Printer Friendly

Efficacy of bio-control agents for the management of (Pyricularia grisea) blast disease of finger millet under field condition of Bastar, Chhattisgarh.

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaetn.) is commonly known as Ragi is one of the most important and largely grown small millet in India. It is widely consumed as the staple food in the rural community of Southern Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. It is an important group of rainfed and dry land field crop, also known as 'Nutricereals' in human dietary components. Even though, finger millet is known to be one of the hardiest crops, it is affected by good number of diseases such as blast, foot rot, smut, streak and mottling virus (Govindu and Shivanandappa 1967). Among these, blast is caused by Pyricularia grisea is the most devastating disease affecting different aerial parts of the plant at all stages of its growth starting from seedling to grain formation and considered as most destructive disease. Yield loss due to blast may be around 28 per cent (Vishwanath et al., 1997), but under favorable conditions it may go higher to 80-90 per cent. Sitther and Gananamanickan (1996)

reported effectiveness of six strains of fluorescent pseudomonas belonging to P. fluorescens and P. Putida for their ability to inhibit the Pyricularia grisea causing blast disease of finger millet.

Sompappa (1999) evaluated six biocontrol agents as seed applicants for the control of leaf blast and found that the per cent disease index at 45 DAS was least and were at par with Carbendazim, neck and finger blast were also controlled by above bio agents. In spite of a great deal of research on the pathogen and on the disease, blast still remains a serious constraint to Ragi production in areas with conducive environments where susceptible cultivars are grown. Since finger millet is predominantly grown as rain fed crop by small farmers, the disease management by chemical means is found to be effective. However, reliance on pesticides to manage disease and pest problems has aggravated environment decline and caused serious health effects on agricultural workers and rural communities. Pesticides residues also raise food safety concerns among domestic consumers and pose trade impediments for export crops.

It is in this context that bio control against i.e. Pseudomonas fluorescence, Trichoderma viride /harzianum have recently become the focus of research and resources in many countries. Scientists worldwide are now exploring sutable and effective bio control agents as among the strategies to achieved improved and sustainable crop production. In many Asian countries bio agent control technologist are now in various stages of development and utilization. Ramappa et al., (2002) obtained good control of finger blast by two sprays of P. fluorescens @ 3g/l. A talc powder based formulation of an antagonistic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (ABPf-1) isolated from the rhizosphere of rice plants in India was tested for its efficacy against Pyricularia grisea [Magnaporthe grisea]. Effectiveness of P. fluorescens as foliar spray in controlling the rice blast in field condition was reported by Hossain and Kulkarni (2001), Krishnamurthy and Gnanamanickam (1998) and Vidhyasekaran, et al., (1997) also reported the effectiveness of P. fluorescens. Ramappa, et al., (2002b and 2002c) obtained good control of Pyricularia grisea by two sprays of P. fluorescens @ 3g/ l causing blast disease of finger millet. For this reason, we evaluated different spray combination of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for their effectiveness against finger millet blast disease and their impact on yield under field conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The field experiments were conducted during the years 2009-10 and 2010-11 at Research Farm of SG College of Agriculture & Research Station, Jagdalpur, Bastar (Chhattisgarh, India). In vivo efficacy of bio-control agents i.e. Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 0.6% Trichoderma viride @ 1.0% and Trichoderma harzianum @ 1.0 % was tested for the control of blast disease of finger millet caused by Pyricularia grisea. The highly susceptible finger millet variety PR-202 was sown in 3 x 2 m2 plots followed recommended package of practices. The bio-agents were applied thrice as foliar spray first at the initiation of disease, second at 50% flowering and third spray was given after 10 days of second spray. Spray with water served as check.

Observations were recorded for leaf, neck and finger blast separately. Leaf blast severity was recorded on 0- 5 scale (Mackill and Bonman 1992). Whereas, neck blast and finger blast incidence was recorded by counting the number of infected panicles and fingers from total population (Mackill and Bonman 1992). Disease severity scoring for leaf blast was recorded at seedling and booting stage, whereas for neck blast and finger blast at the physiological maturity and at harvest. Further per cent disease index (PD I) for leaf blast was calculated (Dubey, 1995).The grain yield was recorded after harvesting of crop from individual plots. The per cent disease control was worked out using the formula given by Abbott's (1925).

Percentage reduction = C - T/C x 100, where, C is the population of control and T is the population of treated plots.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Efficacy of bio-control agents i.e. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum was evaluated in vivo for controlling blast disease of finger millet caused by Pyricularia grisea. The leaf blast severity was found to be significantly less in all treated plots over check. Among different spray combinations of bio-agents, three sprays of P. fluorescens (26.67%) was effective in controlling leaf blast severity followed by two spray of P. fluorescens (29.67%) and was at par with Ediphenphos (28.33%). Pooled mean data indicated that the maximum per cent disease control was recorded from three sprays of P fluorescens (fig. 1).

Three sprays of P. fluorescens (3.85%) was also having significantly lowest neck blast incidence and at par with Ediphenphos (3.85%) followed by two spray of P fluorescens (7.69%) during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Pooled mean data indicated that the maximum per cent disease control was recorded from above treatments (fig. 2).

Similarly lowest finger blast incidence of 21.20 per cent was recorded from three sprays of P. fluorescens (23.09%) followed by two spray of P fluorescens (23.10%) during 2009-10. Whereas finger blast incidence was significantly lowest in Ediphenphos (20.91%) and at par with three spray of P. fluorescens (21.58 %) during 2010-11. Two years pooled mean data indicated that the maximum of 81.43 per cent disease control was recorded from three sprays of P. fluorescens (fig. 3).

Data on grain yield recorded from various treatments indicated that the grain yield was significantly higher in three sprays of P. fluorescens (17.5 q/ha) followed by Ediphenphos (17.5 q/ha), three sprays of Trichoderma viride (15.56 q/ha) and three sprays of Trichoderma harzianum (13.75 q/ha) during 2009-10. Whereas, higher grain yield was recorded in Ediphenphos (23.75 q/ha) at par with three sprays of Trichoderma harzianum (22.08 q/ha) and three sprays of P fluorescens (21.39 q/ha) during 2010-11.The cost benefit ratio was also higher in three spray of P fluorescens, three sprays of Trichoderma harzianum and at par with Ediphenphos (fig. 4).

Ramappa et al., (2002) obtained good control by two sprays of P. fluorescens against Pyricularia grisea. Sitther and Gananamanickan (1996) reported the effectiveness of six strains of Pseudomonasfluorescens for their ability to inhibit the blast fungus. The application of bioagents in reducing the blast disease of finger was also reported by Senthil et al., (2012).

Kumar and Kumar (2011) reported that seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens (@ 0. 6. along with two sprays (@ 0.6% were significantly most effective in reducing blast disease of finger millet. Similar finding was reported by Patro, et.al. (2008) and Kumar (2011). Several other workers i.e. Krishnamurthy and Gnanamanickam 1998, Vidhyasekaran et al., 1997, and Ramappa et al., 2002 were also reported the effectives of P. fluorescens applied as foliar spray.

REFERENCES

(1.) Abbott's WS. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol., 1925; 18: 265-267.

(2.) Mackill DJ and Bonman JM. Inheritance of blast resistance in near- isogenic lines of rice. Phytopathol. 1992; 82: 746-749.

(3.) Patro TSSK, Rani C and Kumar GV. Pseudomonas fluorescens, a potential bioagents for the management of blast in Eleusine coracana. J. Mycol. and Plant Pathol., 2008; 38(2): 298-300.

(4.) Ramappa HK, Ravishankar CR and Prakash P 2002b. Screening of finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaerthn) promising genotypes against blast disease. In: Abstract Proceeding. IPS (SZ) Symposium. On Plant Disease Scenario in Southern India. pp. 13.

(5.) Ramappa HK, Ravishankar CR and Prakash P 2002c. Integrated management of blast disease of finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaerthn)In: Abstract Proceeding. IPS (SZ) Symposium. On Plant Disease Scenario in Southern India. pp. 14.

(6.) Ramappa HK, Ravishankar CR and Prakash P 2002. Estimation of yield loss and management of blast disease in finger millet (ragi). Proceeding of Asian Congress. Mycol.and Plant Pathol. Univ. Mysore. pp. 195.

(7.) Senthil R, Shnmugapackiam S and Raguchander T. Evaluation of biocontrol agents and Fungicides for the management of blast disease of finger millet. J. Mycol. and Plant Pathol, 2012; 42(4): 454-458.

(8.) Sitther V and Gnanamanickam SS. Biological control of blast disease of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) and analysis of fertility of Magnaporthe grisea. Curr. Sci., 1996; 71: 144-147.

(9.) Somappa KM. Mechanism of resistance and bio control of blast of ragi caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cke) Sacc. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis UAS, Bangalore.India. 1999; pp. 102.

(10.) Vidhyasekaran PR, Rabindran M, Muthamilan K, Nayar K, Rajappan N, Subramanian and Vasumathi K. Development of a powder formulation of pseudomonas fluorescens for control of rice blast. Plant Pathol., 1997; 46(3): 291-297.

(11.) Viswanath S, Lucy Channamaa KA and Mantur SG. Evaluation of African finger millet germplasm for resistance to blast disease. In : National Seminar On small millets current trends and future priorities as food, feed and in processing for value addition. TNAU, Coimbatore, 1997; pp. 76.

(12.) Govindu and Shivanandappa N. Studies on the epiphytotic ragi diseases in Mysore State. Mysore J. Agril. Sci. 1967; 1: 142-149.

(13.) Hossain MM and Kulkarni S. Field evaluation of fungicides, Neem, formulation and Biological agents against Blast of Rice. J. Maharashtra Agril. Univ., 2001; 26(2): 148-150.

(14.) Krishnamurthy K and Gnanamanickam SS. Biological control of rice blasts by Pseudomonas fluorescens pf 7-14. Evaluation of a marker gene and formulation. J. Biol. cont., 1998; 13(3): 158-160.

(15.) Dubey SC. Banded blight of finger millet caused by Thanatephorus cucumris. Indian J. Mycol. and Plant Pathol., 1995; 25: 315-16.

(16.) Kumar B and Kumar J. Management of blast disease of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) through fungicides, bioagents and varietal mixture. Indian Phytopathol., 2011; 64(3): 272-274.

(17.) Kumar B. Management of blast disease of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) in mid hills of Himalayas. Indian Phytopathol., 2011; 64(3): 272-274.

R. S. Netam, R.K.S. Tiwari [1], A.N. Bahadur [2], Prafull Kumar and S.C. Yadav

SG, College of agriculture and Research station (IGKV), Jagdalpur-494 001, Chhattisgarh.

[1] T.C.B. College of Agriculture (IGKVV), Bilaspur--495 001, Chhattisgarh, India.

[2] Govt. E. R. R. PG. Sc. Colleges, Bilaspur--495001, Chhattisgarh, India.

(Received: 13 January 2016; accepted: 19 April 2016)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: rnetam@rediffmail.com

Caption: Fig. 1. Efficacy of bio-control agents against leaf blast disease severity of finger millet caused by Pyricularia grisea

Caption: Fig. 2. Efficacy of bio-control agents against neck blast disease incidence of finger millet caused by Pyricularia grisea

Caption: Fig. 3. Efficacy of bio-control agents against finger blast disease incidence of finger millet caused by Pyricularia grisea

Caption: Fig. 4. Effect of bio-control agents on grain yield of finger millet finger
COPYRIGHT 2016 Oriental Scientific Publishing Company
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Netam, R.S.; Tiwari, R.K.S.; Bahadur, A.N.; Kumar, Prafull; Yadav, S.C.
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Sep 1, 2016
Words:1927
Previous Article:Symptomatology, electron microscopy and RT-PCR in detection of dolichos mosaic virus infecting field bean (Lablab purpureus L.).
Next Article:The assessment of rice husk biochar, carpet waste, FYM and PGPR on growth and yield of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters