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Effectiveness of selection, parent-offspring correlation and regression in bacterial blight resistance genes introgressed rice segregating population/Efetividade da selecao, correlacao pais-prole e regressao nos genes de resistencia a ferrugem bacteriana introgressaram a populacao segregante de arroz.

INTRODUCTION

Rice (Orvza sativa L.) is a major food crop in India and the estimated total rice production was 103.61 million tones during 2015-16, which was 1.87 million tones lower as compared to the year 201415 production (105.48 million tones) (Agricultural situation in India, 2016). Bacterial blight (BB) is caused by Xanthomonas orvzae pv. orvzae (Xoo) and could be identified by two symptoms on rice; kresek and leaf blight. Kresek is the more destructive manifestation of the disease. Leaves of entire plants turn pale yellow and wilt during the seedling to early tillering stages. Leaf blight is the more common disease, in which the lesions on the leaf blades may extend to the leaf sheath. Lesion enlarges in length and width, and may have wavy margins. BB disease of rice, in terms of yield losses across the globe (DAS et al., 2014) and yield losses up to 80% depending on the stage of the crop, cultivar susceptibility, and environmental conditions (SRINIVASAN & GNANAMANICKAM, 2005). For increasing the yield potential, hybrids are considered as an important strategy in any crop. Even though, hybrids are performing well for yield and quality, but susceptible to biotic stress like bacterial blight which reduces yield. Gene pyramiding is a very useful approach to maximize utilization of existing gene resources. Pyramiding multiple resistance genes into an existing variety proves to be an effective approach for achieving broad-spectrum and durable resistance in rice (CHEN et al., 2009). Incorporation of resistance genes into both parents of hybrid is necessary for expression of desired level of resistance. Among the segregating populations [F.sub.2] generation is most crucial, where selection has to be done more critically. Segregating populations would allow the gene expression for particular traits. Effectiveness of early generation selection was studied by many researchers in wheat through correlations between [F.sub.2] and F, (PAWAR et al., 1989) and between [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.3] and [F.sub.3] and [F.sub.4] (SAINI & GAUTAM, 1990). Estimates of realized heritability of the particular trait is important in determining its response to yield and its components has been reported by some workers in rice (KATO, 1997; TAKEDA & SAITO, 1983; GRAVOIS & MCNEW, 1993). Selection pressure in rice based on grain yield, total tillers and grain per panicle could be advantageous (TALWAR, 1976). Effectiveness of early generation selection could be reduced by genotype and environment interaction (WHAN et al., 1981; RAHMAN & BAHL, 1986). Direct selection may not be effective in segregating population for improvement of grain yield (BARTLEY & WEBER, 1952; JOHNSON et al., 1955). Parent offspring correlation and regression between two generations shows lesser influence of environment and it's very useful method for selection in segregating population. Therefore, present study aimed to know agronomical performances of the bacterial blight resistance genes introgressed individuals with subsequent generations and thus will help to improve breeding efficiency.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant materials

The experimental materials were consisted of F2 population obtained from [F.sub.1] cross of CB 174 R x IRBB 60. CB 174 R is the restorer parental line of released rice hybrid CORH 4 (COMS 23A/CB 174 R) in TNAU, having the features of medium slender grain type and matures in 135 days. IRBB 60 is a donor parent for bacterial blight resistant, carrying the genes of Xa21, xa13 and xa5 on chromosome 11, 8 and 5, respectively. An experiment was conducted at Department of Rice, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Three/two genes introgressed [F.sub.2] individuals were identified and advanced to obtain [F.sub.2:3] population based on gene specific SSRs genotyping. Finally, fifty four plants were selected and selfed to make [F.sub.2:3] families and nine plants from each [F.sub.2:3] families were evaluated. The standard agronomical practices were followed through the season to grow healthy crop.

Traits measured

Data was collected on individual plants in [F.sub.2] and nine plants were in each [F.sub.2:3] families at or after physiological maturity on the basis of single plant. Traits were included plant height (cm, from the ground level to the tip of the primary panicle of selected plants at the time of maturity), number of productive tillers (panicle bearing tillers counted), panicle length (cm, length of the panicle on the main axis measured at the grain maturity stage), number of grains (dry threshed grain per plant used to count by seed counter), thousand grain weight (g, weight of the dry threshed 1000 grain per plant) and single plant yield (g, weight of the dry threshed grain per plant).

Data analysis

Experimental data on aforesaid traits were subjected to selection differential and response to selection were worked out as suggested by SINGH & SINGH, (1994), while realized heritability was estimated as per FALCONER & MACKAY, (1996). The expected response to selection expressed as % of the base population mean (% RS) and the expected genetic gain (PGG) were calculated using the formulas reported by CRUZ et al. (2012). Parent-offspring regression was calculated using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA), early generation evaluation was also done by parent-offspring correlation between [F.sub.2] selections and with their progenies in [F.sub.2:3] using Microsoft excel 2007 (Microsoft Crop., Redmond, WA, USA).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on individual plant performances for disease resistance, yield and five other traits which were component of yield performance of 54 [F.sub.2] plants were selected and evaluated in [F.sub.2:3] generation. Heritability mainly studied to determine how much variation in the phenotype in a population is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population. To develop superior cultivar, there should be high mean values with adequate genetic variability it could be achieved in segregating populations like [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.3] Higher estimate of realized heritability was reported in number of grains and thousand grain weight, which indicated that selection was effective in F2 population. Similar findings were also reported that selection for heritable characters like thousand grain weight was effective in early generation in rice (SUN, 1979; SUBRAHMANYAM et al., 1986; SUREK & BESER, 2005; KUMAR et al., 2009). Relatively low realized heritabilities were observed in plant height, panicle length, number of productive tillers and single plant yield in F2 generation. Of these traits, plant height (TORIYAMA & FUTSUHARA, 1958; YAMAMOTO & TORIYAMA, 1971) and panicle length showed lower heritability compared with other traits. Most of the studied characters in [F.sub.2] generation showed negative direction in selection response and realized heritability. Although, observed realized responses for these two traits in this cross which might be explained by genotypic differences between their parents and were utilized in breeding programme. Similar results were previously reported by MISHRA et al. (1993). The present study showed that selection differential was positive value for the studied traits except for thousand grain weight in [F.sub.2]. This finding was concluded that genetic drift and inbreeding was low in [F.sub.2] population (FALCONER & MACKAY, 1996). Highest and positive realized heritability was reported between [F.sub.2] generation for number of grains (KATO, 1997). Single plant yield (r=0.35 **, P<0.0l) exhibited positively significant correlation coefficients between [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.2:3], indicating that strong associations between this trait. Similar kinds of results were reported by DHANRAJ et al. (1987), JANGALE et al. (1987), KUMAR et al. (2009), BARMAN & BORAH (2012) for grain yield. Some of researchers emphasized the use of early testing in [F.sub.2] and subsequent generations for yield (SNEEP, 1977; COOPER, 1981). SHEBESHKI (1967) suggested that for the identification of superior gene combinations even in the heterozygote, certainly some point of view the proportion of the plants with most desirable gene combination decreases rapidly with the advancement of generations and if these were not selected in the early generations even if heterozygote condition, these would be lost. The present results get supported with the suggestion of SHEBESHKI (1967) as higher number of superior alleles governed individuals were recovered when early selection in [F.sub.2] was practiced. Statistically regression coefficient was not significant linear dependence of the mean of [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.2:3] generation (Table 1 and 2, Figure 1). This finding might be the reason of accumulating two or three genes introgressed [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.2:3] individuals were used (either homozygous or heterozygous state) and it will segregate in [F.sub.2:3] families and, it should need to be studied further.

CONCLUSION

Present study confirmed that thus usefulness of selection in early generation and it may have greater impact on breeding program of rice with respect to thousand grain weight and single plant yield. Parent-offspring correlation showed strong association for number of productive tillers, single plant yield and panicle length in [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.2:3], generation indicates that selection was effective at this stage.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr2016Q987

Received 11.01.16

Approved 05.19.17

Returned by the author 07.05.17 CR-2016-0987.R2

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Ponnaiah Govintharaj (1) * Shalini Tannidi (1) Manonmani Swaminathan (1) Robin Sabariappan (1)

(1) Department of Rice, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail:govinth.tnau@gmail.com. *Corresponding author.

Caption: Figure 1--Parent-offspring regression for yield and their component traits in rice cross of CB 174 R x IRBB 60. Note: PH: Plant height (cm), NPT: Number of productive tillers, PL: Panicle length (cm), NG: Number of grains per panicle, 1000GW: Thousand grain weight (g), SPY: Single plant yield (g).
Table 1--Estimates of selection parameters in [F.sub.2] and
[F.sub.2:3] progenies for yield and its component traits in the
cross CB 174R  x IRBB 60.

Parameters                 PH       NPT      PL

Based on [F.sub.2] selections

[F.sub.3] mean           113.56    12.56    26.04
Selection Response        -0.08    -0.98    -0.03
Selection Differential    13.12    2.02     3.27
Realized Heritability    -164.00   -2.06   -109.00
RS (%)                    -0.08    -9.30    -0.13
PGG                      100.36    9.56     22.74

Parameters                 NG     1000GW    SPY

Based on [F.sub.2] selections

[F.sub.3] mean           158.11   19.10    25.18
Selection Response        1.12    -2.29    -2.85
Selection Differential   39.38    -1.94     2.06
Realized Heritability    35.16     0.85    -0.72
RS (%)                    0.94    -10.88   -12.33
PGG                      119.85   18.75    20.27

Note: PH: Plant height (cm), NPT: Number of productive tillers, PL:
Panicle length (cm), NG: Number of grains per panicle, 1000GW: k
Thousand grain weight (g), SPY: Single plant yield (g).

Table 2--Parent-offspring correlation for yield and their component
traits in rice cross of CB 174 R x IRBB 60.

Traits measured                 Correlation coefficient

                                         F2_F3
Plant height                           0.13 (ns)
Number of productive tillers            0.47 **
Panicle length                          0.30 *
Number of grains                         0.00
Thousand grain weight                  0.05 (ns)
Single plant yield                      0.35 **

Traits measured                 Regression coefficient

                                        F2_F3
Plant height                          0.02 (ns)
Number of productive tillers          0.22 (ns)
Panicle length                        0.09 (ns)
Number of grains                         0.00
Thousand grain weight                    0.00
Single plant yield                    0.12 (ns)

*,** significant at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Note: PH: Plant
height (cm), NPT: Number of productive tillers, PL: Panicle length
(cm), NG: Number of grains per panicle, 1000GW: Thousand grain
weight (g), SPY: Single plant yield (g).
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Title Annotation:produccion de cultivos; texto en ingles
Author:Govintharaj, Ponnaiah; Tannidi, Shalini; Swaminathan, Manonmani; Sabariappan, Robin
Publication:Ciencia Rural
Date:Sep 1, 2017
Words:2989
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