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Electrical and mechanical properties of (PVA-CMC-PEG) blends.


Polymer blends are physical mixtures of two or more polymes with/without any chemical bonding between them (AL-Shaeban, B.H.M., 2007). The objective of Polymer blending is a practical one of achieving commercially viable products through either unique properties or lower cost than some other means might provide. The subject is vast and has been the focus of much work, both theoretical and experimental. Property of polymer blends is superior to those of component photopolymers. Blending technology also provides attractive opportunities for reusing and recycling of polymer wastes. Basically, there are three different types of blends depending on the miscibility: completely miscible blends, partially miscible blends and fully miscible blends.

2. Experimental:

2.1 Materials and Method:

The materials used in the study divided into basic (CMC) and additives (PEG and PVA) . The (PVA-CMC-PEG) blends were prepared by liquids mixing method, the appropriate concentrations of blends were (0.22 ,0.26, 0.3 ,0.34, 0.38. 0.42 g/mL)% are dissolved in (250mL) of distilled water under stirring with heat (50C[degrees]) for (45min.).

2.2 Electrical Conductivity meter:

Conductivity meter is a device manufactured by (DDS-307W) company, British, containing a connected cell from which the conductivity being calculated. The device has been calibrated to take measurements with distilled water and compared with Tables .The percentage error in the device was ([+ or -] 0.001).

2.3 Theoretical calculations:

The Molar Conductivity ([LAMBDA]) defined as the ratio between the electrical conductivity of solutions and the molar concentration of the same solution was given by the following equation (Feng, Y., et al, 2010):

[LAMBDA] = [sigma]/ [C.sub.m] (1)

Where ([C.sub.m]) is the molarity, in mole per volume. Degree of Dissociation (DD.) was calculated by the following equation (Hana, M., 1992):


Where ([[LAMBDA].sub.o]) is the extrapolation of molar conductivity to the infinity dilution and is obtained from the drawing relationship between the square root of the molar concentration and conductivity and the point of intersection of the curve with the (y) axis represented it. The value of ([LAMBDA]) is less than ([[LAMBDA].sub.o]) according to Estewaled law, where the (DD.) equals (one) for strong electrolyte and (zero) for weak.

2.4 Density and Ultrasonic measurements:

Ultrasonic measurements were made at constant frequency (f =25 KHz)) using pulse technique of sender-receiver type (SV-DH-7A/SVX-7) velocity of sound instrument).

2.5 Theoretical calculations:

The density of the solution ([rho]) was determind by the density bottle.

The ultrasonic wave velocity was calculated by the following equation:

V= X/t (3)

Where (t) is the time that the waves need to cross the samples (digital obtained from the instrument).

The absorption coefficient ([alpha]) was calculated from Lambert - Beer law (Martinez, R., et al., 2011):

[alpha] = - lnA/[A.sub.0]/X (4)

Where (Ao) is the initially amplitude of the sound waves, (A) is the wave amplitude after absorption and (x) is the thickness of the sample.

The specific acoustic impedance (Z) is a measurement of the material ability to transmit ultrasound, which is a useful concept in ultrasound. The acoustic impedance is the product of the density ([rho]) of a material and the speed that sound travels through it (v) calculated by equation (Strohm, E.M., C. Michael, 2009):

Z = [rho] v (5)

Compressibility ([beta]) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change . It was calculated by the following equation (Kadham, A.J. and H.J. Kadham, 2011):

[beta] = [([rho] [v.sup.2]).sup.-1] (6)

Bulk modulus (K) of a composite is the substance resistance to uniform compression, and it is defined as the pressure increased needed to decrease the volume; it was calculated by Laplace equation where ([rho]) is the density (Roy, S., et al., 2011):

K= [rho] [v.sup.2] (7)


3.1 Electrical Properties:

The (Fig. 1) shows that the electrical conductivity of polymers blend, used in this work, are linearly increasing with the increase of the polymers concentration. Because increasing the number of ions and free electrons on a regular basis and that leads to an increase in the electric polarization of the solution, therefore increase the electrical conductivity, and this agreed with (Al-Bermany, A.K.J., 1995).


The molar conductivity for polymers blends was calculated by using equation (1) as shown in (Fig.2) .The result showed that the molar conductivity of blends decreased with increasing the square root of concentration, and the reason for this was due to the diluted solutions that did not cause any interaction among molecules and the electrostatic repulsion between particles that was generated led to a decrease in bonding molecular between polymer molecules and the solvent, which led to an increasing in the dimensions of the polymer and consequently to slow down the movement of ions .This did not happen in high concentrations, and this agreed with (Feng, Y.F., et al., 2010).


The degree of dissociation of the blends was calculated by using equation (2) as shown in (Fig. 3). That dissociation values of the blends decreased with increasing the concentrations and the reason for that was due to the law of Ostwald (stating that the degree of dissociation of the electrolyte increased with the degree of dilution of the solutions), and this agreed with (Abbas, R.H., 2006).


3.2 Mechanical properties:

A useful method of studying mechanical properties of liquids was based on ultrasound. Density is a physical property of matter that expressed a ratio of mass to volume. (Fig. 4) shows that increasing the density values increased concentration of (PVA-CMC-PEG) and this was because the increase in the mass of the solution and the swelling made in the polymer chains as a result of soluble in distilled water and in particular polymers of higher molecular weight, and this agreed with (Al-Bermany, A.K.J., 2013).


The ultrasonic velocity was calculated by using equation (3) and the results are shown in (Fig. 5). The ultrasonic velocity remained constant as concentration of (PVA-CMC-PEG) increased due to the lack of interaction or entanglement between particles solute and solvent any lack of correlation, and this agreed with (AL-moussawi, A.H.K., 2015).


The ultrasonic absorption coefficient of ultrasonic waves for polymers blend solutions was calculated by using equation (4) as shown in (Fig. 6) .The result shows that the absorption coefficient of blend increased when concentration increased and this was because the absorption coefficient in perfectly depended on both molecular weight and concentration and also depended on the concentration of additive that happened among polymer chains, and this agreed with (Diaa, E., S. Hadi, A. Rasack, 2010).


Specific acoustic impedance shown in (Fig. 7) increased with concentrations attributed to the equation (5) has only one variable parameter which is velocity and density has very small variations with respect to that of velocity, and this agreed with (Jabbar, S.A., 2012).


(Fig. 8) shows the solutions compressibility which was calculated by using equation (6). The result shows that the compressibility values have a decrease with increasing concentration, and this agreed with (Hamad, S.H.N., 2014).

The values of the bulk modulus were calculated by using equation (7) and the results shown in (Fig. 9). The values of bulk modulus increased when concentrations increased, this was caused due to the decrease of compressibility after addition. It is expected to increase the modulus of elasticity due to the inverse relationship between them, and this agreed with (Hamad, S.H.N., 2014).




The results may be summarized as the following:

1. It is found through the study that these polymers showed a continuous change in their physical properties (electrical and mechanical) as a result of adding (PVA-PEG) to (CMC) as the (PVA-PEG) which led to the improvement of these properties.

2. The electrical conductivity for (PVA-CMC-PEG) blends increased with the increase of the concentration.

3. The addition of (PVA-PEG) of (CMC) led to improve the mechanical properties as the speed of ultrasound increased and thus it can be considered as a good blend for the transfer of ultrasound except compressibility where being decreased making this procedure applicable to be used in the external environment.


Article history:

Received 10 November 2015

Accepted 30 December 2015

Available online 18 January 2016


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(1) Raheem G. Kadhim, (2) Sanaa S. Najm, (1) Ahmed S. Hussein

(1) Department of Physics, College of Science ,University of Babylon, Iraq.

(2) Department of Science, College of Basic Education, University of Babylon, Iraq

Corresponding Author: S.Arumugom, Associate Professor, A.R. College of Engineering and Technology, Tamilnadu_627423, India.
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Author:Kadhim, Raheem G.; Najm, Sanaa S.; Hussein, Ahmed S.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2015
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