (except Ca, which is expressed as weight percent). Bold numbers illustrate significant differences between means. Cape Breton Highlands, n = 20 Element Mean SE Range Ag 0.055 0.015 0.011-0.294 Al 65.3 18 12.9-329 As 4,842 0.22 3.870-4.212 Ba * 125.7 * 8.6 * 72.6-23.5 * Be * 0.015 * 0.002 * 0-0.034 * Bi 0.015 0.003 0.005-0.058 Ca (WT%) 34.8 0.4 30.8-38.5 Cd * 0.114 * 0.032 * 0.028-0.64 * Co * 0.017 * 0.015 * 0-0.297 * Cr 0.082 0.024 0-0.323 Cs 0.005 0.001 0.02-0.019 Cu 17.4 2.6 5.4-48.5 Fe 143.7 44 41.7-914 Ga * 0.207 * 0.007 * 0.144-0.267 * Hf 0.011 0.004 0-0.072 Li 1.031 0.17 0.270-3.16 Mg 3429 155 2640-4720 Mn 56.8 8.8 14.4-168 Mo 0.055 0.012 0.015-0.242 Nb 0.02 0.005 0.009-0.104 Pb * 0.805 * 0.077 * 0.330-1.88 * Rb 0.607 0.054 0.287-1.25 Sb 0.027 0.007 0.004-0.141 Sc 1.349 0.029 1.115-1.74 Si 173.2 26 62.2-552 Sn * 0.084 * 0.018 * 0.01-0.322 * Sr * 268.3 * 13 * 192-415 * Ta 0.001 0.000 0-0.008 Th 0.004 0.001 0-0.018 Ti 88.60 4.70 70- 153 T1 0.008 0.001 0.005-0.015 U 0.003 0.001 0.001-0.015 V 0.387 0.045 0.168-0.982 W 7.61 1.7 0.99-20.8 Y * 0.062 * 0.009 * 0.03-0.19 * Zn 54.7 3.3 37.9-85.9 Zr 0.456 0.19 0.027-3.35 REE 0.301 0.1 0.076-2.196 Mainland (control) population, n = 4 Element Mean SE Range Ag 0.063 0.012 0.038-0.089 Al 72.5 8.4 59.9-95.8 As 5.685 0.58 4.71-7.37 Ba * 180.5 * 6.7 * 171-200 * Be * 0.029 * 0.01 * 0-0.045 * Bi 0.024 0.006 0.017-0.041 Ca (WT%) 35.2 0.7 33.9-37.2 Cd * 0.363 * 0.12 * 0.201-0.717 * Co * 0.824 * 0.31 * 0-1.15 * Cr 0.18 0.065 0.096-0.37 Cs 0.008 0.001 0.006-0.001 Cu 24.3 2.2 18-28.7 Fe 308 111 176-639 Ga * 0.169 * 0.009 * 0.144-0.182 * Hf 0.017 0.014 0.001-0.060 Li 1.216 21 0.902-1.81 Mg 2767.5 86 2590-2960 Mn 34.5 11 14.7-65 Mo 0.061 0.006 0.047-0.076 Nb 0.02 0.002 0.015-0.023 Pb * 1.935 * 0.49 * 1.06-3.30 * Rb 0.847 0.053 0.689-0.926 Sb 0.026 0.009 0.007-0.048 Sc 1.425 0.027 1.37-1.48 Si 152 9.3 137-179 Sn * 0.343 * -1.16 * 0.151-0.744 * Sr * 518.5 * 22 * 474-564 * Ta 0.001 0.000 0-0.001 Th 0.009 0.003 0.004-0.018 Ti 84.6 6.3 70.9-97.9 T1 0.008 0.001 0.006-0.011 U 0.006 0.001 0.004-0.008 V 0.597 0.098 0.353-0.824 W 4.16 1.4 1.88-8.39 Y * 0.133 * 0.02 * 0.097-0.169 * Zn 64.6 5.6 53.6-80.3 Zr 0.865 0.8 0.027-0.084 REE 0.899 0.41 0.271-0.711 * Indicated significant differences between means.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Clough, Michael; Zentilli, Marcos; Broders, Hugh G.; Nette, Tony|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2006|
|Previous Article:||Habitat-based adaptive management at Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area.|
|Next Article:||Incisor tooth breakage, enamel defects, and periodontitis in a declining Alaskan moose population.|