Effects of different drying methods on, volatile oil content and composition of lavander (Lavandula officinalis L.).
The main goal in drying agricultural products is extending the shelf life. This stops various biological activities including microbial enzymes from happening and hence a cut back on material properties such as volume and weight which in turn provides more comfort in product preparation and transportation.  procedures are different and have an impact on the amount of volatile oil medicines . Most herbs and spices are traded dried, because, due to the high water content in the fresh state they suffer serious deterioration after microbial growth and biochemical changes. The removal of water by dehydration of herbs and spices reducing microbial growth .
Lavender is an important medicinal herb of the family Labiatae. Lavender is originally grown in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean and is planted on a mass scale for commercial purposes in UK, Australia, Bulgaria, China, USA, Hungary, Portugal, Spain and France . This plant is cultivated mainly for its aroma inflorescences from which the volatile oil is isolated, despite their fresh and dried flowers are also traded . Lianool and Linalyl are the important constituents in Lavandula officials oil. It has been vastly used in cosmetic industry for ages . Lavandula officinalis is known for their many pharmacological activities: anticonvulsant, sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidant, analgesic and local anesthetic [12,9]. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated that lavender monoterpenes  that are responsible for their pharmacological activity, are key components of the aerial parts of the plant and flowers [11,16]. Moreover, today, the species are cultivated lavender are used in fragrances and cosmetic products [18,13]. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and anti-inflammatory . It is known that Lavender oil can be used as an antifungal agent to cure Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus nidulans . The volatile oil extracted from lavender is widely used in food industries .
A study of two drying methods for lemongrass, namely, forced ventilation oven at 40[degrees]C and at 25[degrees]C with moisture absorbents, proved that the component found in excess in the volatile oil was citral the highest concentration of which was located in the moisture absorbents . Sefidkon et al.  evaluated the influence of methods of drying (drying in the sunshade-drying and oven drying at 45[degrees]C) on the yield and chemical composition of the volatile oil from Satureja hortensis. It can be concluded that the drying aerial parts of S. hortensis in the oven at 45[degrees]C is more suited and is suitable for fast drying, oil and high productivity as well as to a large proportion of carvacrol. The other two experiments conducted in order to realize the impact on production and chemical composition of Juniperus phoenicea L. volatile oils were sun-shade drying and oven drying at 45[degrees]C . The authors concluded that drying of berries J. phoenicea in oven drying is better suited and recommended for getting higher yield of volatile oils; for higher percentages of some special components, however, such as [alpha]-pinene and [delta]-3-carene, shade drying it was more appropriate. In this regard, there have been a few searches performed on some effects of different drying methods on volatile oil content and chemical composition of the Lavandula officinalis so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of volatile oil and chemical composition of different methods of drying lavandula officinalis as a potential new source of natural antioxidants.
Lavandula officinalis plants were about 3 years old and grown with organic fertilizer in the loamy-clay soil with a pH of 7.2(table 1). Plants were harvested just prior to flowering, and fresh leaves were immediately removed from the stems. Before drying, the samples were sliced and homogenized by removal of parts of plants that were in the decomposition stage (late maturing), containing other pests or diseases. After, the samples were sent immediately to the laboratory for the determination of moisture and cooled in a cold room at 4 [+ or -] 1 [degrees] C during subsequent drying.Drying experiments are performed on three methods: shade-drying and sun-drying (25[degrees]C), oven drying (50[degrees]C and 70[degrees]C), microwave drying (100, 180, 300w).
Isolation of Volatile Oil:
The volatile oil was extracted by hydro-distillation for 3 hours, using a device Clevenger type of three replicates. Volatile oil content (v/w%) was estimated based on fresh weight. The oil samples obtained were dehydrated with anhydrous sodium sulphate and maintained in a cool and dark place before analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS). Volatile oil content was defined as followed:
R (%) = (mass essential oil/mass of the dried leaves) x 100
Gas Chromatography (GC):
GC analysis of oil samples was performed on a gas chromatograph model 5765 Perkin NUCON and Auto XL GC equipped with FID and two different stationary phases, BP-20 (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 [micro] m thick film) fused silica capillary columns, respectively. Helium is used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Temperature programming was done 70-230 [degrees]C to 4 [degrees]C/min with initial standby time and the end of 2 min. Split ratio was 1:30. The temperature of the injector and detector was 200 [degrees]C and 230 BP-20 column, respectively.
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS):
The quantification of the constituents is made with a GC-MS burned to a PerkinElmer Auto System XL GC and Turbo Mass Spectrometer equipped with a capillary column of fused silica, BP-20 (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 [micro]m thick film). The column temperature was programmed from 100 to 280 [degrees] C at 3 [degrees] C / min using helium as carrier gas at constant pressure of 10 psi. MS conditions were: EI mode 70 eV, ion source temperature 250 [degrees] C.
The data were analyzed by MSTATC software and using Duncan's test. Means were compared by using LSD test at 1% level of significance.
The volatile oil yield were in shade dried (0.7%), sun dried (0.6%), oven dried50[degrees]C (0.7%), oven dried 70[degrees]C (1.2%) and microwave (100,180,300W) dried leaves were 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3%, respectively on wet weight basis (Table 2). In accordance with our results, Variation in volatile oil yield due mode of drying has also been reported in other medicinal plant . seventeen compounds were identified in the volatile oil of Lavandula officinalis, the analysis of these oil samples showed that drying method had significant effect on the chemical composition of lavander leaves (Table 2). The major components in oil of lavander leaves were Linalool and linalyl. In our study, Linalool and linalyl were also identified at high percentages.
The concentration of Linalool was slightly higher in microwave drying (300w) and oven drying (70 [degrees]C) (26.8 and 24.5%, respectively) and The percentage of Linalool was found to be lowest in sun dried leaves (11.9%) (Table 2).
The amount of Linalyl was found to be higher in microwave(300W) dried leaves (24.2%) followed by oven dried (70[degrees]C) leaves (31.7%), while in shade, sun dried leaves it was 15.2, 11.9 respectively (Table 2).
microwave dried leaves were also observed to be rich in Camphene(L7%), a- Pinene(2.8%), aBisabolol(1.6%), IsoBornylformate(1.5%), Carvone(1.5%), N- Hexylbutanoate(1.4%),1,8-Cineol(4.5%), Transpinocarveol(1.1%), a-Campholenal(1.5%), [alpha]-thujene(0.8%), 5-3-carene(1.4%), Lavanduly(13.3%), Borneol(14.1%), Myrtenol(2.5%), Caryophylene oxide(1.7%) (Table 2). The results of this study with regard to the increase in essential oil's percentage of Lavander by microwave drying are in accordance with the results reported by Soysal about Parsley (Soysal, 2004).
The changes in the regimes of volatile compounds during drying have been reported to depend on several factors such as drying method and change to species or family . Several investigations [2,10,17] on the essential oils of various lavandula species showed that linalool and linalyl were the most important compounds of these plants. Therefore, we investigated linalool and linalyl in lavandula officinalis. Results showed that maximum linalool and linalyn percentage (26.8% & 24.2 %) were obtained in microwave(300W) dried leaves, and minimum linalool and linalyl percentage (14.8 and 11.9 %) were shown in the sun-dried methods. Therefore the drying methods have a great importance on the quantity and quality of this production. In spite of all technical developments, the choice of the correct drying temperature remains a central economic and ecological criterion in the drying of medicinal plants. The use of microwave(300W) dried leaves causes an increase in drying time and the preservation of Lavander's percentage and compounds of its volatile oil. Moreover, microwaves sustain the therapeutic effects of Lavander after the drying process. The use of microwaves is recommended in drying process of the aromatic plants whose active substances exist in their leafs surfaces, leading to the high temperatures sensitivity. The high speed of drying procedure and low entering energy prevent the value of essential oil , microwaves cause the water inside the tissues to be evaporated by diffusing in plant's organs. In addition, microwaves eject the moisture of plants without damaging their outer surface . Hence, on the basis of essential oil yiel and composition, microwave drying method was found to be most suitable followed by oven, shade and sun drying for lavander leaves.
From the results it can be concluded that the highest volatile oil content was found in plant material dried at microwave drying, then oven dried, and the lowest content was found in the plant material dried in dried naturally. The content of the major constituent, pharmacologically active Linalool and linalyl are the most represented in the oil from the microwave dried herb. So, drying of plant material for isolation of volatile oils at microwave drying is could be marked as the best method. Simultaneously, draying in the oven way is quite acceptable.
Received 23 December 2013
Received in revised form 25
Accepted 26 February 2014
Available online 2 April 2014
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(1) Ali Nematian, (2,3) Mohammad Ali Shariati, (4) Maria do Carmo Vieira
(1) Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.
(2) Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
(3) Rahpouyan Kamyar, Food Inspection Lab, Khansar, Iran.
(4) Coordenadora de Pesquisa Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados Rua Jodo Rosa Goes, 1761; Vila progresso 79825-070 Dourados MS
Corresponding Author: Ali Nematian, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Chemical and physical characteristics for soil of experimental farm (at the soil depth of 0 - 30 cm) Silt Sand Clay Absorptive Absorptive Total % % % Potassium % Phosphorus % Nitrogen (p.pm) (p.pm) % 26 38 33 287 18.93 0.11 Silt Organic Water EC pH Soil % Carbon absorption (ds/m) texture % % 26 4.22 58 1.04 7.2 Loamy- clay Table 2: Impact of mode of drying on volatile oil content and composition of Lavander, Peak area(%) Mode of drying Compounds RIa Shade Sun [alpha]-Pinene 1026 13.4 13.9 Camphene 947 0.6 0.4 [alpha]-Pinene 936 1.4 1.3 [alpha]-Bisabolol 1683 0.3 0.2 Iso Bornylformate 1225 0.5 0.3 Carvone 1242 0.1 0.2 N-Hexylbutanoate 1192 0.3 0.2 1,8-Cineol 1035 1.1 2.2 Linalool 1285 19.3 14.8 Trans-pinocarveol 1133 0.2 0.2 linalyl 1285 15.2 11.9 [alpha]-Campholenal 947 0.4 0.6 [alpha]-thujene 927 0.1 0.1 [delta]-3-carene 1010 0.4 0.2 Lavandulyl 1263 9.8 6.7 Borneol 1169 9.31 8.63 Myrtenol 1195 0.3 0.2 Caryophylene oxide 1586 0.7 0.6 Other parameter volatile oil yield 0.7 0.6 (%) * Compounds Microwave(w) 0.1 [alpha]-Pinene 100 180 300 Camphene 1.2 1.3 1.7 [alpha]-Pinene 2.5 2.5 2.8 [alpha]-Bisabolol 1.2 1.3 1.6 Iso Bornylformate 1.0 1.1 1.5 Carvone 1.0 1.1 1.5 N-Hexylbutanoate 0.9 1.0 1.4 1,8-Cineol 3.0 4.1 4.5 Linalool 23.7 24.2 26.8 Trans-pinocarveol 0.7 0.9 1.1 linalyl 21.3 22.1 24.2 [alpha]-Campholenal 1.1 1.2 1.5 [alpha]-thujene 0.4 0.6 0.8 [delta]-3-carene 1.1 1.2 1.4 Lavandulyl 12.7 12.9 13.3 Borneol 10.73 12.0 14.1 Myrtenol 0.9 1.5 2.5 Caryophylene oxide 0.9 1.2 1.7 Other parameter volatile oil yield 0.9 1.1 1.3 (%) * Compounds Oven([degrees]C) [alpha]-Pinene 9.2 50 70 Camphene 1.0 1.3 [alpha]-Pinene 2.4 2.5 [alpha]-Bisabolol 1.1 1.4 Iso Bornylformate 0.9 1.1 Carvone 1.0 1.3 N-Hexylbutanoate 0.7 0.9 1,8-Cineol 3.8 4.2 Linalool 20.2 24.5 Trans-pinocarveol 0.5 0.8 linalyl 20.0 22.5 [alpha]-Campholenal 1.0 1.3 [alpha]-thujene 0.3 0.7 [delta]-3-carene 1.0 1.2 Lavandulyl 10.3 11.8 Borneol 10.1 13.8 Myrtenol 1.2 2.3 Caryophylene oxide 1.1 1.5 Other parameter volatile oil yield 0.7 1.2 (%) * (a) Retention indices on BP-20 column; (experimental) * Percent calculated on wet weight basis; t: trace (<0.1%)
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|Author:||Nematian, Ali; Shariati, Mohammad Ali; Vieira, Maria do Carmo|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2014|
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