Effectiveness of schema-focused couple therapy to reduce marital relations conflict applicant for divorce.
Divorce is a social problem that challenges the structure of the family and community. Despite the entire try that done through the different ages, community and government to support for marriage and prevention of divorce; this issue is still a problem for many families as inevitable probable reality. In Iran from every thousand marriages nearly two hundred end in divorce (Bahari and Mirweysi, 1998), and Iran is the fourth country in the world in terms of the ratio of divorces to marriages was introduced (Kiyan nia, 1997). The researchers hav e shown that the negative effects of conflict (anger, hatred, anxiety, and fear) in the couple's interactions are related total level of violence and engagement (Bookwala, Sobin & Zdaniuk, 2005). The destructive relation or negative interactions between spouses can be lead to a decrease in relationship satisfaction and more likely to divorce (Amato & Homann-Marriott, 2007). Beach, S., Sandeen, E., & oLeary, K. (1987) in their research, on the stagnation of marital relations found that the maladaptive schemas, such as a willingness to consider radical, extreme self-control (not able to be emotional) in the couple relationships caused the collapse of the family including divorce. Andooz and Hamidpour (2005), also in a study showed that there is inverse relationship between the maladaptive schemes and marital satisfaction. In the other hand, Epsten, S. Lipson, A., Holstein, C., & Huh, E. (1990) showed that the maladaptive schemes are the deepest predictor's cognitive elements for compatibility and incompatibility in couples. So that it has a significant impact in reducing chronic interpersonal problems and marital conflicts (Morrison, 2000). Early maladaptive schemas to be represent the core beliefs (unconditional default) about the self and others and processing deviate the processing of external information about the inefficient path. Thus, interpersonal relations and self-perception are affected (Young, 1999, cited in Pinto-Gooya et al, 2006). Compared to other cognitive vulnerabilities, the early maladaptive schemas are more unconditional and generate high levels of negative affect because they are related to the main life issues, such as autonomy and intimacy (Schmidt, Joyner, Young and Telch, 1995, quoted Harris and Kartin, 2002). schemas bias our interpretations of events and these biases in psychopathology among individuals (couples) shows them as a misunderstanding, distorted attitudes, speculation, false targets, expecting unrealistic (Pascal, Christine, Jain, 2008). Young and Gluhoski (1997) found that the couple's relationship, a couple as well as early schema that bring to the relationship, there is form a schema in current relationship too, so that if the requirements early schema not to meet in their relations and or the early schema is inconsistent with current schema it is lead to disagreements between couples. Thus, among the various approaches that are aim to reduce conflicts and inconsistencies between couples (Misty 2002, quoted Ahmadi, 2004), it seem that the schema-focused couple therapy is sufficient approach to reduce conflicts. The present study examined the effectiveness of schema- focused couple therapy on reducing the marital conflict and adjustment of maladaptive schemas for conflicting couple.
The present research is semi-experimental with pretest and posttest which used the control and experimental group. Statistical community for this study are entire the couples applicant for divorce in Khorram Abad city whom because to marital conflicts until 20 march 2013 are referring counseling centers for preventing of divorce by family court in this city so that 20 couples (40 people) recruited randomly and categorized in two groups: the experiment group (20 pairs) and control group (20 pairs). Finally, the schema therapy was performed in 20 sessions with duration of 60 minutes for experimental group and at the end of the intervention period, both groups were tested. In order to data analysis in this study, the descriptive statistics indexes and multi analysis covariance (MANCOVA) was used through 21spss software. There are used from two questionnaires for evaluating of treatment process that are:
A) Marital conflict questionnaires:
This questionnaire has been developed to evaluating of marital conflicts and their dimensions. This test is conducted by Barati and Sanaei (1997), who have measured 7 dimensions of marital conflict. The seven dimensions are consist of subscales for the reduction of co-working of, reduction of sexual relationship, increasing of emotional reactions, to attract children to support, enhance of personal relationships with their families, reducing family relationship with wife family and friends and the separation of the finances of each other. Barati (1997) in order to assess of reliability and validity, who performed the questionnaire on group of 111 people, consist 53 men and 58 women who referring to the Judiciary services and counseling centers to resolve their marital conflicts and also a control group of 108 normal couples who were comprised of 53 men and 55 women. The comparison of the mean between compatible and incompatible men and women, suggesting that there are significant differences between them that it has the ability to detect for conflict and non-conflict couples (Sanaei, 1999). Moreover, the correlation of each question with the total score of testing showed high significance.
B) Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire (EMSS):
Young make an early maladaptive schemas questionnaire to measure the 18-fold structure that has 75 questions in the first and second edition and has 90 questions in the third edition of it. (Young, 2008). This questionnaire surveyed the 18 maladaptive schemas in five areas that are rejection and cuts areas, autonomy and disrupt functional areas, disrupt restriction areas, other areas of interest, areas of too ear ringing and inhibition. Young J.& Norman, S & Thomas, J reliable the early maladaptive schemas questionnaire by 90 questions in third edition on the 564 samples of American students that show the reliability of the questionnaire using internal consistency and retest method were 0.95 and 0.81 respectively. In another study performed by John, J. Joshua & Jacqueline, M. 2004, (according to Yousefi et al, 2007), reliable the early maladaptive schemas questionnaire by 90 questions in third edition on the 292 samples of students that show the reliability of the questionnaire using internal consistency and retest method were 0.93 and 0.81 respectively.
Therapy schema approach has been designed and developed by Yang and Gelasco (2003). To achieve these objectives, using the methods and certain techniques and the main objective of it, is a change and catching of the insights of clients at early maladaptive schemas for them. The processes of schema-focused couple therapy sessions developed by researchers are presented in Table 1.1.
Descriptive data indicate that the average age is (30.0882) years, mean duration of marriages participants (3.2706). Education level of the majority of participants (52.9%) undergraduate (26.5%) or Diploma (11.8%) technician and (8.8%) had master graduate. also among the applicant for divorce there is five pairs of couples had one child and a couple who had two children and the other couple had no children.
Multivariate analysis of covariance to compare mean scores of pre-test and post-test for experimental group and control group in marital conflicts and early maladaptive schemas are presented following.
Table 3 shows the results of Levine's test for homogeneity of variance between groups that the given assuming in all areas other than the area of child support in the pre-test, post-test is satisfied. The determined direction for the level of significant difference between the two groups and also to test the research hypotheses for multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) are done and the results are given in Table 4.
Table 4 shows the information related to statistical analysis multivariate covariance on posttest score for early maladaptive schema component. As can be seen, results show that there are significant differences, at least one of the dependent variables between two groups. To determine the differences, the analysis of univariate variance was performed on the base of mankova the results of this test are given in table 4.
As seen in Table 5, there are significant different the among the couples of the experimental group who received the interventions couple therapy based on schema-focused and a control group that have not received training in terms of an overall score of marital conflict (f = 44.946 and P = 0.000 and Eta = 0.625). the study on the difference in pre-test and post-test scores in the marital conflict areas showed that in the area of reduction co- working Couples (f = 4.219, P = 0.050), reducing the sexual relationship (f = 12.820 and P = 0.001), areas of increased emotional reactivity (f = 17.800 and P = 0.000),), reducing the field of family relationship with the wife's relatives (f = 12.684 and P = 0.001), increasing the area of personal relationships with the relative (f = 13.996 and P = 0.001) and area of separate of finance (f = 0.011 and P = 0.918) there are significant differences. And in area of catching support for children (f = 0.001 and P = 0.918) there is no significant difference.
According to the results obtained between the experimental group and control group of couples who had not received any training, there is a significant difference in term of the total score of the schema, (f = 80.256 and P = 0.001 and Eta = 0.709). Difference in pre-test and posttest for early maladaptive schemas areas showed that within the rejection and drop with (f = 46.413 and P = 0.003), disturbed function area (f = 46.413 and P = 0.001), and other areas directed (f = 6.860 and P = 0.013), disturbed restriction area (f = 6.860 and P = 0.013) and ear ringing area (listen to live) (f = 12.346 and P = 0.001) there are significant differences.
Discussion and Conclusions:
The findings showed that schema-focused couple therapy is significantly effectiveness to reduce the dimensions of marital conflict divorce. This finding is consistent with the results of studies by Young, J. & Gluhoski, (1997), Miller and Thomas (1995), Andooz and Hamid Poor (2005) and also results for V, Epsten, S. Lipson, A., Holstein, C., & Huh, E. (1990), Beach, S., Sandeen, E., & oLeary, K (1987). In the explanation of these findings one can be said that therapy schemes relying on beliefs and changing of attitudes can have a large impact on reducing the dimensions of the conflict couples. The marital conflict comes when the couples have any conflicting beliefs based on early life experiences, parenting styles, friends and community to the affairs of their lives and since schemas are dimensional mode, meaning that they are different with together in term of intensity and scope of activities in mind, in other words, the more severe the schemes, the more number of situations activate it and when a person is excited he/she experience more negative emotions and being active schemas in mind and takes more time, this somehow caused to create severe conflicts between the couples. In the process of therapy schema using cognitive techniques, such as techniques to identify schema, downward arrow technique, A.B.C technique, techniques of technical definition, advantages and disadvantages techniques, surveying for evidence, lawyer technique, technique for role playing of both aspects of thought and etc., and ... Breaking patterns of behavior such as prioritize for destructive behavior for changes of behavior, increasing of motivation for behavior change, providing training card and practicing healthy behaviors, such as card imagery and role play for a couple is caused to significant reduction in the dimensions of marital conflict. Also the findings showed that couple therapy based on the schema is effective on reducing maladaptive schemas in the divorce applicants. The results of this study are consistent with Young (2003), Morrison (2000), andooz and Hamidpour (2005). In other words, the therapy schema relying on the belief and psychological awareness can have a large impact on reducing couple early maladaptive schemas.
In the explanation of these findings one can be said that the existence of an early maladaptive schema in childhood meant that threat. The threat is a failure to satisfy a child's basic emotional needs in Child. When child facing a threat (activation of schema) using countering styles (avoidance, submission and extreme compensation) comes along with that position. Usually, the countering styles in childhood are adaptive and are part of a survival mechanism, but when a person puts into adulthood, the countering styles becoming to maladaptive mode. These styles may make a comeback for peace in the short term but long term they will not somehow makes it the not solve the problem makes it on the intensity of the form of adds prolong schema. Maladaptive countering styles, eventually being imprisoned person behind the walls of their schemas. Schema therapy helps to clients that understand their scheme and memories, emotions, physical feelings, and countering styles which corresponding to them to be identify. And somehow make them aware of the psychological in them. Also, to satisfy the emotional needs that create an unreasonable belief in them, it must be said when the client understand the schema and their countering styles, can be somewhat control on their responses using techniques such as providing training card. They can have control on their own free will with practice. According to the study, we can say that schema therapy is effective in reducing early maladaptive schemas.
According to the research evidence on the effectiveness of schema-focused couple therapy to reduce marital conflict, it is suggested that this approach be considered in individuals with a man's marital infidelity. Also considering the fact that psychotherapy is an influence of culture also suggests that similar studies performed in other cultures as well as to confirm the effectiveness of this approach and to clarify other aspects effectiveness of schema-focused couple therapy.
Received 10 September 2014
Received in revised form 23 October 2014
Accepted 15 November 2014
Available online 23 November 2014
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(1) Sajad Panahifar, (2) Mohammadehsan Taghizade, (3) Hojat Esfandyari, (4) Abed Mahdavi, (4) Sara Salehi
(1) MA in Clinical Psychology, Department of Family Consulting, Young Researchers and Elites Chub, Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.
(2) Member of faculty, Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Payam Nour University, Shahr-e-Rey, Tehran, Iran.
(3) MA in Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Young Researchers and Elites Club, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.
(4) Department of Psychology, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran.
Corresponding Author: Sajad Panahifar, MA in Clinical Psychology, Department of Family Consulting, Young Researchers and Elites Club, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
Table 1: The processes of the therapy schema in the 20 therapy sessions. session Contents 1 Initial Assessment/delivery of Questionnaire schema, conflict and marital compatibility 2 Explained in simple, clear language model schema for couples and how formation of schema and countering styles 3 Making assumptions about the schemas, and the identification and naming them 4 Diagnosis for countering styles and mood of each couple and mental evaluation in assessment phase 5 Conceptualization for the couple problem according to the approach schema and collecting all information obtained during the assessment phase 6 Evaluation of objective evidence confirming or rejecting of the schema based on a shared and past life couples 7 Attribute the confirming evidence of 8 schema to the childhood experiences Dialogue between maladaptive schemas and normal aspects and learning the answers for normal aspect by couples 9 Preparing the educational card for schema, when faced with provocative position of schema on marriage 10 Write a schematic form in everyday life and resurrection schemes 11 Provide a rationale for the use of experimental techniques and the implementation of an imaginary conversation 12 Reinforce the concept of "healthy adult" in mind of couples and identification the unfulfilled emotional needs and fight against the schemas 13 Making opportunity for the patient to recognize his feelings about his parents and their unmet needs by them. 14 Helping to couples for exit the blocked emotions with the traumatic event and to provide mutual support 15 Finding and practicing new ways of communicating and desist the styles of countering and avoiding excessive compensation 16 Providing a comprehensive list of problematic behaviors and determination for the changing priorities 17 Mental imagination of problematic situations and dealing with most problematic behavior 18 Practice the healthy behaviors through role playing and doing homework with the new behavior patterns 19 Review the advantages and disadvantages of healthy and unhealthy behaviors 20 Overcoming on barriers to behavior change and the end of treatment Table 2.Mean, standard deviation scores for couples at pre-test and post-test. pre-test Area group Mean Std. Std. Deviation Error Mean Decreasing in Exp. 24.7778 3.54061 .83453 co working of control 22.5556 3.79198 .89378 couples Decreasing in Exp. 26.7222 3.15866 .74450 sexual control 23.2222 5.50460 1.29745 relations Increasing in Exp. 27.4444 3.48479 .82137 coemotional control 25.5000 2.25571 .53168 reactions Obtaining for Exp. 16.0556 1.58938 .37462 child support control 16.7778 2.98142 .70273 Decreasing in Exp. 27.1667 2.50294 .58995 family control 24.5556 3.09121 .72860 relationship with spouse family Increasing for Exp. 27.0000 2.44949 .57735 individual control 24.7778 2.77712 .65457 relationship with wife's relatives Separation for Exp. 26.5556 2.83304 .66776 finance control 25.3889 2.14583 .50578 Conflict Exp. 175.7222 8.20907 1.93490 control 162.7778 9.07845 2.13981 Resection and Exp. 58.7778 17.50817 4.12671 drop control 57.8333 17.05096 4.01895 Disturbed Exp. 49.3333 15.81883 3.72853 function control 46.5556 13.10690 3.08933 Other oriented Exp. 48.8333 10.82073 2.55047 control 47.9444 10.83823 2.55460 Excessive ear Exp. 63.0556 11.76971 2.77415 ringing control 61.9444 11.20647 2.64139 Disturbed Exp. 30.1111 8.81769 2.07835 restriction control 29.7222 9.02158 2.12641 Schema Exp. 250.0556 49.61673 11.69478 control 245.8333 48.87589 11.52016 post-test Area group Mean Std. Std. Deviation Error Mean Decreasing in Exp. 12.5556 1.65288 .38959 co working of control 24.8889 4.44428 1.04753 couples Decreasing in Exp. 13.3333 1.68034 .39606 sexual control 25.1111 3.87889 .91426 relations Increasing in Exp. 13.7222 2.65254 .62521 coemotional control 26.2222 3.02063 .71197 reactions Obtaining for Exp. 14.3333 2.02920 .47829 child support control 19.0556 5.41753 1.27692 Decreasing in Exp. 15.6111 2.35494 .55507 family control 25.9444 2.43678 .57436 relationship with spouse family Increasing for Exp. 13.7222 3.89276 .91753 individual control 26.4444 1.88562 .44444 relationship with wife's relatives Separation for Exp. 13.3889 2.27877 .53711 finance control 38.1667 56.92849 13.41817 Conflict Exp. 118.2778 9.74260 2.29635 control 185.8333 56.46472 13.30886 Resection and Exp. 47.7778 11.02167 2.59783 drop control 60.0017 17.98521 4.32015 Disturbed Exp. 39.6111 9.94774 2.34470 function control 48.6528 15.43654 3.42633 Other oriented Exp. 37.6111 6.90387 1.62726 control 47.3678 10.12587 2.15897 Excessive ear Exp. 49.6111 7.40539 1.74547 ringing control 57.0556 10.36471 2.54410 Disturbed Exp. 23.0000 5.23562 1.23405 restriction control 31.5416 8.03769 2.11235 Schema Exp. 197.6111 30.95564 7.29631 control 250.1596 48.1273 10.63678 Table 3: Results of Levin's test for Homogeneity of variance between groups. Area F DF1 DF2 Sig. Decreasing in 0.532 1 36 0.437 co working of couples Decreasing in 2.011 1 36 0.861 sexual relations Increasing in 0.066 1 36 0.737 co emotional reactions Obtaining for 1.437 1 36 0.014 child support Decreasing in 0.009 1 36 0.912 family relationship with spouse family Increasing for 0.428 1 36 0.567 individual relationship with wife's relative Separation for 0.036 1 36 0.845 finance Conflict 0.518 1 36 0.409 Resection and 0.007 1 36 0.934 drop Disturbed 0.028 1 36 0.869 function Other oriented 0.032 1 36 0.860 Excessive ear 0.101 1 36 0.753 ringing Disturbed 0.076 1 36 0.784 restriction Schema 0.417 1 36 0.532 Table 4: The analysis of the multi variables to examine the significance for averages between the two groups in the dependent variable. Value F Hypothesis df Pillai's trace .992 395.691 14.000 Wilks' lambda .008 395.691 14.000 Hotelling's trace 131.897 395.691 14.000 Roy's largest root 131.897 395.691 14.000 Error Sig. Partial df Eta Squared Pillai's trace 20.000 0.001 .992 Wilks' lambda 20.000 0.001 .992 Hotelling's trace 20.000 0.001 .992 Roy's largest root 20.000 0.001 .992 Table 5: The results for the Univariate analysis of variance based on Mankova on the post-test scores for control and experimental groups of significant degrees of freedom F ratio eta mean square Variable Total Freedom Average Squares degree for of square Assumption Decreasing in 34.184 1 34.184 co working of couples Decreasing in 47.517 1 47.517 sexual relations Increasing in 151.009 1 151.009 coemotional reactions Obtaining for 0.014 1 0.014 child support Decreasing in 72.884 1 72.844 family relationship with spouse family Increasing for 146.008 1 146.008 individual relationship with wife's relatives Separation for 90.516 1 90.516 finance Conflict 3029.746 1 3029.746 Resection and 1902.515 1 1902.515 drop Disturbed 3138.311 1 3138.311 function Other oriented 1081.638 1 1081.638 Excessive ear 1002.133 1 1002.133 ringing Disturbed 399.801 1 399.801 restriction Schema 32446.194 1 32446.194 Variable F Sig. Eta coefficient Decreasing in 4.219 0.050 0.135 co working of couples Decreasing in 12.823 0.001 0.322 sexual relations Increasing in 17.800 0.001 0.397 coemotional reactions Obtaining for 0.011 0.918 0.001 child support Decreasing in 12.684 0.001 0.320 family relationship with spouse family Increasing for 13.996 0.001 0.341 individual relationship with wife's relatives Separation for 13.286 0.001 0.330 finance Conflict 44.946 0.001 0.625 Resection and 10.114 0.001 0.235 drop Disturbed 46.413 0.003 0.584 function Other oriented 20.582 0.001 0.384 Excessive ear 12.346 0.001 0.272 ringing Disturbed 6.860 0.013 0.172 restriction Schema 80.256 0.001 0.709
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|Author:||Panahifar, Sajad; Taghizade, Mohammadehsan; Esfandyari, Hojat; Mahdavi, Abed; Salehi, Sara|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2015|
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