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Effects of Closed and Open Kinetic Chain Exercise Induced-Localized Fatigue on Static and Dynamic Balance in Trained Individuals.

1. Background

One of the key objectives of coaches and professional athletes is to maximize the athletic and health-related performance in daily living and competitions; hence, it seems necessary to find the possible ways to increase the athletic potentials. A growing literature supports the positive effects of aerobic exercise (1-3), high intensity interval training (HIIT) (4), aquatic exercises (5) on physical fitness and health-related factors in different age groups. Onthe other hand, high prevalence of injury caused by a variety of exercises has been reported. In this regard, resistance exercises with the intention of increasing physical fitness have been often utilized by athletes. Moreover, the development of fatigability during this type of exercise is epidemic that disturbs the motor control, especially in balance power (6-8). There are several studies reporting that lower extremities fatigue would reduce postural control. Shanbehzadeh et al. stated that functional fatigue-induced alterations of motor control can be found in males and females (9). In contrary, no relationship was found between muscular fatigue and balance in other research (10, 11). It was also suggested in a study that body composition changes at the age of 19 - 21 years could decrease the physical fitness that necessitates the importance of strength training (12). Given the importance of making the athlete powerful in motor control, closed and open kinetic chain exercises are commonly applied by coaches and trainers. Closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises refer to those activities where the distal part of the lower limb is fixed, while in open kinetic chain (OKC) condition, distal segment of the limb is free to move (13). Given the role of fatigue on balance impairment, which may lead to injury, the study was to investigate the effects of closed and open kinetic chain exercise-induced localized fatigue (lower body muscles) on static and dynamic balance in trained individuals.

2. Methods

30 healthy boys with meanage of 19.7 [+ or -] 1.2 years participated voluntarily in the experimental study with pre and post-test design. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups including OKC (n = 15), and CKC groups (n = 15). The inclusion criteria were lack of lower limb injury and no history of physical and physiological limitations hampering the training protocol.

Static and dynamic balance were measured by the Borg Fatigue Scale and measured before and after open and closed chain fatigue protocol. Fifteen in Borg scale shows 75% to 85% of the maximum oxygen consumption, considered approximately as the threshold of lactate (14). Static and dynamic balance were measured using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) the Star Excursion Balance test (SEBT) in eight directions respectively (11, 15). OKC and CKC fatigue protocols are seen in Table 1. One-repetition maximum (1RM) was used by Equation 1. 60% of 1RM was intervened in both OKC and CKC as exercise intensity (14, 16).

1RM = Weight/[1 - 0.02 (Rep)] (1)

The study was approved by the ethics committee board of Imam Khomeini International University (ID: 17628). Informed consent was signed by subjects prior to the beginning of study. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to examine the data normality and the data was analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA comparing pretest and posttest scores among all groups and conditions at the significance level of P [less than or equal to] 0.05.

3. Results

General characteristics of subjects are presented in Table 2. No significant difference was found in general traits in baseline (independent t-test results) (P > 0.05).

The dependent variables were the BESS error scores and SEBT scores, and our independent variables were group, time, BESS and SEBT conditions. Analysis of BESS scores with the groups combined revealed significant time ([F.sub.1,29] = 112.3, P < 0.01) and BESS condition ([F.sub.5,145] = 706.5, P < 0.001) main effects and a time-by-BESS condition interaction ([F.sub.5,145] = 821.3, P < .001).

As seen in Table 3, a significant difference was found between the pre-test (before fatigue) and the post-test (after fatigue) in static balance of both OKC and CKC. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between static balance of OKC and CKC in posttest. Localized fatigue in the CKC had a more negative effect on static balance.

Analysis of SEBT scores with the groups combined revealed significant time ([F.sub.1,29] =244.8, P< 0.05) and SEBT condition ([F.sub.7,203] = 841.1, P < 0.001) main effects and a time-by-SEBT condition interaction ([F.sub.7,203] = 708.6, P < 0.001).

According to Table 4, there was a significant difference between the pre-test (before fatigue) and the post-test (after fatigue) of both groups in the dynamic balance. Independent t-test also showed a significant difference between the two groups. Localized fatigue in OKC had a more negative effect on dynamic balance (Table 4).

4. Discussion

In the current study, changes of static and dynamic balance due to fatigue were studied in trained persons. Although the effect of fatigue on balance was studied before, there is no study examining fatigue effect on balance in OKC and CKC of trained individuals. In summary, different effects of exercises on balance may associate with intensity and duration of exercise, constant or variable intensity in exercise protocols, metabolic demands, metabolic acidosis, impairment in somatosensory and vestibular system, hyperventilation, and dehydration (17). The results showed that fatigue had deleterious effect on static and dynamic balance following OKC and CKC. The obtained results are in line with Mousavi et al. (18), Surenkok et al. (19) in terms of balance impairment after fatigue, while inconsistent with Zech et al. who found that fatigue had no effect on dynamic balance (20). However, the interesting point is that to the best knowledge of the authors, no study considered the effect of OKC and CKC induced fatigue on the static and dynamic blance of trained persons. In addition, the majority of research investigated the elite athletes, while we studied the trained people. One possible reason for disturbance of static imbalance following CKC could be attributed to weight bearing in this condition as the legs are in the position of bearing the weight on the ground (13). In the present study, the fatigue in OKC had a more negative effect on dynamic balance. Apparently, In OKC condition, fatigue occurrs due to putting the stress on joints which disrupts the normal functioning of the joints and functional muscles of the joint which results in a more negative effect on dynamic balance compared to the static one. There were a number of limitations to our study including the control of mental functioning, sleep and rest hours, nutrition and motivation in subjects. On the other hand, a larger study sample size across individuals with different levels of physical fitness is offered in future studies.

As a conclusion, it is highly recommended that coaches and athletes should be aware of the possible risks of incorporating the mere trunk and lower muscles training into programs owing to high possibility of injury caused by localized fatigue. Therefore, diverse training components of kinetic chains should be applied.


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Masoud Mirmoezzi (1) and Morteza Taheri (2, *)

(1) Department of Sport and Sport Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

(2) Department of Sport Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

(*) Corresponding author: Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran. Email:

Received 2018 June 01; Revised 2018 October 06; Accepted 2018 October 13.

doi: 10.5812/asjsm.80069
Table 1. Open Chain and Closed Chain Fatigue Protocol

Kinetic  Anterior     Type of   Posterior  Type of    RM,     Sets
Chain    Muscles      Movement   Muscles   Movement   %

Open     Quadriceps     Leg     Hamstring  Lying Leg  60   4 sets and
                     extension             Curl            each one
                                                           is up to
Closed   Quadriceps   Machine   Hamstring  Russian    60   4 sets and
                       squat               Leg Curls       each one
                                                           is up to

Kinetic  Rest,
Chain    min

Open      3
Closed    3

Table 2. Individual Characteristics of Subjects in Baseline

Groups         Height, cm        Foot Length, cm        Weight, kg

OKC      171.75 [+ or -] 4.74  64.5 [+ or -] 10.12  69.87 [+ or -] 6.24
CKC      169.37 [+ or -] 5.57  61.5 [+ or -] 12.72  64.87 [+ or -] 7.01
P value    0.112                0.091                0.147

Groups        Age, y

OKC      18.37 [+ or -] 1.22
CKC      19.02 [+ or -] 0.72
P value   0.251

Table 3. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), Error Scores for Each Time
Point by Group (a)

Surface and Condition                    OKC
                           Pre-Test             Post Test

  Double leg           0.00 [+ or -] 0.00   0.09 [+ or -] 0.12 (b)
  Single leg           2.36 [+ or -] 2.77   3.98 [+ or -] 1.09 (b)
  Tandem               0.47 [+ or -] 0.81   0.96 [+ or -] 0.42 (b)
  Double leg           0.00 [+ or -] 0.00   0.52 [+ or -] 0.90 (b)
  Single leg           4.20 [+ or -] 2.16   6.55 [+ or -] 1.96 (b)
  Tandem               2.53 [+ or -] 3.45   4.72 [+ or -] 2.21 (b)
Total of firm surface  2.83 [+ or -] 3.10   5.53 [+ or -] 3.98 (b)
Total of foam surface  3.73 [+ or -] 5.13  11.29 [+ or -] 4.68 (b)
Total errors           9.56 [+ or -] 7.31  16.82 [+ or -] 6.14 (b)

Surface and Condition
                              Pre-Test            Post Test

  Double leg            0.00 [+ or -] 0.00   0.08 [+ or -] 0.20 (b)
  Single leg            2.45 [+ or -] 2.61   6.22 [+ or -] 0.59 (b,c)
  Tandem                0.54 [+ or -] 1.10   1.48 [+ or -] 0.84 (b,c)
  Double leg            0.00 [+ or -] 0.00   0.70 [+ or -] 0.98 (b)
  Single leg            5.24 [+ or -] 1.66   9.98 [+ or -] 2.35 (b,c)
  Tandem                2.71 [+ or -] 5.55   6.54 [+ or -] 2.32 (b,c)
Total of firm surface   2.63 [+ or -] 2.28   7.78 [+ or -] 1.44 (b,c)
Total of foam surface   7.98 [+ or -] 4.97  17.22 [+ or -] 5.87 (b,c)
Total errors           10.61 [+ or -] 8.76  25.00 [+ or -] 7.14 (b,c)

(a) Values are expressed as mean [+ or -] SD.
(b) Significantly different from pretest.
(c) Significantly different from test group (OKC, CKC).

Table 4. Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) Values in Eight Directions
(in Centimeter)

Directions                         OKC
                    Pre-Test             Post Test

Anterior        75.70 [+ or -] 3.77  73.19 [+ or -] 2.70a
Anterolateral   75.71 [+ or -] 1.65  72.01 [+ or -] 0.74a
Lateral         78.38 [+ or -] 1.25  75.86 [+ or -] 1.26a
Posterolateral  72.05 [+ or -] 0.77  70.09 [+ or -] 1.37a
Posterior       82.70 [+ or -] 2.02  80.28 [+ or -] 1.45a
Posteromedial   76.17 [+ or -] 1.45  74.78 [+ or -] 2.06a
Medial          72.98 [+ or -] 1.54  71.04 [+ or -] 1.87a
Anteromedial    74.97 [+ or -] 0.67  71.41 [+ or -] 2.22a
Mean            76.08 [+ or -] 1.42  73.58 [+ or -] 1.01a

Directions                         CKC
                    Pre-Test                Post Test

Anterior        74.19 [+ or -] 0.70  75.45 [+ or -] 1.14 (a,b)
Anterolateral   74.01 [+ or -] 0.79  73.24 [+ or -] 1.16 (a,b)
Lateral         76.86 [+ or -] 1.10  77.95 [+ or -] 0.75 (a,b)
Posterolateral  84.90 [+ or -] 1.93  71.25 [+ or -] 1.34 (a,b)
Posterior       83.24 [+ or -] 1.66  81.94 [+ or -] 1.16 (a,b)
Posteromedial   75.71 [+ or -] 1.67  76.74 [+ or -] 0.78 (a,b)
Medial          73.83 [+ or -] 1.28  74.87 [+ or -] 1.02 (a,b)
Anteromedial    75.78 [+ or -] 0.97  73.54 [+ or -] 2.02 (a,b)
Mean            76.07 [+ or -] 1.14  75.26 [+ or -] 1.01 (a,b)

(a) Significantly different from pretest.
(b) Significantly different from test group (OKC, CKC).
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Mirmoezzi, Masoud; Taheri, Morteza
Publication:Asian Journal of Sports Medicine (AsJSM)
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2018
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