Printer Friendly

Effects of vitrification on immature and in vitro matured, denuded and cumulus compact goat oocytes and their subsequent fertilization.


Vitrification has proven to be more effective than slow cooling methods to cryopreserve mammalian oocytes (1-6). Vitrification technique is a cryoprotectant system involving the addition of higher concentrations of cryoprotectants and ultra rapid cooling (7, 8) and has been tested in various species with good results (9-14). Exposure of oocytes to high concentrations of CPAs [1a] causes the oocytes to undergo osmotic de hydration prior to cooling; that treatment coupled with extremely high cooling rates prevent the formation of intracellular ice crystals within oocytes; thus, reducing disruption and damage to cellular architecture. The vitrification treatment does not affect the proportion of oocytes with intact morphology after warming although it has been reported that mammalian oocytes are very sensitive to high concentration of CPAs (15).

A large number of variables affect the outcome of vitrification of oocytes including the type and concentration of cryopreservation, stage of development of oocytes and the presence or absence of cumulus cells (10, 11, 16, 17). It has been observed that the immature germinal vesicle stage oocytes tolerate the cryopreservation damage more efficiently compared to oocytes at metaphase-II and cumulus compact oocytes are less vulnerable to cryo-injuries compared to their denuded counterpart. Reports on the vitrification of caprine oocytes are less frequent (6, 13, 18-24) and few of these studies point out severe damage to in vitro matured oocytes when vitrified and subsequently fertilized in vitro (18, 24). The optimum concentration of cryoprotectants suggested for caprine oocytes appears to be 8 M of ethylene glycol, glycerol or propanediol (13, 24); however, it remains to be seen whether these concentrations of cryoprotectants work equally both on immature and mature oocytes and also on cumulus compact and denuded oocytes. The present study examined the effects of vitrification on subsequent fertilization of immature and mature cumulus compact and denuded goat oocytes.


Cumulus oocyte complexes (n = 1041) were collected by aspiration of surface follicles present over goat ovaries (n = 460) collected from a local abattoir. Oocytes were either cryopreserved as immature cumulus compact (IMCC) and immature denuded (IMDN) oocytes or they were first matured in vitro for 28 h and then cryopreserved as mature cumulus compact (MCC) or mature denuded (MDN) oocytes in four groups. Cumulus compact oocytes were mechanically denuded by repeated pipetting in warm DPBS [1b] till the cluster of cumulus cells was completely separated.

A total of 133 (68 in experiment 1 and 65 in experiment 2) cumulus compact oocytes were matured and fertilized without vitrification in experiment 1 and 2, respectively and kept as controls. A total of 446 oocytes (98,127,109 and 112 oocytes in groups ImCC, ImDN, MCC, and MDN, respectively) were vitrified in experiment 1, and 410 oocytes (102, 109, 89 and 110 oocytes in groups ImCC, ImDN, MCC, and MDN, respectively) were vitrified in experiment 2. Subsequent to vitrification of oocytes, only morphologically normal oocytes were included for in vitro maturation in experiment 1 and in vitro fertilization in experiment 2.

Cryopreservation of oocytes: Oocytes were cryopreserved by ultra rapid cooling as previously described methods (13) with some modification. The vitrification solution (vs.) comprised of DPBS +0.5% sucrose +0.4% BSA [2a] and 8 M concentration of propylene glycol (13). The 50% vs. was prepared by diluting the vs. in DPBS. The oocytes to be used for cryopreservation were pre-equilibrated in 50% of the vs. for 3.5 min and then kept in vs. for 2-3 min. The oocytes were loaded in the 0.25 ml straw, by attaching the straw to an embryo exhauter (IMV, France). Oocytes (4, 5) placed in a small volume (50 [micro]l) of vs. were filled in the straws with minimum possible volume of vs. and keeping air bubbles on both the sides of the vs. containing the oocytes. The straws were heat sealed and pre-cooled by keeping the straw over the LN2 (Subscript 2) vapors for 2 min, at the height of about 5 cm from the LN2 (Subscript 2) level. The straws were then plunged in L[N.sub.2] for storage and kept for at least 7 days after which they were taken out warmed and evaluated (14, 24). After evaluation of morphological damage, normal oocytes were put to in vitro maturation and fertilization as previously described methods (13, 25, 47).

Warming and evaluation of morphology: Frozen straws containing the oocytes were thawed in a water bath at 38 [degrees]C for 30 sec. The contents of the straws were emptied in 35 mm petri dishes and the cryoprotectant was removed by placing oocytes in DPBS with 0.5M sucrose and then IVM [3] media for 20 sec each. Oocytes were considered abnormal when there was a change in shape, breakage of zona pellucida, uneven granulation or leakage of oocyte contents as described previously (14).

The number of morphologically damaged oocytes was recorded for each replicate in each group. The oocytes were further subjected to in vitro maturation and fertilization as methods described previously (26). In two separate experiments nearly the same number of oocytes were used and evaluated for in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization.

In vitro maturation: Warmed oocytes were separately cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 5 [micro]g/ml FSH, 5 [micro]g/ml LH, 1 ng/ml estradiol, 25 mM Hepes, 0.25 mM pyruvate and antibiotics in 50-100 [micro]l maturation media (5-8 oocytes per drop) for 28 h at 38 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C and 5% C[O.sub.2] in humidified air in a C[O.sub.2] incubator. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated as a previous method (27). At the end of experiment 1, oocytes were fixed and stained with 1% aceto-orcein to record the nuclear status using previously described methods (14). Briefly, the surrounding cumulus cells were removed by vortexing for 1 min. The cumulus-free oocytes were placed in the center of an area delineated by two paraffin wax bars on a clean grease-free glass slide. They were compressed gently with a cover slip to hold and fixed by keeping them in acetic methanol (1:3, v/v) for 24 h. Oocytes were stained with 1% aceto-orcein (1% orcein in 45% glacial acetic acid). The nuclear status of oocytes was evaluated under a microscope and considered to be matured if they were at metaphase II stage (reduced number of chromatin, metaphase plate and extrusion of the 1st polar body).

Immature and in vitro matured cumulus compact and denuded goat oocytes were vitrified and after 7-10 days of storage in L[N.sub.2] they were taken out and warmed for further processing. The immature oocytes were matured in vitro for 28 h in C[O.sub.2] incubator whereas mature oocytes were evaluated for nuclear status immediately after warming. Immature oocytes were also evaluated for nuclear status after their in vitro maturation. The oocytes were considered mature if they showed extrusion of polar body or were at M-II stage.

In experiment 2, the procedures were similar to experiment 1 except that the oocytes were fertilized in vitro after their in vitro maturation using epididymal spermatozoa.

Sperm preparation and in vitro fertilization: Epididymal sperms were recovered as previously described methods (28). Briefly, testicles from bucks were obtained from a local slaughter house in warm DPBS reaching the laboratory within 0.5 h. Testicles with epididymis attached were isolated from the scrotum. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected by giving several incisions on each cauda epididymis with a surgical blade and placing the sperm suspension in 1 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH = 7.5). After retrieval of sperm their quality was assessed and sperm was prepared for in vitro fertilization.

Semen was prepared by centrifugation in sperm TALP [1c] medium as described previously (29) with some modification. Briefly, 0.5 ml of the sperm suspension was placed in a centrifuge tube. Four ml of HEPES [2b]-TALP medium was added to the tube and the tube was centrifuged at 2000 x g for 10 minutes. After discarding the supernatant, an aliquot of the pellet was resuspended (1:1) with heparin containing (100 [micro]l/ml; Heparin sodium salt) HEPES-TALP medium and incubated for 45 min at 38.5[degrees]C in C[O.sub.2] incubator. The actively motile spermatozoa were allowed to swim up and used for insemination. After maturation, the oocyte complexes of all groups used for in vitro maturation were transferred to 95 [micro]l micro drops of TALP fertilization medium supplemented with 1 mg/ml heparin (Sigma, USA). After heparin treatment, sperm concentration was assessed in a haemocytometer and further dilution was made before addition of 5 [micro]l of the sperm suspension to the fertilization drops in order to provide a final concentration of an approximately 4 x [10.sup.6] sperm cells/ml. Culture was done in 100 [micro]l micro drops ([less than or equal to] 5-8 oocytes per drop) under paraffin oil and humidified 5% C[O.sub.2] atmosphere at 38.5 [degrees]C.

Following co-incubation for 24 h with sperm, the oocytes were evaluated for fertilization under phase contrast microscope as a group (200x magnification). Oocytes from each group were washed with fresh medium and vortexed for 1-2 minutes to separate the cumulus mass. They were processed for fixing and staining in the same way as oocytes were fixed after IVM. If oocytes showed sperm head in the vitellus along with M-II chromosomes or swollen sperm head along with M-II chromosome or both male and female pronuclei, then oocytes were considered fertilized (30).

Statistical analysis: The data related to each replicate were recorded separately for two end-points in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of morphologically normal oocytes, in vitro matured and fertilized over the various groups was compared by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMR test) on arcsine transformed data.


Survival and morphological evaluations of thawed oocytes: After vitrifying immature (CC or DN) and in vitro matured (CC and DN) oocytes they were warmed as per method described previously. The morphological survival of immature and mature denuded and cumulus compact oocytes evaluated in experiments 1 and 2 showed that the morphologically normal survival rate was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for IMCC oocytes compared to IMDN oocytes in experiment 1 and also significantly higher (p < 0.05) for MCC oocytes compared to MDN oocytes in experiment 2 (Table 1).

In vitro maturation of warmed oocytes: A significantly higher (p < 0.05) proportion of oocytes were matured in the non-vitrified control goat oocytes compared to vitrified immature (ImCC and ImDN) and mature (MCC and MDN) oocytes. Within group comparison revealed that immature cumulus compact oocytes (ImCC) had significantly higher maturation rates compared to their denuded counterparts (ImDN). Mature cumulus compact oocytes, however, showed non-significantly higher in vitro maturation rates (MCC: 43.15% vs. MDN: 31.52%). Denuded oocytes evidenced lowest maturation rate (Table 2).

In vitro fertilization of warmed oocytes: The highest fertilization was seen in the control group and significantly lower fertilization was seen in ImDN, MCC and MDN groups. The immature cumulus compact oocyte (IMCC) group evidenced significantly higher (p < 0.05) fertilization compared to mature cumulus compact (MCC) and mature denuded (MDN) oocytes (Table 2). Between the immature oocyte group, significantly higher (p < 0.05) proportion of fertilized oocytes were seen for ImCC group compared to ImDN group. The proportion of fertilized oocytes was non-significantly different between the control and ImCC groups.


During the present study, the proportion of morphologically normal oocytes recovered after vitrification at the end of experiments was significantly lower in mature denuded oocytes in experiment 1 and mature denuded oocytes in experiment 2. This reflects that the cumulus cells attached to oocytes partly offer some protection from cryo-damage due to vitrification. One study (31) has previously shown that the mechanical removal of cumulus cells affected the maturational competence of bovine oocytes.

The proportion of morphologically normal oocytes recovered after 7-10 days of cryo-storage were similar to findings of Agarwal (32) who found only 32 oocytes exhibiting morphological changes from 304 vitrified goat oocytes recovered. The rates of morphologically normal survived oocytes obtained during the present study were similar to those recorded previously (81.4% to 95.0%) in vitrified goat oocytes (13, 23).

Studies by Begin (6) have shown that caprine oocytes and embryos vitrified by solid surface vitrification (SSV) had significantly lower survival rates than the controls, whereas the survival rate of cryoloop vitrified (CLV) oocytes and embryos did not differ significantly from the controls.

The cumulus cell removal prior to in vitro maturation or vitrification have shown to have a detrimental effect on oocyte morphology for both immature and mature vitrified equine (33), mouse (34) and bovine (31) oocytes. However, Zhang (35) observed no difference in the survival rate of vitrified mature ovine oocytes with or without cumulus cells. Cumulus cell removal increases the MPF [1c] activity and accelerates the transition to metaphase stage and the redistribution of cortical granules (36). The effect of nuclear stage at cryopreservation appears not to be fully understood. Some workers suggested that GV [2c] stage is more resistant to cryo-damage due to their smaller size, lack of cortical granules and a longer period to recover from cryoinjury (37). Other workers, however, have concluded that GV oocytes are more sensitive to cryopreservation (38-40).

During the present study, significantly higher proportion (p < 0.05) of fresh (Non-vitrified control) oocytes matured in vitro (reached M-II stage) compared to vitrified oocytes. Moreover, denuded oocytes showed lower maturation compared to cumulus compact oocytes. The freezability of unfertilized oocytes has been reported to be low as embryo development proceeds to the blastocyst stage freezability is increased (41, 42), possibly due to difference in cytoskeleton elements. Metaphase-II oocytes are known to better tolerate cryopreservation compared to GV oocytes (43, 44).

Agarwal (32) had previously shown that lesser number of vitrified goat oocytes reached M-II stage compared to fresh oocytes. One of the major concerns caused by oocyte freezing is the possible effect on cytoskeleton structures. It is generally reported in the literature that GV oocytes are more sensitive to cryopreservative injury than any other nuclear stages (38-40) for reasons poorly known.

The proportions of oocytes fertilized were significantly higher in the control group compared to vitrified groups except for the immature cumulus compact vitrified oocytes. Fertilization rates obtained for fresh oocytes in previous studies on goat oocytes in our laboratory varied between 17.03% to 40.86% (11, 25). The normal fertilization rate of goat oocytes can be increased by supplementation of media by cysteamine (45, 46). The reduced in vitro fertilization ability of vitrified oocytes compared to fresh oocytes could be due to the toxic effects of cryoprotectants and osmotic injuries. In addition, the possibility of ultra structure damage to the oocytes and deleterious effect on chromosomes and other cytoplasmic structures cannot be ruled out since such effects have been demonstrated during cryopreservation of mouse and human oocytes (40-42, 48).


The matured vitrified oocytes in the present study showed significantly lower fertilization rates compared to immature compacted vitrified oocytes and controls. The reasons for such an effect are similar to those explained previously for in vitro maturation of oocytes. As far as results of denudation of oocytes is concerned the presence of cumulus cells is helpful in many processes of oocyte growth and higher blastocyst rates were found for oocytes denuded at the start of vitrifycation compared to those denuded later (49). The results of the present study suggest that immature cumulus compact goat oocytes better tolerate cryopreservation by vitrification.


(1.) Nakagata N. High survival rate of unfertilized mouse oocytes after vitrification. J Reprod Fertil. 1989; 87(2): 479-83.

(2.) Otoi T, Yamamoto K, Koyama N, Tachikawa S, Suzuki T. Cryopreservation of mature bovine oocytes by vitrification in straws. Cryobiology. 1998; 37(1): 77-85.

(3.) Chen SU, Lien YR, Chen HF, Chao KH, Ho HN, Yang YS. Open pulled straws for vitrification of mature mouse oocytes preserve patterns of meiotic spindles and chromosomes better than conventional straws. Hum Reprod. 2000; 15(12): 2598-603.

(4.) Liebermann J, Tucker MJ. Effect of carrier system on the yield of human oocytes and embryos as assessed by survival and developmental potential after vitrification. Reproduction. 2002; 124(4): 483-9.

(5.) Maclellan LJ, Carnevale EM, Coutinho da Silva MA, Scoggin CF, Bruemmer JE, Squires EL. Pregnancies from vitrified equine oocytes collected from super-stimulated and non-stimulated mares. Theriogenology. 2002; 58(5): 911-9.

(6.) Begin I, Bhatia B, Baldassarre H, Dinnyes A, Keefer CL. Cryopreservation of goat oocytes and in vivo derived 2- to 4-cell embryos using the cryoloop (CLV) and solid-surface vitrification (SSV) methods. Theriogenology. 2003; 59(8): 1839-50.

(7.) Rall WF, Fahy GM. Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification. Nature. 1985; 313(6003): 573-5.

(8.) Vajta G. Vitrification of the oocytes and embryos of domestic animals. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000; 60-61: 357-64.

(9.) Massip A, Van Der Zwalmen P, Scheffen B, Ectors F. Pregnancies following transfer of cattle embryos preserved by vitrification. Cryo-letters. 1986; 7: 270-3.

(10.) Vajta G, Holm P, Kuwayama M, Booth PJ, Jacobsen H, Greve T, et al. Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification: a new way to reduce cryoinjuries of bovine ova and embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 1998; 51(1): 53-8.

(11.) Dattena M, Ptak G, Loi P, Cappai P. Survival and viability of vitrified in vitro and in vivo produced ovine blastocysts. Theriogenology. 2000; 53(8): 1511-9.

(12.) Isachenko V, Alabart JL, Dattena M, Nawroth F, Cappai P, Isachenko E, et al. New technology for vitrification and field (microscope-free) warming and transfer of small ruminant embryos. Therio genology. 2003; 59(5-6): 1209-18.

(13.) Garg N, Purohit GN. Effect of different cryoprotectant concentrations for ultrarapid freezing of immature goat follicular oocytes on their subsequent maturation and fertilization in vitro. Anim Reprod. 2007; 4: 113-8.

(14.) Yadav RC, Sharma A, Garg N, Purohit GN. Survival of vitrified water buffalo cumulus-oocytes-complexes and their subsequent development in vitro. Bulg J Vet Med. 2008; 11(1): 55-64.

(15.) Johnson MH, Pickering SJ. The effect of dimethyl-sulphoxide on the microtubular system of the mouse oocyte. Development. 1987;100(2):313-24.

(16.) Szell A, Zhang J, Hudson R. Rapid cryopreservation of sheep embryos by direct transfer into liquid nitrogen vapour at -180 degrees C. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1990;2(6):613-8.

(17.) Schiewe MC. The science and significance of embryo cryopreservation. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1991; 22 (1):6-22.

(18.) Le Gal F. In vitro maturation and fertilization of goat oocytes frozen at the germinal vesicle stage. Theriogenology. 1996; 45(6): 1177-85.

(19.) Traldi AS. Vitrification of goat in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. In: Gruner L, Chabert Y, editors. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Goats; 2000 May 15-18; Tours, France: Institut de l'elevage; 2000. p. 1031.

(20.) Branca A, Galllus M, Dattena M, Cappai P. Preliminary study of vitrification of goat embryos at different stages of development. In: Gruner L, Chabert Y, editors. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Goats; 2000 May 15-18; Tours; France: Institut de l'elevage; 2000. p. 1032.

(21.) Traldi AS, Leboeuf B, Cognie Y, Poulin N, Mer millod P. Comparative results of in vitro and in vivo survival of vitrified in vitro produced goat and sheep embryos. Theriogenology. 1999; 51: 175.

(22.) Baril G, Traldi AL, Cognie Y, Leboeuf B, Beckers JF, Mermillod P. Successful direct transfer of vitrified sheep embryos. Theriogenology. 2001; 56(2): 299-305.

(23.) Kharche SD, Taru Sharma G, Majumdar AC. In vitro maturation and fertilization of goat oocytes vitrified at the germinal vesicle stage. Small Rumin Res. 2005; 57(1): 81-4.

(24.) Taru Sharma G, Kharche SD, Majumdar AC. Vitrification of in vitro matured goat oocytes and the effect on in vitro fertilization. Small Rumin Res. 2006; 64(1-2): 82-6.

(25.) Nagar D, Purohit GN. Effect of epidermal growth factor on maturation and fertilization in vitro of goat follicular oocytes in a serum free or serum supplemented medium. Vet Arhiv. 2005; 75(6): 459-67.

(26.) Purohit GN, Brady MS, Sharma SS. Influence of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 on nuclear maturation and fertilization of buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes in serum free media and their subsequent development in vitro. Anim Reprod Sci. 2005; 87(3-4): 229-39.

(27.) Kumar D, Purohit GN. Effect of epidermal and insulin-like growth factor-1 on cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and fertilization of buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes in simple serum free media DMEM and Ham's F-10. Vet Arhiv. 2004; 74(1): 13-25.

(28.) Garcia-Alvarez O, Marroto-Morales A, MartinezPastor F, Grade J, Romon M, Fernandez-Santos M, et al. Sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilization ability of thawed spermatozoa from Black Manchega ram: Electroejaculation and postmortem collection. Theriogenology. 2009; 72(2): 160-8.

(29.) Palomo MJ, Izquierdo D, Mogas T, Paramio MT. Effect of semen preparation on IVF of prepubertal goat oocytes. Theriogenology. 1999; 51(5): 927-40.

(30.) Chauhan MS, Singla SK, Palta P, Manik RS, Ma dan ML. In vitro maturation and fertilization, and subsequent development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos: effects of oocyte quality and type of serum. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1998; 10(2): 173-7.

(31.) Modina S, Beretta M, Lodde V, Lauria A, Luciano AM. Cytoplasmic changes and developmental competence of bovine oocytes cryopreserved without cumulus cells. Eur J Histochem. 2004; 48(4): 337-46.

(32.) Agarwal KP. Cryo-preservation of caprine oocytes by vitrification. Indian J Anim Reprod. 1999; 20: 6-8.

(33.) Tharasanit T, Colleoni S, Galli C, Colenbrander B, Stout TA. Protective effects of the cumulus-corona radiata complex during vitrification of horse oocytes. Reproduction. 2009; 137(3): 391-401.

(34.) Suo L, Zhou GB, Meng QG, Yan CL, Fan ZQ, Zhao XM, et al. OPS vitrification of mouse immature oocytes before or after meiosis: the effect on cumulus cells maintenance and subsequent development. Zygote. 2009; 17(1): 71-7.

(35.) Zhang J, Nedambale TL, Yang M, Li J. Improved development of ovine matured oocyte following solid surface vitrification (SSV): effect of cumulus cells and cytoskeleton stabilizer. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009; 110(1-2): 46-55.

(36.) Ge L, Sui HS, Lan GC, Liu N, Wang JZ, Tan JH. Coculture with cumulus cells improves maturation of mouse oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus: observations of nuclear and cytoplasmic events. Fertil Steril. 2008; 90(6): 2376-88.

(37.) Shaw JM, Oranratnachai A, Trounson AO. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos. In: Trounson AO, Gardner D, editors. Handbook of IVF. Boca Raton: CRC press; 1999. p. 373.

(38.) Parks JE, Ruffing NA. Factors affecting low temperature survival of mammalian oocytes. Theriogenology. 1992; 73(1): 59-73.

(39.) Otoi T, Yamamoto K, Koyama N, Suzuki T. In vitro fertilization and development of immature and mature bovine oocytes cryopreserved by ethylene glycol with sucrose. Cryobiology. 1995; 32(5): 455-60.

(40.) Park SE, Son WY, Lee SH, Lee KA, Ko JJ, Cha KY. Chromosome and spindle configurations of human oocytes matured in vitro after cryopreservation at the germinal vesicle stage. Fertil Steril. 1997; 68(5): 920-6.

(41.) Kasai M, Iritani A, Chang MC. Fertilization in vitro of rat ovarian oocytes after freezing and thawing. Biol Reprod. 1979; 21(4): 839-44.

(42.) Schroeder AC, Champlin AK, Mobraaten LE, Eppig JJ. Developmental capacity of mouse oocytes cryopreserved before and after maturation in vitro. J Reprod Fertil. 1990; 89(1): 43-50.

(43.) Men H, Monson RL, Rutledge JJ. Effect of meiotic stages and maturation protocols on bovine oocyte's resistance to cryopreservation. Theriogenology. 2002; 57(3): 1095-103.

(44.) Rojas C, Palomo MJ, Albarracin JL, Mogas T. Vitrification of immature and in vitro matured pig oocytes: study of distribution of chromosomes, microtubules, and actin microfilaments. Cryobiology. 2004; 49(3): 211-20.

(45.) Rodriguez-Gonzalez E, Lopez-Bejar M, Izquierdo D, Paramio MT. Developmental competence of prepubertal goat oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue and matured with cysteamine supplementation. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2003; 43(2): 179-87.

(46.) Urdaneta A, Jimenez-Macedo AR, Izquierdo D, Paramio MT. Supplementation with cysteamine during maturation and embryo culture on embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes selected by the brilliant cresyl blue test. Zygote. 2003; 11 (4): 347-54.

(47.) Martino A, Mogas T, Palomo MJ, Paramio MT. In vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal goat oocytes. Theriogenology. 1995; 43(2): 473-85.

(48.) Pickering SJ, Braude PR, Johnson MH, Cant A, Currie J. Transient cooling to room temperature can cause irreversible disruption of the meiotic spindle in the human oocyte. Fertil Steril. 1990; 54 (1): 102-8.

(49.) Le Gal F, De Roover R, Verhaeghe B, Etienne D, Massip A. Development of vitrified matured cattle oocytes after thawing and culture in vitro. Vet Rec. 2000; 146(16): 469-71.

Govind Narayan Purohit *, Harikesh Meena, Kanika Solanki

--Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Rajasthan, India

[1a] Cryoprotectant agents

[1b] Dulbecco's phosphate Buffered Saline

[1c] Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate

[1d] Maturation Promoting Factor

[2a] Hydroxyethyl Piperazineethanesulfonic Acid

[2b] Germinal Vesicle

[2c] Bovine Serum Albumin

[3] In-Vitro Maturation

* Corresponding Author: Govind Narayan Purohit, Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001, India E-mail:

Received: Aug. 10, 2011

Accepted: Dec. 17, 2011
Table 1. Morphological survival of immature and in vitro
matured cumulus compact and denuded goat oocytes after
vitrification in experiment 1 and experiment 2

Group           Oocytes vitrified   Oocytes recovered

Experiment 1
ImCC                    98           85(86.73%) (ab)
mDN                    127           102(80.31%) (a)
MCC                    109           100(91.74%) (b)
MDN                    112           98(87.5%) (ab)
Total                  446             385(86.32%)

Experiment 2
ImCC                   102           90(88.23%) (b)
ImDN                   109           89(81.65%) (b)
MCC                     89           82(92.13%) (b)
MDN                    110           101(91.81%) (b)
Total                  410             362(88.29%)

Group           Morphologically   Abnormal
                Normal Oocytes     Oocytes

Experiment 1
ImCC            82(94.12%) (b)    5(5.88) (a)
mDN             91(89.22%) (a)   11(10.78) (b)
MCC              95(95.0%) (b)    5(5.00) (a)
MDN              92(93.87%)(b)    6(6.12) (a)
Total             358(92.98%)      27(7.01)

Experiment 2
ImCC            82(91.11%) (b)    8(8.88) (a)
ImDN            76(85.39%) (b)   13(10.78) (a)
MCC             72(87.80%) (b)   10(12.20) (a)
MDN             83(82.17%) (a)   18(17.82) (b)
Total             313(86.46%)     49(13.53%)

Number of replicates in each treatment = 10; Proportions with
different superscripted letter in the same column are
significantly different (p < 0.05). (DNMRT on arcsine
transformed data). IMCC = Immature cumulus compact;
IMDN = immature denuded; MCC = mature cumulus compact and
MDN = mature denuded

Table 2. In vitro maturation and fertilization statuses of
immature and mature cumulus compact and denuded
vitrified goat oocytes

Group     Proportion of in vitro     Proportion of
             matured oocytes       fertilized oocytes

Control         61.53 (c)              42.64 (c)
ImCC            41.25 (b)              31.70b (c)
ImDN            27.48 (a)              25.0a (b)
MCC             43.15 (b)              19.44 (a)
MDN             31.52 (ab)             16.86 (a)
Total             39.71                  26.77

Number of replicates in each treatment = 8; Proportions with
different superscripted letter in the same column are significantly
different (p < 0.05). Comparison on arcsine transformed data of
proportion by ANOVA and DNMRT. IMCC = Immature cumulus
compact; IMDN = immature denuded; MCC = mature cumulus compact
and MDN = mature denuded
COPYRIGHT 2012 Avicenna Research Institute
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Purohit, Govind Narayan; Meena, Harikesh; Solanki, Kanika
Publication:Journal of Reproduction and Infertility
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Mar 1, 2012
Previous Article:Detection of congenital mullerian anomalies by real-time 3D sonography.
Next Article:Acute effects of Ruta graveolens L. on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in rats.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |