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Effects of self-regulated learning on mathematics achievement of selected Southeast Asian Children.

This research was based on the conceptual framework that students' low mathematics achievement in school is related to their poor study habits. Thus, the intervention titled Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program aimed to help selected children from Southeast Asia (the Philippines) improve their Mathematics achievement, Mathematics self-regulated learning, and Mathematics school grade. This research focused on the following difference scores: 1) Mathematics achievement, Mathematics self-regulated learning, and Mathematics school grade between experimental and control groups (N = 60); and 2) Mathematics achievement, Mathematics self-regulated learning, and Mathematics school grade between younger and older groups (N = 60). The main result supports self-regulated learning theory which states that when students are given opportunities to self-regulate and explicitly taught of self-regulated learning strategies, academic achievement is more likely to be positively affected. The study confirms that students as active agents of their behaviors can be trained to be responsible learners and thus acquire the goal of life-long education which is learning not just what to learn but more importantly how to learn.

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Why do some people approach learning tasks eagerly while others avoid them or work half-heartedly? Why do some seek and enjoy learning, while others are afraid to learn?

Educators and parents long have been plagued by the problem of students' low achievement in school. Many have had the frustrating experience of watching a child undermine his or her chances for a good performance simply by not trying. A student who performs poorly as a consequence of not studying or not completing assignments is usually perceived by his teachers as a hopeless case.

Many students who encounter achievement problems in school frequently warrant the concerned scrutiny of teachers and parents alike. They are victims of pre-judgment that they can do no better.

The researcher in her three years of teaching in the elementary grades encountered colleagues and parents who have lost hope in teaching children who were branded as "lazy"; "just don't like to try"; and "take for granted studyi3ng." This experience served as a challenge to the researcher. She likes to contend that children can be taught of self-regulated learning skills and thus improve their performance in school.

Teachers have the responsibility to teach students not just what to learn but more importantly how to learn. Teaching students of self-regulated learning strategies is reflective of the life-long goal of education which is teaching students the will as well as the skill in learning (Pintrich & de Groot, 1990). As the old aphorism would say "... teach a man how to fish and you have fed him for life."

This study helped students realize that it is possible for them to generate and direct their own learning experiences rather than act in response to external controls. That they are self-initiators who can exercise personal choice and control of the methods needed to attain the learning goals they have set for themselves. That they function as origins of their own behavior rather than pawns controlled by outside forces (de Charms, 1987). In this way, their fullest potential will be developed.

Teachers can use self-regulated learning strategies on their students and therefore change the traditional perception of teachers that some students just cannot learn what they teach. The researcher hopes that the teachers will internalize within themselves that students come to school to learn and should be taught how to learn. The teacher should contribute to the development of student's positive self-image, rather than to the establishment of a self-defeating behavior.

Research indicated that students' low achievement in school is related to their poor study habits. Figure 1 illustrates that training the students to be self-regulated learners through the Self-Regulated Learning Program (SRLP) will help them improve their Mathematics achievement and study habits.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The SRLP, conceptualized specifically for this research project, is a training program consisted of four main components. The first component refers to the knowledge and beliefs of the subjects. Subjects introduced to the learning goal (Dweck, 1986), attribution to effort (Weiner, 1979), and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986) are hoped to be oriented to the idea of self-direction (Bandura, 1989), self-responsibility, personal causation (de Charms, 1987), and self-regulation (Zimmerman, 1989) of their own learning. The orientation also includes knowledge of what, how, why and when to use the learning strategies needed to become self-directed, self-responsible and self-regulated learners. The second component refers to the explicit instruction of the self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies. This learning strategies are based on Zimmerman's (1986) SRL strategies which encompass both the cognitive and metacognitive aspects of the learning process. Zimmerman (1989) identified 14 self-regulated learning strategies which were derived from the social cognitive theory (Table 1). The purpose of each strategy is to improve students' self-regulation of their a) personal functioning, b) academic behavioral performance, and c) learning environment. For example, the strategies of organizing and transforming, rehearsing and memorizing, and goal setting and planning focused on optimizing personal regulation. Strategies such as self-evaluation and self-consequences were designed to enhance behavioral functioning. The strategies of environmental structuring, seeking information, reviewing, and seeking assistance were intended to optimize the students' immediate learning environment.

The third component is the SRL opportunities given to the subjects which parallels the conceptual definition of self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 1994). Subjects must be given the opportunities to freely use and have the appropriate environment to practice the SRL strategies to qualify as self-regulated learners. The fourth component states that with the use of SRL strategies, subjects' performance outcome must be consistently monitored (Butler and Winne, 1995). Monitoring generates feedback that provides information for confirming or re-examining and modifying strategies, thus, select and use more productive procedures.

Subjects

The subjects for this study were selected by purposive stratified sampling from a suburban private school in Southeast Asia (the Philippines). Sixty elementary grades four and six students with low grade point average in the third quarter of the school year 19981999, low mathematics achievement score and poor study habits were chosen from four heterogeneous classes.

Grade four subjects have a mean age of 10.62 years while grade six subjects are of 12.85 years. Both grade levels obtained below 50% mark in Mathematics Achievement Test and Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Scale. Grade point average of grade four subjects is 75.40 while grade six is 73.44.

Methodology

A two x two factorial quasi-experimental design which consisted of two independent variables, namely: treatment (with treatment and no treatment) and grade level (grade 4 and grade 6) was used. The purpose of the research design is to investigate the effects of Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program on the Mathematics achievement, Mathematics self-regulated learning and Mathematics school grade of low achieving students.

In a private school, the research drew a sample of 60 students matched by socio-economic backgrounds, location, teacher qualifications and skills, school evaluation procedures, physical facilities and degree of parental involvement. Fifteen students were randomly selected to comprise the experimental group for each grade level and the remaining 15 into the control group of each grade level. Two grade levels were chosen, namely: grade four and grade six.

From the population of 152 grades four and six students, middle-class socioeconomic status, 60 subjects were selected using the following criteria: low Mathematics achievement score, low grade point average and poor study habits. These were measured using instruments specifically designed for this study. After the treatment was completed, post-tests using Mathematics Achievement Test and Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Scale were used to determine the effect of experimental manipulation.

Data Gathering Procedure

This study took effect on the Fourth Grading period of the school year. Data for the baseline past of the research design were collected on the first three days of the said period. Grades from the report cards were gathered through the coordination of the subject teachers with the permission of the school officials. Parents of the chosen subjects were given letters asking their permission to include subjects for the experiment.

The pre-tests for Mathematics Achievement and Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning were given by the School Guidance Counselor inside the classroom during the Mathematics class.

The experiment proper was conducted in the school's elementary library after regular classes in the afternoon. The Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program was used by the researcher for one and a half months time, everyday from Monday to Friday, grade four sessions were conducted at 2:00-3:00 p.m. while grade six sessions were at 3:00-4:00 p.m.

The School Guidance Counselor administered the post-tests using the Mathematics Achievement Test and Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Scale when treatment was completed.

Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program

The Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program designed and facilitated by the researcher was done within 6 weeks time, for a total of 30 sessions. Detailed lesson plans for 30 sessions were also written to ensure effective implementation of the program.

Learning strategy instruction started with the development of the students' self-regulation belief system. The facilitator helped the students develop the important belief orientation to understand, acquire and execute target learning strategies. The purpose of self-regulated learning strategies, how, and when to use them were discussed and explained by the facilitator. The facilitator explicitly taught and demonstrated how the strategies were used with the aid of the appropriate self-instructions techniques. The self-instructions included the combination of problem definition, planning, strategy use, self-evaluation, coping and error correction, and self-reinforcement statements. Collaborative and independent practice of the students were used to monitor the efficient use of the self-regulated learning strategies.

The first five sessions oriented the students to the value of personal responsibility, self-efficacy, learning goal and attribution to effort. The facilitator delivered lectures with the aid of story telling, picture presentations and group sharing of ideas. Participants were asked to share their goals and ambitions in life through the lessons discussed. Sessions six to eleven were conducted to formally introduce Zimmerman's (1989) 14 self-regulated learning strategies. Each strategy was explained emphasizing its use and importance to learning. Participants were given opportunities to practice each strategy on their own. They were explicitly taught how to write learning goals as well as how to properly pace, sequence and plan activities. The facilitator demonstrated the think-aloud strategy for rehearsing and memorizing information and then asked volunteers to do same. The students collated records of quizzes, seat works and assignments to monitor their performance and progress in schoolwork. A self-evaluation form was provided to help them assess how they were doing in their Mathematics class. A discussion about strategies to remedy low performance was initiated by the facilitator. The value of rewarding oneself when a task was accomplished was taught through games and with the use of the "If-then Contract." The "If-then contract" made the students thought of the rewards they would like to give themselves on certain conditions. The facilitator guided the students for the self-consequating to be fair and to call for and reward accomplishment rather than simply obedience. As for the last strategy, students were encouraged to seek assistance from their peers, parents, teachers, and tutors as well as to use the school library to seek additional information.

Sessions 12-30 were facilitated for the participants to apply the self-regulated learning strategies in their Mathematics lessons. During the remaining sessions, students were guided to monitor and evaluate their own progress with the proper use of self-regulated learning strategies. Each week they have to complete forms for goal setting, self-evaluation and self-consequating. In each session, the facilitator observed the students in terms of how they performed during the class activity. A case report was provided for each student.

Results

As predicted, there are significant differences in the Mathematics Achievement between treatment and no treatment groups, F (1, 56) = 15.51, and between younger and older groups, F (1,56) = 7.26, p < 0.01. There are significant differences in the Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning between treatment and no treatment groups, F(1,56) = 132.99, p < .01 and between younger and older groups, F (1,56) = 5.59, p < .05. The result shows no significant difference in the Mathematics School Grade between treatment and no treatment groups, F (1.56) = 0.08, although there is a significant difference between older and younger groups, F (I, 56) = 32.02, p < .01.

Fifteen grade four and fifteen grade six students were observed during the 6-week training program. Each student was observed and interviewed in terms of their progress in the use of self-regulated learning strategies. The results for each student's case were reported on the bases of their improvement or decline in Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT), Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Scale (MSRLS) and Mathematics School Grade (MSG) scores; behavior during the sessions; attitudes toward learning Mathematics; and use of self-regulated learning strategies. Table 2 shows the summary result of the case reports in terms of the number of students who improved and did not improve in Mathematics achievement, Mathematics self-regulated learning and Mathematics school grade.

The performance of the students in the experimental group, using the three measures: MAT, MSRLS, MSG, generally improved. Improvement in grade six cases is on MAT, MSRLS, and MSG. However, in grade IV, five and six cases showed no improvement in terms of MAT and MSG, respectively. A remarkable result in the MSRLS shows improvement in both grades four and six cases.

Discussion

A. Differences in the Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning; and Mathematics School Grade Between Treatment and No Treatment Groups.

The results show that there is significant improvement in the Mathematics achievement and Mathematics self-regulated learning of the students in the experimental group after thirty sessions of training in the use of self-regulated learning strategies. This supports Zimmerman's theory that when students are given opportunities to self-regulate and explicitly taught of self-regulated learning strategies, academic achievement is more likely to be positively affected. Similarly, this finding confirms the results of studies (Hattie, Biggs & Purdie, 1996; Schunk, Hanson & Cox, 1987; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986; Bandura & Schunk, 1981) done with the use of the theory of self-regulated learning.

This implies that when students were taught to focus attention on the processes and strategies that help them acquire knowledge and skills, they tend to engage in activities they believe enhance learning such as: exert effort, persist and use effective strategies. As a result, students were observed to exercise control over their learning as they acquire knowledge and skills. This further indicates that students remember and learn more when given the opportunity to use deep processing strategies that enhance conceptual understanding and require cognitive effort, such as integrating information and monitoring comprehension.

The results also support the theory that individuals are considered to be active agents of their behaviors, which mean that students can manipulate and control their own behaviors. Thus, students in the experimental group were able to achieve the desired goal of learning mathematics. It was observed that students were influenced by the major sources for the development of self-regulated learning. It can be inferred that Bandura's (1989) interaction of the personal, environmental and behavioral factors allow opportunities for the students to exercise control over their own learning. At the personal level, students were seen to exercise self-directedness, they selected, influenced and constructed their own study habits. Students become origins of their own behavior rather than pawns controlled by the external factors in the environment (de Charms, 1987). The metacognitive strategies were manifested through the use of self-instruction strategies of the students. Strategic planning guided students' efforts to control learning and was affected reciprocally by feedback from these efforts. This is the same with the use of self-observation and self-judgment as behavioral processes of self-regulation. Students monitored their own progress through keeping records of quizzes, assignments, and examinations. They used self-evaluation by checking procedures, such as re-examining their answers to mathematics problems. With all these, the type of environment, particularly the structure of the learning context, triadically reciprocated with the expected personal and behavioral self-regulation of learning and performance.

During the training program, as a student progresses, he gradually realizes his capability to do better, thus enhances his interest, attributional beliefs to effort, self-efficacy and performance. The chain of effects appeared to be cumulative in effect. Aside from self-assessment, subjects learned how to observe behaviors of their peers. By unintentionally comparing their performance with those of others in the treatment group, they were made to believe that they could do the tasks. Likewise, personal choice and goal setting engaged students' involvement and interest and gave them more responsibility for their own behaviors. It helped students learn how to set realistic goals which is considered as an important skill in achievement settings (Schunk, 1989). They involved themselves in selecting and administering their own reinforcements by praising or rewarding themselves.

The results which show improvements in the Mathematics achievement and Mathematics self-regulated learning further imply that low achieving students are possible to be equipped of self-regulation. Low achievers who are deficient in all of the essential defining attributes of good information processing, can be trained to be task-oriented with strong motivational beliefs about the importance of learning. Students in the experimental group were told that effort is responsible for their successes, thus, they overcome prior difficulties in learning mathematics skills by simply not giving up to be able to accomplish the assigned tasks. This is a fascinating picture that confirms social cognitivists' claim. This states that adopting personal challenges in accordance with one's perceived capabilities and seeing oneself make progress toward the hoped goal endure self-regulation.

The findings in terms of the significant improvement of scores in the Mathematics achievement and Mathematics self-regulated learning are in line with the assertion of self-regulated learning theorists that students can be developed and have the capacity to:

a. discover, develop and apply their own strengths and capabilities;

b. identify and set personally meaningful goals for their own learning;

c. work independently and/or with others to achieve their learning goals;

d. develop and use wide range of learning strategies appropriate to different learning tasks;

e. understand, plan, monitor and evaluate their own learning;

f. access and apply knowledge sources and information systems;

g. persist and overcome obstacles to achieving their learning goals; and

h. apply new skills and knowledge appropriately in practice.

Inconsistent with the hypothesis, the result shows no significant difference between treatment and no treatment groups in terms of Mathematics school grade. This can be explained through the consideration of several other criteria in the grading system of the school. The classroom environment is also a factor to examine if it provides self-regulated learning opportunities. Research (Ames & Archer, 1988; Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons, 1986) discussed that teachers' role is a big factor in enhancing students self-regulated learning. Although intervention programs have focused on enhancing students' use of learning strategies, these efforts may have short-term benefits for students who have motivational problems or skill deficits. They are likely to have a limited impact unless teachers can create a classroom environment that supports principles of self-regulated learning.

Classroom studies have noted the strong emphasis on memorization and rote-learning, even at the upper grade levels (Eccles & Midgley, 1989). Instructional practices that involve simple transmission and recall of facts are not conducive to the development of self-regulation. Based on the instructional plans used by some teachers, the researcher observed that almost all activities do not provide opportunities for students to initiate and to direct their own learning. There was little evidence of allowing students to develop questions for class discussions, to design class projects, to choose learning patterns or to decide on how to complete their work.

Considered as the weakest of the three measures used in this study, the Mathematics school grade result shows implications on the way Mathematics is taught inside the classroom. Emphasis on speed and accuracy creates the view of mathematics as an answer-centered rather than process-centered subject. Instead of learning mathematics, students develop skills in copying and memorizing answers. This implies that a traditional classroom teacher as information giver creates a learning context wherein knowledge flows only one way, from the teacher to the student. Mathematics teachers should adopt methods used in a collaborative classroom and emphasize shared knowledge and decision making. This requires the teacher to share authority with students allowing them to have a voice in setting goals, deciding and planning on activities, as well as evaluating their own performance. This implication also fits the conceptual definition of self-regulated learning, which states that self-regulation of learning is possible only in the contexts that provide for choice and control. If students do not have options to choose among or if they are not allowed to control critical dimensions of their learning, such as what topics to pursue, how and when to study, and the outcomes they want to achieve, regulation of thinking and learning process by the self is not fully possible. Externally imposed conditions then regulate the content, structure, and process of learning. The argument goes on, that is, if students are not allowed to have choice and control, they are not likely to learn strategies for regulating strategy training or willingly self-initiate and control the use of various strategies. Results of this study show that training in such self-regulation strategies as monitoring one's comprehension while learning, setting learning and performance goals, and controlling negative emotions and cognitions enhance school achievement and performance. But if the major conditions required for self-regulation are not present, schools will actually work against helping learners want to learn and self-regulate learning. Furthermore, reference to teachers' methods of stimulating student self-regulation to learn, whether in the context of developing or activating it, implies not only methods of inducing students to adopt mastery of content or skills as a goal, but also methods on inducing students to activate needed cognitive and metacognitive strategies.

B. Differences in the Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning; and Mathematics School Grade Between Younger and Older Groups

The results show that older students obtained significantly higher means of difference scores in all three measures, Mathematics Achievement Test, Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Scale and Mathematics School Grade.

Although the Mathematics achievement tests were made to be comparable in terms of content and level of cognitive domains, the result seems to reflect the developmental theorists' claim that as children grow old they become more capable of understanding concepts and ideas. It can be inferred from the result of the study that because of the spiral elementary mathematics curriculum which was patterned on the country's National curriculum, older students become more knowledgeable and familiar about the topics covered in geometry, measurement, maps and graphs because they have taken the preliminary concepts during the previous years. This is in contrast to the younger students, in which most of the topics in their lessons were new and were not yet taken from their previous years of schooling.

The result in terms of older students' higher mean of differences scores in the Mathematics Self-Regulated Scale seems to reflect the theory of Brown and Pressley (1994) that the use of self-regulated learning strategies is coordinated with other knowledge possessed by the students. For example, part of planning for writing is searching prior knowledge for what one already knows about the topic. This seems to be also true in mathematics, which requires the connection of the old knowledge to the new information for the students to successfully perform the tasks. This also confirms Garcia and Pintrich's (1994) consideration that declarative knowledge about the actual content of the tasks is one of the major components in the conceptualization of academic self-regulation.

This finding also confirms the study of Paris and Newman (1990) which states that age influence how learners regulate their learning. It can be assumed that older students experience more autonomy-oriented activities (Ryan, Connell, & Grolnick, 1992) and are given more freedom, autonomy, and independence to control and direct their own learning thus are more likely to manifest self-regulated skills. It can be inferred that parents, teachers and other adults have a significant impact upon the development of self-regulatory capacities and adjustment in school. As what the developmental theorists claim, each experience brings with it new challenges that directs us to learn strategies for coping with difficulties in life. This returns us to the idea that self-regulation is a developmental achievement that can be either facilitated or forestalled by the interpersonal environment. With the opportunities of independence and autonomy given to children, this study suggests that grade school period is the best time to introduce the training of self-regulatory skills.

Conclusion

The findings support self-regulated learning theory which states that when students are given opportunities to self-regulate and explicitly taught of self-regulated learning strategies, academic achievement is more likely to be positively affected. The results also support the theory that individuals are active agents of their behaviors, which mean that students can manipulate, control, direct, and be responsible for their own learning.

Low achievers who were trained to be self-regulated learners were able to overcome prior difficulties in mathematics skills. Subjects used in this study were able to adopt personal challenges in accordance with one's perceived capabilities. The self-regulated learning strategy instruction engaged students' involvement and interest and gave them the opportunity to monitor and evaluate progress of their work; organize and transform information to improve learning; set goals and plan for activities; review, rehearse and memorize information; seek social assistance; as well as select or arrange physical environment to make learning easier.

Inconsistent with the hypothesis, the result shows no significant difference between treatment and no treatment groups in terms of Mathematics school grade. This can be explained through the consideration of several other criteria in the grading system of the school. This also implies that the classroom environment is another factor to examine if it provided self-regulated learning opportunities.

Older students' higher means of difference scores in all three measures give the conclusion that self-regulated learning can be attributed to developmental factors such as, age and prior knowledge. Social assistance seems to be a contributing factor for older students who were given more independence and autonomy in terms of school related work and decisions.

Recommendations

On Self-regulated Learning

Self-regulated learning should receive more attention as a topic for further research. Its theoretical and educational relevance should not be underestimated. As a theory, it presents linkages of the different components of learning, thus, suggests an integrative framework. Its practical value stresses the importance of personal efforts, self-direction and personal responsibility of learner to their own behavior. This is also worth exploring to determine how self-regulatory processes affect learning and performance.

On Self-regulated Learning Strategy Instruction

The researcher sees the need for continuing the use of self-regulated learning strategy instruction as an intervention to help low achieving students. The use of these strategies will develop a sense of ownership and commitment to the youths of this country. This will help students realize that it is possible for them to generate and direct their own learning experiences rather that act in response to external controls. That they are self-initiators who can exercise personal choice and control of the methods needed to attain the learning goals they have set for themselves. Intervention programs involving self-regulation needs to move more firmly to the mainstream of school and educational research.

Although the findings imply that grade school period is that best time to introduce self-regulated learning strategy instruction as an intervention strategy, the researcher also recommends the use of self-regulated learning strategy instruction to high school and tertiary levels. Teaching students of self-regulated learning strategies is reflective of the life-long goal of education which is teaching students the will as well as the skill in learning.

On Teaching and Learning

An important maxim in self-regulated learning is that people learn by doing. Mathematics learning will undoubtedly be inhibited if the environment does not provide the opportunities to exert strategic control over personal, behavioral and environmental influences. Instructional activities should provide avenues for a dialogue about the lesson. The instructional conversation elicits social interaction among students, in that it contains the transfer and acquisition of knowledge and skills. Through this, the student enters into the reciprocal interaction resulting in a mutual learning system as opposed to the traditional method of merely accepting information.

It is recommended that, aside from Mathematics, academic self-regulated can be applied to other subject areas. In this way, more students can be benefited in terms of academic deficiency coping and/or academic achievement.

To the Mathematics Teachers

It is recommended that teachers use self-regulated learning to their students and therefore change the traditional perceptions that some students just cannot learn. Teachers are recommended to consider learning as a process, thus make and encourage students to use self-regulated learning. Teachers can help students maintain a mastery focus and meaningful learning by supporting students' independent learning efforts. This happens only if teachers reward self-improvement and use a variety of non-controlling type of evaluation. Teachers should also make students benefit from opportunities to work with their peers in the classroom.

Much remains to be done on the part of the teachers. The researcher recommends fellow teachers to exert effort to modify student's academic motivation and achievement behavior in the classroom. Let us make our students acquire the learning goals orientation rather than the performance goal orientation.

To the Parents

Parents need to be aware of the practical use and value of self-regulated learning. They are recommended to help their children's progress in school by developing them as self-regulated individuals. This is because parents are the primary source of motivation for self-regulated learning.

Based from the Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program facilitated by the researcher, parents seldom assist their children in their studies at home. Most of the time, they hire tutors to guide their children. It is recommended therefore that parents at least should check and monitor if tutors and their children are using principles of self-regulation to facilitate optimal learning.

On Research

Although the researcher sees the need for continuing descriptive research about self-regulation, she recommends further research on self-regulated learning to test its effectiveness in learning and performance outcomes. The researcher recommends more intervention research with students in actual learning settings facilitated by trained teachers

Case studies involving only one or few students with significant self-regulatory problems should be investigated, in which changes in performance are assessed over time, along with continued use of self-regulatory activities after training is discontinued. This type of investigation will also explore individual differences in covert processes and determine why students with similar attributes and experiences diverge in self-regulation. With respect to strategy use, students may differ in their knowledge of strategies that can be applied, as well as attributions to successful strategy use.

Another recommendation is for greater emphasis on longitudinal studies. Long-term studies are needed to chart the course of development of self-regulatory skills.

This particular study made by the researcher limits the teaching of self-regulated learning strategies because it does not guarantee that students will continue to use them. Maintenance and generalization of self-regulatory gains brought about by short-term interventions may require periodic refresher instruction.

References

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Butler, D. L. & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: Atheoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65,245-281.

De charms, R. (1987). The burden of motivation. In Maehr, M. L. & Kleiber, D.A. (eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Enhancing motivation (v. 5, pp. 1-21), JAI Press.

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Eccles, J. & Midgely, C. (1989). Stage/ environment fir: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for early adolescents. In Ames, C. & Ames, R. (eds.), Research on motivation in education: The classroom milieu (pp. 249-286). New York: Academic Press.

Garcia, T. & Pintrich, P. R. (1994). Regulating motivation and cognition in the classroom: the role of self-schemas and self-regulatory strategies. In Schunk, D. H. & Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational implications (pp. 127-154). New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills intervention on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 99-136.

Paris, S. G. & Newman, R. S. (1990). Developmental aspects of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 87-102.

Pintrich, P. & De Groot, E. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.

Ryan, R., Connell, J., & Grolnick, W. (1992). When achievement is not intrinsically motivated: A theory of internalization and self-regulation in school. In Boggiano, A. & Pittman, T. (eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social-developmental perspective (pp. 167-188). Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press.

Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 3-25.

Zimmernan, B.J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329-339.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1994). Dimensions of academic self-regulation: A conceptual framework for education. In Schunk, D. H. & Zimmerman, B. J. (eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational implications (pp. 3-21). New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Faye Marsha G. Camahalan, School of Education, Indiana University Southeast.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Faye Marsha G. Camahalan, School of Education, Indiana University Southeast, 4201 Grant Line Road, New Albany,Indiana 47105; Email: fcemahal@ius.edu
Table 1
Self-Regulated Learning Strategies (Zimmerman, 1989)

Categories of
Strategies Definitions

1. Self-evaluation Statements indicating student-initiated
 evaluations of the quality or progress of
 their work, e.g. "I check over my work to
 make sure I did it right."

2. Organizing and Statements indicating student-initiated
transforming overt or covert rearrangement of
 instructional materials to improve
 learning, e.g., "I make an outline before
 I write my paper."

3. Goal-setting Statements indicating student setting of
and planning educational goals and subgoals and planning
 for sequencing, timing, and completing
 activities related to those goals, e.g.,
 first, I start studying two weeks before
 exams, and I pace myself."

4. Seeking Statements indicating student-initiated
information efforts to secure further task information
 from nonsocial sources when undertaking an
 assignment, e.g., "Before beginning to
 write the paper, I go to the library to get
 as much information as possible concerning
 the topic."

5. Keeping records Statements indicating student-initiated
and monitoring efforts to record events or results, e.g.,
 "I took notes of the class discussion." "I
 kept a list of words I got wrong."

6. Environmental Statements indicating student-initiated
structuring efforts to select or arrange the physical
 setting to make learning easier, e.g., "I
 isolate myself from anything that distracts
 me." "I turned off the radio so I can
 concentrate on what I am doing."

7. Self- Statements indicating student arrangement
consequences or imagination of rewards or punishment
 for success or failure, e.g., "If I do well
 on test, I treat myself to a movie."

8. Rehearsing and Statements indicating student-initiated
memorizing efforts to memorize materials by overt or
 covert practice, e.g., "When preparing for
 a test, I practice a lot to remember the
 computation process."

9-11. Seeking Statements indicating student-initiated
social assistance efforts to solicit help from peers (9),
 teachers (10), and adults (11), e.g., "If I
 have problems with math assignments, I ask
 a friend to help."

12-14. Reviewing Statements indicating student-initiated
records efforts to re-read tests (12), notes (13),
 or textbooks (14) to prepare for class or
 further testing, e.g., "When preparing for
 a test, I review my notes."

15. Other Statements indicating learning behavior
 that is inhibited by I other persons such
 as teachers or parents and all unclear
 verbal responses, e.g., "I just do what the
 teacher says."

Table 2
Number of Students in the Experimental Group in Terms of Improvement
and No Improvement Scores in MAT, MSRLS & MSG

Category Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics School
 Achievement Self-Regulated Grade
 Test (MAT) Learning Scale (MSG)
 (MSRLS)
 Grade Grade Grade
 Grade Grade Grade VI IV VI
 IV VI IV N=15 N=15 N=15
 N=15 N=15 N=15

With 10 15 15 15 9 15
improvement (67%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (60%) (100%)
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Author:Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.
Publication:Journal of Instructional Psychology
Date:Sep 1, 2006
Words:6039
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