Effects of Supervision Practices of Principals on Work Performance and Growth of Primary School Teachers.
There is a need to investigate the effects of supervision practices of school principals on teachers' work performance and growth in Pakistani society. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the supervision practices of school managers related to staff development and its relationship with teachers' work performance and growth in primary schools. To achieve this objective, this study collected data through survey instrument from a sample of principals and teachers in Lahore, Pakistan. The results, obtained from correlation and regression analyses, revealed that supervision practices of principals related to staff development are indeed helpful in attaining better performance of teachers and their overall growth. Further, it was also found that there is not much difference between staff development practices of male and female school principals.
On the other hand, the results of data analysis also found significant difference between work performance and growth of male and female school teachers. The study concluded that enhancement and polishing of principals' staff development supervision practices is of utmost importance as it significantly contributes towards the improvement in work performance and growth of school teachers.
Keywords: School supervision, Teacher performance, Teacher growth, Primary schools.
Education plays an integral part in a nation building. Teachers are vital constituents of any educational set up (Ricard and Pelletier, 2016). Teachers are still in demand irrespective of technological progression and provide a real learning experience through their motivation and job performance (Arifin, 2015). Schools are likely to be successful if their teachers perform well (Wildman, 2015). Job performance is actually about encompassing all sort of activities to be done for gaining certain outcomes and set targets. However, low level of supervision practices may be the precursors of teachers' non professionalism which further points to the importance of better supervision practices (Adetula, 2005). Therefore effective and efficient teaching demands for supreme supervision practices on behalf of school managers i.e. principals (Wildman, 2015).
Importance of primary schools cannot be negated on any ground as these schools build up the scholars' foundation for higher studies. Further, principals are the managers of these institutions who run them smoothly with the effort of people around them (Heaton, 2016). This has also been pointed out by Lundgren (1983) that management is about managing things with the help of people and this activity improves the organizational activity. Good management improves productivity and helps in achieving set targets (Ducker,1973; Snell, Morris, and Bohlander, 2015).
Education is the need of the day and supervision has been given due credit in better education achievements. According to Osakwe (2010), principals offer guidance to teachers through their supervision and thus school objectives are achieved through effective teaching and efficient learning. In this regard, principals assist teachers in refining their competencies essential for better teaching of the disciples (Heaton, 2016). Principals who are efficient in supervision offer help in assisting teachers in making lesson plans and summaries before lectures, instructional aids and other target oriented activities. Principals with better supervision take feedback and then further guide and move teachers towards desired work and objectives (Zepeda, 2014). Thus, the importance of supervisory techniques may help in achieving teachers' better performance and this can be accelerated through supervision practices e.g. visiting classrooms, appraising, and workshops/seminars (Obi, (2004).
Statement of the Problem
It is an open truth that a teacher paves the way that leads to disciples' success in academics and career (Kunter, Klusmann, Baumert, Richter, Voss, and Hachfeld, 2013). These are teachers who would guide students and provide opportunities for students' growth and character building. Thus, undoubtedly, students' success which is also the objective of schools are largely depends on their teachers' devotion and hard work. Further, principals are those persons who manage and maneuver teachers through their supervision practices (Heaton, 2016). Thus, if their supervision is on the right track, it may activate teachers' efficiency and productivity. Supervision practices, for instance, may encompass; checking attendance, develop and design curriculum and work schema, lecture delivery patterns, lecture preparatory drills, plan and manage school resources, developing effective communication (School-based Management Document, 2006).
However, most teachers show negligence in performing their assumed roles; try to pass time; show irregularity and unpunctuality, never get satisfied with present positions and usually are indulged in finding some other more suitable jobs (Sharma, 2016). Further, negligence on work related activities of teachers hinders in achieving organizational goals and job performance (Osibanjo, Akinbode, Falola, and Oludayo, 2015). Here, the importance of supervision increases and in this regard, such study is helpful in determining any potential association between principals' supervision practices and teachers' job performance.
Statements of Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between principals' supervision practices related to staff development and teachers' job performance.
Hypothesis 2: There is a significant relationship between principals' supervision practices related to staff development and teachers' growth.
Hypothesis 3: There is a significant difference between supervision practices of male and female principals.
Hypothesis 4: There is a significant difference between work performance and growth of male and female teachers.
Objectives of the Study
* To investigate the relationship of supervision practices of primary school principals in Lahore, Pakistan based on staff development with teachers' job performance.
* To investigate the relationship of supervision practices of primary school principals in Lahore, Pakistan based on staff development with teachers' growth.
* To investigate the difference between supervision practices of male and female principals.
* To investigate the difference between work performance and growth of male and female teachers.
Significance of the Study
Limited research has been conducted on staff development in schools (Thillmann, Bach, Wurster and Thiel, 2015). The same situation is very much true for primary school context in Pakistan. Particularly, scarce attention has been given to supervisory practices and its effects on teacher's job performance and growth. This study, on the other hand, contributes knowledge on the supervision practices that are helpful in teachers' performance and teachers' growth in primary schools of Pakistan. It would assist in improving the level of supervision practices and ultimately in achieving organizational objectives. So, it is indispensible to identify the relationships between supervisory practices and teachers 'performance and growth. The study results would create an effect on establishing a relatively better supervision system in primary education of Pakistan. Further, this study is likely to benefit the educationists, researchers, principals, policy makers and stake holders related to education.
Review of the Related Literature
The aim of staff development is shifting the learning to the actual work field (De Rijdt, Stes, van der Vleuten, and Dochy, 2013). Glickman, Gordon, Ross-Gordon, (2007) narrated that supervision is like leadership which has a function and a process. This improves the quality of education, learning, training and teaching (De Rijdt et al., 2013). Also it needs understanding, relational skills and procedural skills. In this regard, supervisors work in collaboration to improve learning (Zepeda, 2014).Staff development supervisory practices of principals also respond to teachers' requirements and improve supervisory competence (Suseela, 2005). Therefore, principals should offer professional and continuous development including coursework, seminars and learning chances for better development of staff. According to Zepeda (2014), staff development is imperative for better supervision. It helps in teachers grooming and making education a learning experience.
Furthermore, better staff development practices helps in offering required trainings to the teachers, also with respect to curriculum and team work (Jill and Betty, 2012).
Additionally, better staff development practices of principals may help teachers with respect to human relations and development (Heaton, 2016).In this vein, the goals need to be identified and better strategies should be selected first to approach objectives (Steiner and Kowal, 2007). Hence, staff development practices need to be focused and should be backed up by continuous feedbacks (Steiner and Kowal,2007). Better staff development practices helps in grooming teachers and achieving better performance and, at the end, making their tasks interesting (William, 2010) and increase the chances of job satisfaction and growth (Pajak, 1990). Therefore, for achieving the improvement in overall standard of education, staff development supervisory practices of principals must be given serious consideration.
Quantitative survey method based on self-administered questionnaire has been utilized to obtain the data. This technique is used due to its systematic, numeric, objective and formal nature (Burns and Grove, 2005). Further, it assists in coverage of a large geographical area and is a cost effective technique (Check and Schutt, 2011; Cooper and Schindler, 2013).
All principals and primary school teachers of district Lahore were taken as the population for this study. There are 347 primary male schools and 269primary female schools in district Lahore as per the statistics of school education department, government of the Punjab (2016).
A multistage cluster sampling technique was adopted where, the district Lahore was divided into the following areas:
IV. Lahore Cantt.
V. Lahore City.
Table 1 Male and Female Primary Schools in Different Sectors of Lahore
###Number of Female###Number Of###Number of
The data was obtained on two levels i.e. principals and teachers. Models of Herzberg (1987) and Pajak (1990) were used to develop questionnaires in order to measure teachers' work performance, growth and principals' supervision practices respectively. Additionally, a five point Likert scale was adopted where 1 represent strong disagreement and 5 represent strong agreement. Further, convenience sampling technique was employed to draw the sample of principals and teachers. This technique was used because the comprehensive sampling frame was not available. Convenience sampling also provide added benefits of easiness, less time consumption and cost effectiveness. In addition, it is also a suitable technique when the study objective is to test the relationship and not the precision of population estimates (Diamantopopulous and Schlegelmilch, 1997).
Before data collection, the questionnaire was launched on pilot testing for the sake of ensuring its reliability and validity. In this stage, data was collected from total of 35 teachers and 22 principals. It was then known that the alpha value coefficient for the staff development supervision practices of principals was 0.91 and for teachers' job satisfaction was 0.95 and for teachers' growth is 0.85. All values were nicely above the recommended cut-off point of 0.70 (Hair, Tatham, Anderson, and Black, 2006). Further, the questionnaire was also being assessed by subject specialists, educationists, 4 principals and 7 teachers for content and face validity. The obtained opinions were taken into consideration and the questionnaire was finalized in the light of these suggestions. The participation of respondents was on voluntary at both pilot study stage and main data collection stage.
The researchers put all possible efforts to minimize their influence on respondents. Further, the respondents were also assured about their anonymity and congeniality of the data they provide. Such efforts were putted to obey ethical considerations of the scientific research and also to avail good quality data from respondents.
The study employed the ex-post facto design and the area under study is district Lahore. However, Lahore was being divided into sub-sections as has already been discussed above. Data was collected from all of these five sub-sections with the help of fifteen enumerators. The data collection process was continued until the desired number of responses were achieved i.e. 300 principals (150 male and 150 female) and 600 teachers (300 male and 300 female). As it has been recommended by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, (2009) that the sample selection process may continue till an appropriate sample size is attained.
To collect the data regarding supervision practices, 358 questionnaires were distributed among primary school principals of all five sub-sectors of Lahore. A total of 307 questionnaires were returned out of which 300 were useable. This yields a response rate of 83.8%. Seven responses were dropped because of incomplete responses. On the other hand, to collect data on teachers' performance and growth, 350 questionnaires were distributed among male primary school teachers and another 335 questionnaires were distributed among female primary school teachers. Out of total 685 distributed questionnaires 600 were retrieved (response rate 87.6%) and further used for data analyses. The obtained response rates for both the samples were reasonably acceptable which also points to this procedure's validity (Gillham, 2000).
Data Analysis and Results
Data were analyzed by frequency, means and standard deviations i.e. descriptive statistics. Additionally, t- test, correlation and regression analyses were employed to test the study relationships. As stated earlier, the respondents were 300 primary school principals and 600 primary school teachers. The efforts were made to collect the data from all sub sectors of Lahore and from both male and female respondents. Hence, the responses were collected from 150 male principals, 150 female principals, 300 male teachers and 300 female primary school teachers. Further, the mean and standard deviation values are presented in table 2 and table 3.
Validity and Reliability Analyses
Cronbach's Alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin's (KMO) values and Bartlett's test were employed to test the validity and reliability of the study variables. Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin's(KMO) values of all the variables of the study were above 0.80 which showed appropriateness of these variables (Kaiser, 1974 in Norusis, 2008). The significant values (p<0.05) were revealed by the Bartlett's Test which showed that validity is not an issue for these variables. Finally, as suggested by Hair et al. (2006), Cronbach's alpha was employed to test the reliability of variables. Hair et al., (2006) contended that the Cronbach's alpha values above 0.70 represent the reliability of variables under study. The data analysis showed that all constructs of this study have alpha values of greater than 0.80 which demonstrated the reliability of study constructs. Hence, it can be stated that all the measures of this study are reasonably valid and reliable.
Findings of the Study
Firstly, t-tests were employed to investigate the difference between staff development practices of male and female principals and the differences between male and female teachers work performance and growth.
Table 2 Comparison of Male and Female Principals' Staff Development Supervision Practices
Staff Development Supervision Practices of Male
Staff Development Supervision Practices of Female
Table 2 shows that the mean for both male and female primary schools regarding staff development practices of principals is higher (mean male school = 4.276 and mean female school = 4.268) with no significant difference (p = .698). Although both male and female primary schools means are on higher side, there were no differences for schools principals' supervision practices. This result shows that the hypothesis three which indicate the significant difference between supervisory practices of male and female principals was rejected.
Table 3 Comparison of Male and Female Teachers' Work Performance and Growth
Male Teachers' Work Performance###300###3.856###0.484
Female Teachers' Work Performance###300###3.721###0.744
Male Teachers `Growth###300###3.795###0.435
Female Teachers `Growth###300###3.647###0.756###2.863###0.005
In table 3, the mean for both male and female primary schools teachers work performance are at higher side (mean male school teachers' work performance = 3.856 and mean female school teachers' work performance = 3.721) with significant difference (p = .000). This represents that there are significant differences for both male and female primary school teachers' work performance means and these are also on higher side. Table 3 also shows that the mean for both male and female primary schools teachers' growth are also at higher side (mean male school teachers' growth= 3.795 and mean female school teachers' growth = 3.647) with significant difference (p = .005). This represents that both male and female primary school teachers' growth means are on higher side with significant difference (p = .005). This finding leads to acceptance of hypothesis number four which indicates the significant difference between work performance and growth of male and female primary school teachers.
Furthermore, hypothesis 1 stated that there is a significant relationship between principals' supervision practices related to staff development and teachers' job performance while hypothesis 2 states that there is a significant relationship between principals' supervision practices related to staff development and teachers' growth. To test these hypotheses, correlation and multiple regression analyses were run with principals' supervision practices related to staff development as independent construct while teachers' job performance and teachers' growth as dependent constructs. Table 4 presents the correlation analysis results performedbetween staff development practices of principals and work performance and growth of male school teachers.
Table 4 Correlation Analysis between Principals' Staff Development Practices and Teachers' Work Performance and Growth in Male Schools
###Staff Development practices
Teachers Work Performance###Male###300###0.345
On the other hand, table 5 presents the correlation analysis results performed between staff development practices of principals and work performance and growth of female schools teachers.
Table 5 Correlation Analysis between Principals' Staff Development Practices and Teachers' Work Performance and Growth in Female Schools
###Staff Development practices
Teachers Work Performance###Female###300###0.635
Tables 4 and 5 illustrate that teachers' work performance and teachers' growth in both male and female primary schools show high correlation with staff development supervision practices of principals (correlation male school teachers' work performance and staff development practices of school principals =.345 and correlation female school teachers' work performance and staff development practices of school principals =.635). These tables also represent that both male and female primary school teachers' growth also highly correlate with staff development supervision practices of principals i.e. (correlation male school teachers' growth and staff development practices of school principals =.483 and correlation female school teachers' growth and staff development practices of school principals =.554). The strength of correlation values is based on Cohen (1988) which indicates weak, medium and strong correlation ranges as follows:
1. weak correlation (r = 0.10 - 0.29).
2. medium correlation (r = 0.30 - 0.49).
3. strong correlation (r = 0.50 - 1.0).
Table 6 Regression Analyses for Supervision Practices related to Staff Development and Teachers' Work Performance
Staff Development Supervision Practices of###0.000###0.299
The above table shows that staff development practices of school principals contribute to the teachers' work performance. R square explains 29.9 % of variance in work performance of teachers in male schools (Beta = 0.286, t = 4.268 and p = .000). Additionally, it explains 42.9 % of variance in work performance of teachers in female schools(Beta = 0.355, t = 5.358 and p = .000) is because of staff development practices of school principals.
Table 7 Regression Analyses for Supervision Practices related to Staff Development and Teachers' Growth
Staff Development Supervision Practices of School###Male###0.174###2.949###0.003###0.482
Table 7 illustrates that staff development practices of school principals contribute to the teachers' growth. Furthermore, it explains 48.2% of variance in growth of teachers in male schools (Beta = 0.174, t = 2.949 and p = .003). Additionally, it explains 46.8 % of variance in growth of teachers in female schools (Beta = 0.185, t = 2.957 and p = .003). This shows that staff development supervision practices of principals contribute significantly in teachers' work performance and teachers' growth in both male and female primary schools.
Discussion and Conclusion
It can be concluded from the findings that staff development supervision practices of principals contribute significantly in teachers' work performance and teachers' growth irrespective of male and female primary schools. Therefore, the principals and significant stake holders should pay attention to their staff development practices as these can enhance their teachers' work performance and growth. They should relatively focus more on staff development practices to train teachers in achieving overall aims of schools. Further, it is also found that there is no significant difference between principals' staff development practices in male and female schools. This shows that staff development practices employed by principals of male and female schools are not much different.
Considering this result, in conjunction with the results of hypotheses one and two, the findings indicate that similar supervision practices for both male and female school teachers work reasonably well as results depict the significant influence of supervision practices on works performance and growth on teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were found in work performance and growth of male and female teachers. This indicated that the work performances as well as the growth of male and female teachers are significantly different. This may require differentiated practices which lead to their growth and performance enhancement. Following this teachers' work performance can be improved and their growth can be achieved. This in turn will surely help in improving children's' grades and attaining good fame.
Future Research Directions
This research was confined to the staff development supervision practices of primary school principals and the performance and growth of primary school teachers of Lahore, Pakistan. It is suggested that future researchers may study the other educational as well as contextual settings. Their findings may strengthen the results of this research and may also open new horizons of knowledge in this domain of knowledge. Further, longitudinal researches on the this study's research model may be carried out in future to investigate the differences in supervisory practices of principals, teachers' performance and growth with reference to change in time.
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|Author:||Yousaf, Sh. Usman; Usman, Bushra; Islam, Talat|
|Publication:||Bulletin of Education and Research|
|Date:||Mar 31, 2018|
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