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Effects of micronutrients foliar application on essential oils of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.).

INTRODUCTION

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) from Lamiaceae family is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent and specific sensorial properties. Essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of contains caryophyllene P, citronellal, geraniol, geranyl acetate, linalool, neral, nerol,, thymol, carvacrol and ursolic acid, is responsible for some of these effects [8]. Lemon balm, a native of the northern Mediterranean region is cultivated as a medical herb. It is listed in a number of European Pharmacopoeia for its carminative, digestive, diaphoretic and stimulant activities [37]. Small amount of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn are essential for growth and quality of the crop because these micro nutrients also control most of the physiological activities of the crop by interrupting the level of chlorophyll content in leaves which ultimately influence the photosynthetic activity of the plant [25]. In micronutrients, Copper is an essential microelement in higher plants as it occurs as part of the prosthetic groups of several enzymes. It was shown to be associated with proteins or nuclear contaminants. Zinc is an important micronutrient associated with several enzymatic activities in all photosynthetic plants. Zn is necessary in vital enzymes and growth regulators. Application of Zn caused significant increased in plant height on radish plants [28]. Iron is one of the three micro essential nutrient elements required by plants. Fe is important in cytochrome structure. The Fe (II) form is normally below the detection level in plants. Manganese is involved in many biochemical functions, primarily acting as an activator of enzymes such as dehydrogenases and decarboxylases involved in respiration, amino acid and lignin synthesis, and hormone concentrations [36]. In alkaline soils nutrient concentration may be not enough and therefore micro nutrient in this soil immobilized quickly and roots of plants can't absorb from soil and some of nutrient no transition to leaves, in this places spry application of micro nutrient solve this problem [10]. Few studies examining micronutrients fertilizers in essential oil components on lemon balm have been conducted. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] fertilizers on growth habit of Melissa officinalis L. and to compare the amount of essence production at two seasons.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Seeds of Lemon balm were obtained from Iranian Seeds and Plant Improvement Institute. Seeds were planted in field condition. Table 1 shows physicochemical properties of the soil. Treatments were micronutrient Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn levels by three replications. Amounts of essential oils components production as well as the chemical component of the essence were determined. Field trials were established in 2012 and 2013 at Shahrekord (50[degrees] 56/ E 32[degrees] 18/ N) South Western Iran. Experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with a factorial layout and three replications. Topsoil of the experimental plot area was kept moist throughout the growing season when necessary. After soil test, the required nutrients were added to soil. At the beginning of the blooming stage, shoots of plants were harvested.

Lemon balm shoots were clean with distillated water, and then were dried 3 days at 40[degrees]C in oven. 81 different micronutrients concentrations (Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn in 0, 150 and 300 ppm) were employed since of planting to beginning of flowering of plants.

The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thermo Finnegan Trace 2000 GC/MS, made in the USA, was employed with a HP-5MS capillary column (30 m long and 0.25 mm wide, and a 0.25 pm of film thickness) at a 250[degrees]C of injector chamber. The initial column temperature was at 120[degrees]C for 5 min then raised to 280[degrees]C at the rate of 10[degrees]C/min. Helium was used as a carrier gas at a rate of 35 ml/min. MS parameters were as follows: ionization energy, 70eV; ion source temperature, 200[degrees]C; voltage, 3000 v; and mass range, 30 to 600. The compositions of the essential oil were identified by comparison of their retention indexes, retention times and mass spectra with those of authentic samples in Wiley library [3].

All data were subjected to ANOVA using the statistical computer package SAS and treatment means separated using Duncan's multiple range test at P<0.05 level.

Results:

Caryophyllene [beta] and citronellal of Lemon balm were affected by the treatments (Table 2). The micronutrients application increased (23%-30%) and (100%-61%) at the first and second season on Caryophyllene [beta] and Citronellal, respectively, compared with the control. Also, the [Fe.sup.2+] application affected the caryophyllene [beta] and citronellal percentage and was increased caryophyllene [beta] (13 %-19%) and citronellal (30%10%) an average of compared with the control. Similarly, the [Zn.sup.2+] application increased the caryophyllene [beta] and citronellal percentage by 10% and (22%-10%) at the first and second season, respectively. The foliar [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications affected the Caryophyllene [beta] and citronellal concentration an average of 100% an 150 ppm application of micronutrients compared with the control in both years (Tables 3, 4). Hanan Ali (17) on Thyme, Al-Ahl (5) on Dill and Al-Humaid [6] on Fennel showed similar results. [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications affected geranial, geraniol and geranyl acetate of stems and increased with the micronutrients applications by an average of 100% during the 2 years compared with the control (Tables 3, 4). There was statistical significant difference among the three rates of [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications (Table 2). The amount of geranial, geraniol and geranyl acetate per plant increased after the fertilizers (whole four micronutrients) application compared with the control by an average of (2%-6%), (87%) and (97%-70%) in first and second season respectively (Tables 3, 4). In same research, the effect of farm yard manure reported significant on neral, (28.43%), geranial (39.86%) and geranyl acetate (8.67%) compared to other treatments [18].

Linalool and neral concentrations were affected by [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications and increased an average of (20%-58%) and (6%-7%) compared with the control in both years respectively (Tables 3, 4). Patora et al, [32] on lemon balm, Hanan Ali [17] on Thymus vulgaris, Al-Ahl [5] on Dill, Al-Humaid [6] on Fennel and Yadegari et al., [41] on lemon balm showed beneficial application from micronutrients.

[Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications affected on thymol and carvacrol percentage of the crop (Table 2). The essential oil content was affected by the [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications. thymol and carvacrol percentages were affected by [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications and increased an average of (70%-90%) and (45%-64%) compared with the control in both years respectively (Tables 3, 4). Also Abazarian et al., [1] Yadegari et al., [43] and Abu-Darwish [2] showed usefulness of micronutrients on yield of plants.

Discussion:

In the present study, the effect of micronutrients applications was determined on the essential oils of Lemon balm in two consecutive years. According to our knowledge, this is the first report that shows that [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] can affect the geranial and neral of Lemon balm and the same response can probably be found in other essential oils that have adapted to local soils or have high requirements for [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+]. In the soil application, the nutrients can be bound and therefore cannot be available for the plants. Also, since most nutrients are taken up with water, their uptake is restricted during water stress. The critical levels micronutrients were not determined for Lemon balm plants. The significant effect that [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] have on essence indicates that micronutrients play an important role in the yield of Lemon balm. Lemon balm needs [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] and it is possible that this requirement increases during flowering, as the flowering process and the reproductive tissue have higher requirements for [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] foliar applications can have a direct effect on yield. In this study the response to micronutrients applications can be higher. This is possible since the plants grew better with the [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] application, developed a bigger root system, and took up more nutrients. [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] are immobile in plants and can't be transported to developing organs. Therefore, foliar application can provide [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] to the developing organs that need it the most and, in this case, the plants do not have take these micronutrients from the soil solution. However, the actual amount of [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] that reaches the reproductive tissue can be small and depends on other factors such as [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] soil and plant levels, and water stress that can restrict micronutrients movement and this is possibly one reason for finding a significant increase in yield because of the micronutrients application. Micronutrients application affected carvacrol and thymol as the plants in the control treatment and increased with micronutrients applications by an average of 60% during the 2 years compared with the control. When the [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] level is too low to sustain plant growth, the plants become shorter and the total biomass is lower compared with the plants with sufficient micronutrients [16 and 26]. This effect can be explained as micronutrients affecting the carbohydrate transport, and this can affect the yield components in many plants [25]. Since micronutrients affects the meristems, the increase in the availability of [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] can increase the number of stems per plant as they grow better [7]. Gomaa [15] on amaryllis, Al-Humaid [6] on Fennel, Youssef et al., [46] on Ocimum sanctum, Al-Ahl [5] on Dill, Hanan Ali [17] on Thyme, Samia and Mahmoud [34] on Tritonia crocata, Nasiri et al., [30] on Chamomile, Khalifa et al., [21] on Iris, Heidari et al., [20] on sesame, Yadegari [42] on Thyme, Galavi et al., [14] on safflower, Yarnia et al., [44] on Purple coneflower and Younis et al., [45] on Rosa hybrida they found that spraying micronutrients increased essential oils and micronutrients in plants. The essential oil yield increased with [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] applications because there was a significant increase in dry matter yield. In researches of Al-Ahl [5] on Dill, increasing on dry matter yield, essential oil content, and essential oil yield by use of micronutrients was achieved. However, more research is needed to explore these tools for Lemon balm breeding and for better Lemon balm management. There are still many unanswered questions about how [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] act in increasing essential oils for Lemon balm. One possibility is that the foliar applied micronutrients can affect dry matter accumulation and increase dry matter yield. Micronutrients can increase the number of stems per plant and slowdown leaf senescence [12 and 11]. The obtained results are in conformity with those of Gomaa [15] onAntholyza aethiopica, Sari and Ceylan [35] on lemon balm, Yadav et al., [40] and Rawia et al., [33] on tuberose, Al-Humaid [6] on Fennel, Hanan Ali [17] on Thyme, Nahed and Laila [29] on Salvia Farinacea, Farahat et al., (13) on Cupressus sempervirens and Samia and Mahmoud [34] on Tritonia crocata. The main components of the oil at both years were neral and geranial for all populations. This indicates that foliar application of micronutrients has a significant effect on the composition of the essential oil. Many researchers have reported that the main components of lemon balm are neral and geranial [24,32,35]. However, there were significant differences among the rates of those reported components. Neral and geranial rates in the oil were reported respectively as 15% and 14.5% by Hefendehl [19], 19.6-36.1% and 25.3- 47.5% by Tittel et al. [39], 19.5% and 31.6% by Werker et al. [47], 7.195% and 12.99% by Ozay [31], 10.9% and 17.3% by Lawrence [23] and 30-40% and 50-60% by Ceylan et al. [9]. Although many studies discussed above reported that neral and geranial were the main components of the oil, Kirimer et al. [22] found that the main component of the lemon balm oil they studied was carvacrol or in some of studies citronellal, citronellol, linalool and geranial as major chemical compositions of the essential oil of the lemon balm [4,8,27,38]. All the significant differences for the components of the oil among the papers discussed above may be due to the use of different genetic material and/or different environmental conditions.

Conclusion:

This study showed that the applications of [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] had a significant effect on essential oils of Lemon balm such as carvacrol and thymol percentage. The main components of the oil at both years were neral and geranial for all treatments. This indicates that foliar application of micronutrients has a significant effect on the composition of the essential oil. These results show that micronutrients applications can affect the growth and yield of Lemon balm, especially when it is grown in alkaline soils. This study provides some useful information about the effect of application of [Cu.sup.2+], [Mn.sup.2+], [Fe.sup.2+] and [Zn.sup.2+] on Lemon balm production and in that way increases our knowledge about the effect of micronutrients on crop production.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 January 2014

Received in revised form 19 April 2014

Accepted 24 April 2014

Available online 5 May 2014

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Mehrab Yadegari and Amir Shakerian

Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Mehrab Yadegari, Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.

Tel: +98 9133814318- Fax: +98 3813361093- mehrabyadegari@gmail.com
Table 1: Some physical and chemical properties of soil for
experiment (0 -30) cm.

                            [N.sub.   O.C
                            total]
Year   Texture   E.C                %       pH
                 (ds.[m.
                 sup.-1])

1      Loam      8.1        0.11      0.2   8.7
2      Loam      7.8        0.11      0.2   8.5

                 K     P    Zn     Mn    Fe    Cu

Year   Texture              mg.[kg.sup.-1]

1      Loam      770   45   0.57   1.2   4.1   1.3
2      Loam      745   44   0.45   1.1   3.1   1.1

Table 2: Complex analysis of variance of essential oils components in
essence in Lemon balm plants that are affected by several
micronutrients.

Source of      Degree    Caryophylle   Geranial   Citronellal
variation      of        ne [beta]
               freedom   Mean of Square

Year(Y)        1         5.3 *         2.2 *      0.0002 *
R/Y            4         3.28 *        1.35 *     0.00013 *
Copper (Cu)    2         6.4 **        2.6 **     0.00024 **
Manganese      2         7.1 **        3.1 **     0.0004 **
  (Mn)
Iron (Fe)      2         6.5 **        2.91 **    0.001 **
Zinc (Zn)      2         7.3 **        2.62 **    0.002 **
CuxMn          4         4.7 **        2.1 **     0.0002 **
CuxFe          4         5.1 **        3.2 **     0.001 **
CuxZn          4         6.7 **        2.2 **     0.004 **
MnxFe          4         6.02 **       7.2 **     0.0004 **
MnxZn          4         5.5 **        3.4 **     0.002 **
FexZn          4         5.6 **        2.43 **    0.003 **
CuxMnxFe       8         2.8 *         1.5 **     0.00015 **
CuxMnxZn       8         4.5 **        1.1 *      0.004 **
CuxFexZn       8         2.81 *        2.2 **     0.00017 **
FexZnxMn       8         2.78 *        2.6 **     0.00011 *
CuxZnxMnxFe    16        2.4 *         1.2 **     0.00009 *
T(Cu,Zn,Mn,    80        1.9 *         0.78 *     0.00007 *
  Fe) xY
E              320       1.36          0.56       0.00005
Coefficient              0.74          1          2.4

Source of      Degree    Geraniol    Geranyl   Linalool
variation      of                    Acetate
               freedom

Year(Y)        1         0.0002 *    0.97 *    0.73 *
R/Y            4         0.00012 *   0.61 *    0.46 *
Copper (Cu)    2         0.00022 *   1.8 **    1.1 **
Manganese      2         0.0004 **   3.2 **    0.99 **
  (Mn)
Iron (Fe)      2         0.003 **    4.5 **    2.5 **
Zinc (Zn)      2         0.0003 **   2.2 **    1.6 **
CuxMn          4         0.00015 *   0.85 **   0.7 **
CuxFe          4         0.12 **     1.4 **    1.2 **
CuxZn          4         0.0012 **   1.1 **    1.14 **
MnxFe          4         0.002 **    0.9 **    0.88 **
MnxZn          4         0.56 **     2.21 **   0.94 **
FexZn          4         0.0021 **   0.97 **   1.7 **
CuxMnxFe       8         0.00014 *   1.2 **    1.4 **
CuxMnxZn       8         0.0012 **   0.6 *     0.7 **
CuxFexZn       8         0.00008 *   0.51 *    1.4 **
FexZnxMn       8         0.0023 **   1.1 **    0.4 *
CuxZnxMnxFe    16        0.00019 *   2.2 **    0.34 *
T(Cu,Zn,Mn,    80        0.00005 *   0.35 *    0.26 *
  Fe) xY
E              320       0.00004     0.25      0.19
Coefficient              1           2.9       5.9

Source of      Degree    Neral     Carvacrol   Thymo
variation      of                              l
               freedom

Year(Y)        1         0.051 *   0.05 *      0.05 *
R/Y            4         0.032 *   0.041 *     0.04 *
Copper (Cu)    2         0.1 **    0.22 **     0.2 **
Manganese      2         0.2 **    0.22 **     0.22 **
  (Mn)
Iron (Fe)      2         0.3 **    0.32 **     0.04 *
Zinc (Zn)      2         0.15 **   0.04 *      0.092 *
CuxMn          4         0.05 **   1.01 **     1.11 **
CuxFe          4         0.2 **    2.21 **     2.3 **
CuxZn          4         0.1 **    0.4 **      5.6 **
MnxFe          4         0.99 **   1.3 **      3.3 **
MnxZn          4         0.08 **   1.5 **      4.5 **
FexZn          4         1.4 **    2.9 **      3.9 **
CuxMnxFe       8         0.06 **   0.14 **     0.04 *
CuxMnxZn       8         0.03 *    0.14 **     0.02 *
CuxFexZn       8         0.027 *   0.05 **     0.06 **
FexZnxMn       8         0.04 **   0.05 **     0.043 **
CuxZnxMnxFe    16        0.03 **   0.14 **     0.044 **
T(Cu,Zn,Mn,    80        0.018 *   0.03 **     0.02 *
  Fe) xY
E              320       0.013     0.012       0.013
Coefficient              5.3       3.5         5.2
of variation

Table 3: Means of essential oil percentage measured in lemon balm
plants that are affected by micronutrients (150ppm) concentration
(1st year).

                Caryophyllene   Gerania   Citronella
Treatments      [beta]          l         l

Copper (Cu)     5.4 b           32.2 b    0.5 bc
Manganese(Mn)   5.4 b           32.5 b    0.56 b
Iron (Fe)       5.3 b           32.7 ab   0.53 b
Zinc (Zn)       5.1 c           32.2 b    0.5 bc
CuxMn           5.2 bc          32.2 b    0.5 bc
CuxFe           5.4 b           32.7 ab   0.5 bc
CuxZn           5.4 b           32.6 a    0.6 b
MnxFe           5.1 c           33 a      0.6 b
MnxZn           5.5 ab          33 a      0.64 ab
FexZn           5.3 b           33 a      0.65 ab
CuxMnxFe        5.6 a           33 a      0.7 a
CuxMnxZn        5.2 bc          33.1 a    0.7 a
CuxFexZn        5.6 a           33 a      0.7 a
FexZnxMn        5.5 ab          33.1 a    0.7 a
CuxZnxMnxFe     5.8 a           33.1 a    0.8 a
Control         4.7 d           32.3 b    0.41 d

                Geranio   Geranyl   Linalool
Treatments      l         Acetate

Copper (Cu)     1.4 d     2.2 e     1.55 cd
Manganese(Mn)   1.5 d     2.2 e     1.56 cd
Iron (Fe)       1.55 d    2.33 e    1.57 c
Zinc (Zn)       1.5 d     2.3 e     1.55 d
CuxMn           1.7 cd    2.5 de    1.53 b
CuxFe           1.6 d     2.6 d     1.54 b
CuxZn           1.7 cd    2.76 d    1.55 b
MnxFe           1.6 d     2.77 d    1.53 b
MnxZn           1.8 c     2.87 cd   1.51 b
FexZn           1.8 c     2.9 cd    1.6 b
CuxMnxFe        2.1 b     3.6 b     1.6 b
CuxMnxZn        2.3 ab    3.74 ab   1.65 ab
CuxFexZn        2.1 b     3.8 a     1.7 a
FexZnxMn        2.5 a     3.9 a     1.7 a
CuxZnxMnxFe     2.6 a     4.1 a     1.8 a
Control         1.39 d    2.08 e    1.5 b

                Neral       Carvacrol   Thymo
Treatments                              l

Copper (Cu)     29. 24 d    1.4 cd      0.11 c
Manganese(Mn)   29. 22 d    1.4 cd      0.12 c
Iron (Fe)       29. 25 d    1.5 c       0.12 c
Zinc (Zn)       29. 24 d    1.4 cd      0.12 c
CuxMn           29. 56 c    1.4 cd      0.12 c
CuxFe           29. 52 c    1.4 cd      0.12 c
CuxZn           29. 55 c    1.6 c       0.12 c
MnxFe           29. 59 c    1.5 c       0.13 bc
MnxZn           29.54 c     1.8 b       0.15 ab
FexZn           29. 92 bc   1.8 b       0.14 b
CuxMnxFe        30. 3 b     1.9 ab      0.14 b
CuxMnxZn        30. 4 b     1.9 ab      0.16 a
CuxFexZn        30. 5 ab    2.1 a       0.16 a
FexZnxMn        30. 8 a     2.2 a       0.16 a
CuxZnxMnxFe     30.9 a      2.3 a       0.17 a
Control         29.13 d     1.01 d      0.1 c

Table 4: Means of essential oil percentage measured in lemon balm
plants that are affected by micronutrients (150ppm) concentration
(2nd year).

                Caryophyllen   Gerania   Citronella
Treatments      e [beta]       l         l

Copper (Cu)     4.4 b          28.6 b    0.6 b
Manganese(Mn)   4.5 ab         28.5 bc   0.6 b
Iron (Fe)       4.4 b          28.7 b    0.61 b
Zinc (Zn)       4.1 c          28.6 b    0.6 b
CuxMn           4.4 b          28.5 bc   0.6 b
CuxFe           4.4 b          28.7 b    0.64 b
CuxZn           4.6 a          29.6 a    0.68 b
MnxFe           4.6 a          29 b      0.66 b
MnxZn           4.5 ab         29 b      0.67 b
FexZn           4.3 b          29 b      0.76 ab
CuxMnxFe        4.6 a          29 b      0.8 a
CuxMnxZn        4.5 ab         30.1 a    0.8 a
CuxFexZn        4.6 a          30 a      0.87 a
FexZnxMn        4.6 a          30.1 a    0.8 a
CuxZnxMnxFe     4.8 a          30.1 a    0.9 a
Control         3.7 d          28.3 c    0.56 c

                Geranio   Geranyl   Linaloo
Treatments      l         Acetate   l

Copper (Cu)     1.49 bc   1.33 bc   1.45 c
Manganese(Mn)   1.5 bc    1.4 b     1.46 c
Iron (Fe)       1.55 bc   1.33 bc   1.37 c
Zinc (Zn)       1.5 bc    1.3 bc    1.35 cd
CuxMn           1.7 b     1.5 b     1.33 cd
CuxFe           1.6 b     1.6 b     1.54 b
CuxZn           1.7 b     1.76 ab   1.55 b
MnxFe           1.8 b     1.77 ab   1.53 bc
MnxZn           1.9 b     1.87 a    1.61 b
FexZn           1.9 b     1.9 a     1.6 b
CuxMnxFe        2.2 a     1.6 b     1.6 b
CuxMnxZn        2.3 a     1.74 ab   1.65 b
CuxFexZn        2.3 a     1.8 a     1.6 b
FexZnxMn        2.5 a     1.9 a     1.7 ab
CuxZnxMnxFe     2.5 a     2.1 a     1.9 a
Control         1.33 c    1.23 c    1.2 d

                Neral       Carvacrol   Thymol
Treatments

Copper (Cu)     28. 24 d    1.07 c      0.1 c
Manganese(Mn)   28. 22 d    1.04 c      0.13 b
Iron (Fe)       28. 25 cd   1.05 c      0.13 b
Zinc (Zn)       28. 24 cd   1.04 c      0.13 b
CuxMn           28. 56 b    1.04 c      0.11 bc
CuxFe           28. 52 b    1.04 c      0.13 b
CuxZn           28. 55 b    1.1 bc      0.13 b
MnxFe           29. 5 ab    1.1 bc      0.14 b
MnxZn           29.5 ab     1.1 bc      0.15 ab
FexZn           29. 5 ab    1.1 bc      0.15 ab
CuxMnxFe        29. 1 b     1.1 bc      0.17 a
CuxMnxZn        29. 1 b     1.1 bc      0.17 a
CuxFexZn        30. 1 a     1.15 b      0.17 a
FexZnxMn        30. 1 a     1.2 ab      0.17 a
CuxZnxMnxFe     30.1 a      1.3 a       0.17 a
Control         28.1 d      0.9 d       0.09 c
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Author:Yadegari, Mehrab; Shakerian, Amir
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Author abstract
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Feb 14, 2014
Words:5658
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