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Effects on physicochemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream with fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal.

Introduction

Among all the known sources of dietary fats and oils, milk fat is regarded as the greatest source of potentially harmful atherogenic fatty acid. Milk fat is characterised with 3-5% unsaturated fatty acids, this usually does not have favourable impact (Mihailova, 2006). The concentration of atherogenic fatty acids can be significantly decreased; similarly, the concentration of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids can be considerably enhanced in milk and milk products (Sacks and Katan, 2002). The increased prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases has led the American people to side-step the milk and dairy products (Hansel et al., 2007). The American Heart Association guidelines (AHA, 2004) also direct the consumers to decrease the intake of atherogenic fatty acids. The correlation between cardiovascular disease and saturated fatty acids was discovered in 1970s, the medium chain fatty acids of milk fat (myrisitic, lauric and palmitic acid) has been correlated with hypercholesterolemia, which is regarded as a potential risk for cardiovascular disease (Honda et al, 2007; Jensen, 2002). In such a situation, milk and dairy products becomes the first choice of criticism by the medical professionals. Milk and dairy products with modified fatty acid composition have a lower atherogenic index (Poppitt et al, 2002). The popularity of dairy products can be resumed through the development of functional dairy products with lower atherogenic index and dietary cholesterol.

Studies evidenced that, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk can be efficiently increased through the manipulation of bovine feed with no effect on cholesterol (AbuGhazelah and Holmes, 2009). The research work has revealed that reduction of cholesterol from milk and milk products was most proficiently achieved by [beta]-cyclodextrin (Alonso et al, 2009; Kwak et al, 2002). Yoghurt is one of the main sources of useful lactic acid bacteria, essential fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and several bio-active compounds. The customer's perception about ice cream is shifting and evading tendency has been reflected (Marshall et al., 2003). Several studies have been performed on the reduction of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol from milk and dairy products, however, the combined effects of fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal on physicochemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream has not been reported previously.

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal on physical and chemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream prepared by milk.

Materials and Methods

Materials. Milk with modified fatty acid composition was obtained from an other study regarding the enhancement of unsaturated fatty acids in milk by feeding calcium salts of soybean oil to cows at 1% and 2% concentrations (Nadeem et al., 2013). The fatty acid composition of milk used in this study has been presented in Table 1. The chemicals were HPLC grade and purchased from Sigma, Aldrich, USA. Cream (40% fat) was treated with 2% and 4% [beta]-cyclodextrin (Kwak et al., 2002). Decholesterolised cream was used for the manufacturing of ice cream along with skim milk powder and other ingredients, for yoghurt manufacturing whole milk (fat 4.1%) was treated with 0.5% and 1% [beta]-cyclodextrin at 10[degrees]C for 30 min, followed by removal of [beta]-cholesterol through centrifugation (Alonso et al., 2009).

Treatments. Treatments of yoghurt were; (a) yoghurt from milk of cows fed on normal diet, (b) yoghurt from milk of cows fed on 1% calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids, (c) yoghurt from milk of cows fed on 2% calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids, (d) yoghurt from milk not treated with [beta]-cyclodextrin, (e) yoghurt from milk treated with 0.5% [beta]-cyclodextrin and (f) yoghurt from milk treated with 1% [beta]-cyclodextrin. Treatments of ice cream were; (a) ice cream from milk of cows fed on normal diet, (b) ice cream from milk of cows fed on 1% calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids,

(c) ice cream from milk of cows fed on 2% calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids, (d) ice cream from the cream which was not treated with [beta]-cyclodextrin, (e) ice cream from the cream treated with 2% [beta]-cyclodextrin and (f) ice cream from the cream treated with 4% [beta]-cyclodextrin.

Manufacturing of yoghurt and ice cream. Whole milk without any standardisation was used for the manufacturing of yoghurt using Strepotococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus starter culture (Abdullah et al., 2012). Ice cream was prepared according to the formulation prescribed by Potter and Hotchkiss (1998). Formulation of ice cream comprised of 13% sugar, 11% MSNF, 10% milk fat, 0.25% stabiliser and 0.25% emulsifier. Yoghurts and ice creams were filled in polypropylene cups and stored at 4 and -18[degrees]C for further study.

Analysis. The pH and syneresis were determined by following methods of Cueva and Aryana (2008). Cholesterol in yoghurt and ice cream was determined as per method of Rudel and Morris (1973). Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value was measured in accordance with the method described by Hekmat and McHamon (1997). Viscosity of ice cream mix was measured at 4[degrees]C by using the Brookfield DV-E viscometer (Ozer et al., 1999). Free fatty acids and peroxide value were determined by the standard method (AOCS, 1995). Overrun in ice cream was determined by following the method of Potter and Hotckiss (1998), melting time was measured as suggested by Gonzalez et al. (2003). Fat from yoghurt and ice cream was separated according to the standard method (AOAC, 1997). The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol was determined on HPLC. The extracted fat (0.2 g) was mixed with 2 mL hexane in 11 [micro]L screw capped test tube, vortexed at 2200 rpm for 30 sec, 25 [micro]L were injected into HPLC (Miford, MA; 715 Ultra WISP injector; 25 cm x 4.6 mm diameter 5 [micro]m Supelcosil LC-Si (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA). The mobile phase consisted of 0.5% ethyl acetate and 0.5% acetic acid in hexane with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol was expressed as [micro]g/g (Jang and Xu, 2009). Sensory evaluation of yoghurt and ice cream was performed by a trained panel of 10-judges on a 9 point scale (1-extremely poor and 9-excellent). Judges were selected on the basis of their experience and availability. Unsalted crackers and distilled water was provided in the individual sensory evaluation booths to rinse the palate (Larmond, 1987). All the treatments of yoghurt and ice cream were performed in triplicate and every sample was analysed three times. The data were expressed as Mean [+ or -] SD, analysed by using SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Treatments were subjected to Duncan's Multiple Range Test for the screening of significant difference (P < 0.05).

Results and Discussion

Physicochemical characteristics of yoghurt. The pH of the yoghurts was not influenced (P > 0.05) as a function of fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of the milk (Table 2). Major changes were noted in concentration of dietary cholesterol, cholesterol ranged from 7.09 to 29.67 mg/100 g, among the treatments. In [beta]-cyclodextrin treated yoghurts, the concentration of cholesterol was 58.9% and 76.1% lesser than control. The significant reduction in dietary cholesterol has a healthy perspective; cholesterol is strongly correlated with total and LDL cholesterol. The reduction of cholesterol from milk as a function of [beta]-cyclodextrin has been extensively reported in literature (Alonso et al, 2009; Lee et al, 2007; Kwak et al., 2002). However, little information is available regarding the conversion of low cholesterol milk into yoghurt. The breakage of protein strands and structural rearrangement results in the expulsion of whey from the yoghurt (Serra et al., 2009). Whey separation in yoghurt is regarded as one of the crucial aspects of yoghurt texture (Lee and Lucey, 2010). The extent of syneresis in all the treatments was not different from control (P>0.05). Syneresis mainly depends upon the textural changes triggered by the pH, the non-variation in syneresis might be correlated to the non-variation in pH of yoghurts. Syneresis of yoghurt supplemented with transesterified palm olein was not different from the standard yoghurt (Abdullah et al., 2012). Fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal did not reveal any effect on peroxide value, TBA value and free fatty acids of fresh yoghurts. The determination of [alpha]-tocopherol was observed in this study to investigate the effect of fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal on the concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol. Fatty acid modification did not have any effect on [alpha]-tocopherol content, however, treatment of milk with 2% and 4% [beta]-cyclodextrin considerably decreased the concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol in the treated stuffs (P<0.05). The present study reported a decline in the [alpha]-tocopherol content with [beta]-cyclodextrin in a concentration dependent manner. Removal of some bioactive compounds; vitamins, fatty acids etc., with [beta]-cyclodexrin, from milk and milk products have been verified by Ha et al. (2009). However, little information is available in literature regarding the entrapment of [alpha]-tocopherol in [beta]-cyclodextrin. Fatty acid modification of milk fat increased, its susceptibility towards autoxidation (Gonzalez et al., 2003). Non-variation in free fatty acid and peroxide value of freshly extracted milk fat has been reported by Nadeem et al. (2013). Free fatty acids, peroxide and TBA values are strongly correlated to the quality and shelf stability of the fats, elevated levels usually signify poor keeping quality (Fereidoon, 2005).

Physicochemical characteristics of ice cream. Noticeable changes were observed in the overrun of ice creams in response to fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal (Table 3). Overrun of ice cream from the milk of cows fed on 2% calcium salts of soybean oil was significantly less than control. Overrun of ice creams prepared from cholesterol reduced milk differed considerably from each other and control. Overrun decreased from 82.6% to 74.7% and 69.4% in ice creams prepared from 2% and 4% [beta]-cyclodextrin treated milks. The overrun is an important criterion for the quality and economy viewpoints. The lowest overrun observed in this study was about 70%. Table 4 represents the results of melting time of ice creams formulated from milk fat with changed fatty acid composition and reduced cholesterol. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol reduction had a pronounced effect on melting time of ice cream. Melting time of ice creams prepared from 2% and 4% [beta]-cyclodextrin treated milks was considerably lower than controls. Melting point and solid fat content of fats is determined by the fatty acid composition, more is the saturated fatty acids, more will be melting point (Richmond, 2007). Melting point of cholesterol is about 149.5[degrees]C and its removal could have a significant effect on the melting characteristics of the rest of the stuff. The overrun of ice cream prepared from milk fat with modified fatty acid composition was less than the original milk fat (Gonzalez et al, 2003). Fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal did not reveal any significant effect on free fatty acids and TBA value in fresh ice creams. Generation of free fatty acids is the outcome of hydrolysis of triglycerides, the degree of unsaturation does not have any correlation with their generation. The [alpha]-tocopherol content of ice creams was not affected by the fatty acid modification. Removal of cholesterol from cream through [beta]-cyclodextrin had a major influence (P<0.05) on the concentration of tocopherol. The [alpha]-tocopherol decreased from 215.73 to 185.56 [micro]g/g, when cream was treated with 4% [beta]-cyclodextrin. Some of the tocopherols could have been adsorbed in the central hollow cavity of [beta]-cyclodextrin along with cholesterol, which could be the reason for their decline in treated ice cream. The loss of some milk nutrients in the [beta]-cylodextrin-cholesterol complexation phenomenon has been reported by Ha et al. (2009). However, the loss of [alpha]-tocopherols in the decholestrolisation process has not been fully studied.

Changes in TBA value during storage. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of all the treated and untreated yoghurts and ice creams increased to a varying extent during the storage period (Table 4). The rise in TBA value was dependent upon the storage period and kind of treatments, fatty acid composition had a great effect on TBA value, whereas, cholesterol removal seemed to be neutral. After 4-weeks of storage, TBA value of yoghurts and ice creams derived from the milks with altered fatty acid composition was significantly higher than the untreated yoghurts and ice creams. TBA value and the concentration of [C.sub.18:1] was strongly correlated; relatively higher oxidation in these samples might be due to the oxidative breakdown of linoleic acid into oxidation products. The oxidisability of linoleic acid is 12 times greater than oleic acid (Reynhout, 1991). The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids decreased in ice cream, formulated from milk fat-flax seed oil blends, during storage period of 42-days (Lim et al, 2010). Ice cream from modified milk fat suffered more oxidation as compared to unmodified milk fat (Gonzalez et al., 2003).

Sensory evaluation. The results of sensory evaluation of yoghurt and ice cream prepared from milk with lower contents of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol are given in Table 5. The fatty acid modification had a pronounced effect on smell, taste and overall acceptability of yoghurts and ice creams prepared from milk of cows fed on 2% calcium salts of fatty acids. The significant variation in sensory characteristics could be connected to the decline of short-chain fatty acids. The main contribution in aroma and flavour of dairy products is due to short-chain fatty acids. The decline in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids had a strong influence on the sensory characteristics of ice cream (Lim et al., 2010). The sensory characteristics of low cholesterol yoghurt and ice cream were not different from the controls. Sensory characteristics of [beta]-cyclodextrin treated bulk pasteurised milk were not different from the untreated milk (Alonso et al., 2009). The effect of [beta]-cyclodexrin on the removal of short-chain fatty acids of milk was non-significant (Ha et al., 2009).

Conclusion

Beta cyclodextrin removed 76% and 60% cholesterol from yoghurt and ice cream. Fatty acid modification did not have any effect on [alpha]-tocopherol content; however, treatment of milk with [beta]-cyclodextrin considerably decreased the concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol in the treated stuffs, with no effect on sensory attributes of yoghurt and ice cream. These results suggest that milk with lower contents of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol can be successfully converted into yoghurt and ice cream with increased health benefits and acceptable sensory characteristics.

Acknowledgement

The first author is highly obliged to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the kind financial assistance to complete this research work as a part of Ph.D programme.

References

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Muhammad Nadeem (a) *, Rahman Ullah (a), Muhammad Imran (b) and Atta Muhammad Arif (a)

(a) Department of Dairy Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

(b) Department of Food Science, Nutrition & Home Economics, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Govt. College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

* Author for correspondence; E-mail: sheikhnadeem@live.com

(received June 3, 2014; revised January 20, 2015; accepted January 30, 2015)
Table 1. Effect of CSO on fatty acid profile of milk

Fatty acid               Control

[C.sub.4:0]      1.84 [+ or -] 0.09 (c)
[C.sub.6:0]      2.09 [+ or -] 0.07 (a)
[C.sub.8:0]      2.25 [+ or -] 0.12 (a)
[C.sub.10:0]     2.45 [+ or -] 0.10 (a)
[C.sub.12:0]     2.71 [+ or -] 0.04 (a)
[C.sub.14:0]     10.87 [+ or -] 0.22 (a)
[C.sub.16:0]     30.55 [+ or -] 0.34 (a)
[C.sub.18:0]     9.74 [+ or -] 0.45 (c)
[C.sub.18:1]     24.49 [+ or -] 0.67 (c)
[C.sub.18:2]     2.14 [+ or -] 0.06 (c)
[C.sub.18:3]     0.31 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
VA               0.55 [+ or -] 0.01 (c)
C9,t11-CLA       0.42 [+ or -] 0.04 (c)
AI               2.74 [+ or -] 0.11 (a)

Fatty acid               1% CSO

[C.sub.4:0]      2.15 [+ or -] 0.03 (b)
[C.sub.6:0]      1.97 [+ or -] 0.11 (a)
[C.sub.8:0]      2.14 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
[C.sub.10:0]     2.39 [+ or -] 0.05 (a)
[C.sub.12:0]     2.64 [+ or -] 0.03 (a)
[C.sub.14:0]     9.93 [+ or -] 0.15 (b)
[C.sub.16:0]     25.24 [+ or -] 0.57 (b)
[C.sub.18:0]     10.97 [+ or -] 0.44 (b)
[C.sub.18:1]     27.37 [+ or -] 0.35 (b)
[C.sub.18:2]     2.46 [+ or -] 0.11 (b)
[C.sub.18:3]     0.28 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
VA               1.14 [+ or -] 0.05 (b)
C9,t11-CLA       0.92 [+ or -] 0.05 (b)
AI               2.10 [+ or -] 0.12 (b)

Fatty acid               2% CSO

[C.sub.4:0]      2.34 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)
[C.sub.6:0]      1.72 [+ or -] 0.09 (b)
[C.sub.8:0]      1.82 [+ or -] 0.28 (b)
[C.sub.10:0]     2.17 [+ or -] 0.11 (b)
[C.sub.12:0]     2.39 [+ or -] 0.08 (b)
[C.sub.14:0]     8.15 [+ or -] 0.18 (c)
[C.sub.16:0]     21.35 [+ or -] 0.79 (c)
[C.sub.18:0]     11.85 [+ or -] 0.65 (a)
[C.sub.18:1]     32.22 [+ or -] 0.62 (a)
[C.sub.18:2]     2.94 [+ or -] 0.12 (a)
[C.sub.18:3]     0.26 [+ or -] 0.03 (a)
VA               1.47 [+ or -] 0.06 (a)
C9,t11-CLA       1.28 [+ or -] 0.09 (a)
AI               1.47 [+ or -] 0.05 (c)

Means of triplicate experiments; means sharing the different
letter in a row are statistically non-significant (P<0.05); CSO
= calcium salts of soybean oil;  Reference: Nadeem et al.
(2013).

Table 2. Effect of modified fatty acid profile and cholesterol removal
on chemical characteristics of yoghurt

Treatments       pH                         Cholesterol
                                            mg/100 g

Control          4.65 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)     29.67 [+ or -] 0.52 (a)
1%CSO            4.61 [+ or -] 0.21 (a)     28.77 [+ or -] 0.41 (a)
2%CSO            4.69 [+ or -] 0.25 (a)     28.49 [+ or -] 0.39 (a)
BCD Untreated    4.67 [+ or -] 0.14 (a)     30.51 [+ or -] 0.35 (a)
2%BCD            4.61 [+ or -] 0.16 (a)     12.20 [+ or -] 0.65 (b)
4%BCD            4.63 [+ or -] 0.06 (a)     7.09 [+ or -] 0.18 (c)

Treatments       Syneresis                  PV
                                            (meq/kg)

Control          51.73 [+ or -] 1.42 (a)    0.20 [+ or -] 0.03 (a)
1%CSO            50.65 [+ or -] 1.84 (a)    0.22 [+ or -] 0.05 (a)
2%CSO            50.42 [+ or -] 2.49 (a)    0.18 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
BCD Untreated    52.25 [+ or -] 1.73 (a)    0.26 [+ or -] 0.04 (a)
2%BCD            52.67 [+ or -] 1.19 (a)    0.25 [+ or -] 0.03 (a)
4%BCD            52.78 [+ or -] 2.35 (a)    0.25 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)

Treatments       TBA                        FFA
                                            (%)

Control          4.21 [+ or -] 0.06 (a)     0.11 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
1%CSO            4.22 [+ or -] 0.11 (a)     0.10 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
2%CSO            4.25 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)     0.11 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
BCD Untreated    4.28 [+ or -] 0.05 (a)     0.10 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
2%BCD            4.19 [+ or -] 0.09 (a)     0.10 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
4%BCD            4.17 [+ or -] 0.10 (a)     0.10 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)

Treatments       [alpha]-tocopherol
                 ([micro]g/g)

Control          45.62 [+ or -] 0.61 (a)
1%CSO            44.85 [+ or -] 1.18 (a)
2%CSO            43.95 [+ or -] 0.76 (a)
BCD Untreated    42.55 [+ or -] 1.46 (a)
2%BCD            38.15 [+ or -] 0.66 (b)
4%BCD            32.73 [+ or -] 0.94 (c)

With a column means denoted by a different letter are statistically
different (P<0.05); PV = peroxide value; TBA = thiobarbituric acid
value; FFA = free fatty acids; CSO = calcium salts of soybean oil
fatty acids; BCD = P-cyclodextrin.

Table 3. Effect of modified fatty acid profile and cholesterol
removal on chemical characteristics of ice cream

Treatments      pH                         Overrun (%)

Control         6.75 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)     85.8 [+ or -] 2.56 (a)
1%CSO           6.69 [+ or -] 0.23 (a)     83.5 [+ or -] 1.95 (a)
2%CSO           6.65 [+ or -] 0.14 (a)     75.9 [+ or -] 1.64 (b)
BCD untreated   6.79 [+ or -] 0.16 (a)     82.6 [+ or -] 2.34 (a)
2%BCD           6.64 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)     74.7 [+ or -] 1.32 (b)
4%BCD           6.67 [+ or -] 0.08 (a)     69.4 [+ or -] 1.78 (c)

Treatments      MT (min)                   Viscosity (CP)

Control         15.8 [+ or -] 0.29 (a)     264 [+ or -] 10.29 (a)
1%CSO           14.9 [+ or -] 0.56 (a)     255 [+ or -] 08.54 (a)
2%CSO           12.5 [+ or -] 0.35 (b)     229 [+ or -] 12.84 (b)
BCD untreated   15.5 [+ or -] 0.64 (a)     259 [+ or -] 15.64 (a)
2%BCD           11.9 [+ or -] 0.74 (b)     247 [+ or -] 19.37 (a)
4%BCD           11.5 [+ or -] 0.48 (b)     242 [+ or -] 17.48 (a)

Treatments      TBA                        FFA (%)

Control         4.15 [+ or -] 0.08 (a)     0.11 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
1%CSO           4.19 [+ or -] 0.09 (a)     0.11 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
2%CSO           4.22 [+ or -] 0.12 (a)     0.11 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
BCD untreated   4.18 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)     0.11 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
2%BCD           4.19 [+ or -] 0.16 (a)     0.12 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
4%BCD           4.22 [+ or -] 0.21 (a)     0.12 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)

                                           alpha]-tocopherol
Treatments      Cholesterol (mg/100 g)     (micro]g/g)

Control         72.5 [+ or -] 1.51 (a)     210.34 [+ or -] 5.64 (a)
1%CSO           71.6 [+ or -] 2.43 (a)     205.64 [+ or -] 11.27 (a)
2%CSO           70.8 [+ or -] 2.94 (a)     198.47 [+ or -] 05.43 (a)
BCD untreated   71.4 [+ or -] 1.88 (a)     215.73 [+ or -] 15.69 (a)
2%BCD           28.61 [+ or -] 1.61 (b)    192.35 [+ or -] 04.27 (b)
4%BCD           12.73 [+ or -] 1.55 (c)    185.56 [+ or -] 7.51 (b)

With a column means denoted by different letter are different;
MT = melting time; TBA = thiobarbituric acid value; FFA = free
fatty acids; CSO = calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids;
BCD = beta]-cyclodextrin.

Table 4. Changes in TBA value of yoghurt and ice cream
during storage of 4-weeks

Treatments         0-Week                    1-Week

Yoghurt
  Control          4.21 [+ or -] 0.10 (c)    4.23 [+ or -] 0.08 (c)
  1%CSO            4.22 [+ or -] 0.05 (c)    4.26 [+ or -] 0.12 (c)
  2%CSO            4.25 [+ or -] 0.09 (c)    4.28 [+ or -] 0.15 (c)
  BCD untreated    4.24 [+ or -] 0.03 (c)    4.26 [+ or -] 0.17 (c)
  2% BCD           4.19 [+ or -] 0.13 (c)    4.21 [+ or -] 0.19 (c)
  4% BCD           4.17 [+ or -] 0.14 (c)    4.23 [+ or -] 0.18 (c)
Ice Cream
  Control          4.15 [+ or -] 0.08        4.17 [+ or -] 0.11 (a)
  1%CSO            4.19 [+ or -] 0.06 (c)    4.22 [+ or -] 0.09 (c)
  2%CSO            4.22 [+ or -] 0.05 (c)    4.25 [+ or -] 0.21 (c)
  BCD untreated    4.18 [+ or -] 0.03 (c)    4.19 [+ or -] 0.06 (c)
  2% BCD           4.19 [+ or -] 0.02 (c)    4.21 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)
  4% BCD           4.22 [+ or -] 0.05 (c)    4.23 [+ or -] 0.06 (c)

Treatments         2-Weeks                   3-Weeks

Yoghurt
  Control          4.25 [+ or -] 0.13 (c)    4.29 [+ or -] 0.22 (c)
  1%CSO            4.30 [+ or -] 0.04 (c)    4.48 [+ or -] 0.16 (b)
  2%CSO            4.32 [+ or -] 0.05 (c)    4.59 [+ or -] 0.14 (b)
  BCD untreated    4.27 [+ or -] 0.12 (c)    4.30 [+ or -] 0.27 (c)
  2% BCD           4.24 [+ or -] 0.15 (c)    4.29 [+ or -] 0.31 (c)
  4% BCD           4.28 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)    4.30 [+ or -] 0.12 (c)
Ice Cream
  Control          4.19 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)    4.22 [+ or -] 0.09
  1%CSO            4.25 [+ or -] 0.05 (c)    4.28 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)
  2%CSO            4.28 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)    4.32 [+ or -] 0.04 (c)
  BCD untreated    4.22 [+ or -] 0.06 (c)    4.25 [+ or -] 0.03 (c)
  2% BCD           4.24 [+ or -] 0.17 (c)    4.26 [+ or -] 0.01 (c)
  4% BCD           4.25 [+ or -] 0.25 (c)    4.27 [+ or -] 0.15 (c)

Treatments         4-Weeks                   Increase

Yoghurt
  Control          4.37 [+ or -] 0.08 (c)    0.16
  1%CSO            4.55 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)    0.33
  2%CSO            4.82 [+ or -] 0.23 (a)    0.57
  BCD untreated    4.32 [+ or -] 0.19 (c)    0.08
  2% BCD           4.33 [+ or -] 0.14 (c)    0.14
  4% BCD           4.32 [+ or -] 0.11 (c)    0.15
Ice Cream
  Control          4.25 [+ or -] 0.08 (c)    0.10
  1%CSO            4.47 [+ or -] 0.06 (b)    0.28
  2%CSO            4.75 [+ or -] 0.16 (a)    0.53
  BCD untreated    4.28 [+ or -] 0.12 (c)    0.10
  2% BCD           4.29 [+ or -] 0.14 (c)    0.10
  4% BCD           4.31 [+ or -] 0.17 (c)    0.11

Within the rows and columns of a product means denoted by different
letter are different; CSO = calcium salts of soybean oil fatty
acids; BCD = [beta]-cyclodextrin.

Table 5. Sensory characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream

Treatments                             Yoghurt

                         Colour                     Smell

Control           8.5 [+ or -] 0.25 (a)     8.4 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)
1%CSO             8.4 [+ or -] 0.35 (a)     8.3 [+ or -] 0.22 (a)
2%CSO             8.2 [+ or -] 0.16 (a)     7.6 [+ or -] 0.29 (b)
BCD untreated     8.3 [+ or -] 0.17 (a)     8.3 [+ or -] 0.35 (a)
2% BCD            8.2 [+ or -] 0.12 (a)     8.2 [+ or -] 0.42 (a)
4% BCD            8.1 [+ or -] 0.34 (a)     8.0 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)

Treatments                             Yoghurt

                          Taste                      OA

Control           8.2 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)     7.8 [+ or -] 0.10 (a)
1%CSO             8.1 [+ or -] 0.14 (a)     7.7 [+ or -] 0.56 (a)
2%CSO             7.7 [+ or -] 0.12 (b)     7.2 [+ or -] 0.62 (b)
BCD untreated     8.1 [+ or -] 0.26 (a)     7.8 [+ or -] 0.34 (a)
2% BCD            8.0 [+ or -] 0.31 (a)     7.6 [+ or -] 0.29 (a)
4% BCD            8.0 [+ or -] 0.46 (a)     7.5 [+ or -] 0.14 (a)

Treatments                            Ice cream

                         Colour                     Smell

Control           8.2 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)     8.4 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)
1%CSO             8.1 [+ or -] 0.10 (a)     8.3 [+ or -] 0.14 (a)
2%CSO             8.1 [+ or -] 0.35 (a)     7.6 [+ or -] 0.15 (b)
BCD untreated     8.1 [+ or -] 0.44 (a)     8.2 [+ or -] 0.13 (a)
2% BCD            8.1 [+ or -] 0.52 (a)     8.2 [+ or -] 0.24 (a)
4% BCD            8.0 [+ or -] 0.27 (a)     8.1 [+ or -] 0.29 (a)

Treatments                            Ice cream

                          Taste                      OA

Control           8.5 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)     8.3 [+ or -] 0.45 (a)
1%CSO             8.4 [+ or -] 0.13 (a)     8.0 [+ or -] 0.14 (a)
2%CSO             7.5 [+ or -] 0.38 (b)     7.2 [+ or -] 0.25 (b)
BCD untreated     8.1 [+ or -] 0.34 (a)     8.2 [+ or -] 0.32 (a)
2% BCD            8.1 [+ or -] 0.27 (a)     8.1 [+ or -] 0.25 (a)
4% BCD            8.0 [+ or -] 0.17 (a)     8.0 [+ or -] 0.21 (a)

Within a column means denoted by different letter are statistically
different (P<0.05); OA = overall acceptability; CSO = calcium salts
of soybean oil fatty acids; BCD = beta cyclodextrin.
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Author:Nadeem, Muhammad; Ullah, Rahman; Imran, Muhammad; Arif, Atta Muhammad
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Date:Mar 1, 2015
Words:5472
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