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Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana Against Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on Different Host Plants.

Byline: Junaid Zafar, Shoaib Freed, Basir Ali Khan and Muzammil Farooq

ABSTRACT

Bemisia tabaci is an important polyphagous sucking insect pest and vector for plant diseases. Due to indiscriminate use of insecticides, whitefly has developed resistance against different groups of insecticides. There is a need of effective alternative and an environmentally safe pest management strategy. Among different management programs the use of entomopathogenic fungi, or the microbial control is ecofriendly and safe for life. This study was primarily based on the application of different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana against different life stages of B. tabaci on different host plants i.e. Gossypium hirsutum, Lycopersicum esculentum, Solanum melongena and Capsicum annum. The results showed B. bassiana isolate (Bb-01) to be the most effective with LC50 value (2.4x107 spores/ml) which caused highest mortality of eggs (65.30%) and nymphs (88.82%) with LC50 value (2.7x106 spores/ml) and LT50 5.40 at 2x108 on G. hirsutum in comparison to other hosts.

In addition, the different plant hosts i.e., G. hirsutum, L. esculentum, S. melongena and C. annum affected the egg and nymphs as response was concentration dependent and mortality rates were highly significant.

Key words

Bemisia tabaci, Beauveria bassiana, Gossypium hirsutum, Lycopersicum esculentum, Solanum melongena, Capsicum annum.

INTRODUCTION

Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a widespread insect pest (Landa et al., 1994; Nomikou et al., 2001) causing economic damages in essential green houses and field crops (Byrne et al., 1990; Fransen, 1994; Kogan, 1995). Whitefly being polyphagous insect pest of crops in all subtropical and tropical regions of the world including Pakistan (Amjad et al., 2009) causes losses directly and indirectly, either by sucking cell sap or secretion of honeydew but also vectoring cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) (Ahmad et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 1998).

The favorable hosts that support the B. tabaci population include cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), melon (Cucumis melo L.) and many ornamentals (Brown and Bird, 1992). Worldwide use of synthetic insecticides is a dynamic factor of whitefly management programs (Ellsworth and Martinez-Carrillo, 2001). However, the consumption of insecticides has been negotiated predominantly because of the rapid development of resistance to different groups of insecticides, especially organophosphates, cyclodienes and pyrethroids (Cahill et al., 1995). Owing to the draw backs of insecticides usage, the need of biological control methods has increased as compared to the previous years (Torrado-Leon et al., 2006).

Entomopathogenic fungi have been identified as potential control agents against B. tabaci (Saito and Sugiyama, 2005). Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) (Balsamo) Vuillemin is a key tool for the management of various agricultural insect pests, including whiteflies, mealy bugs, aphids, thrips, psyllids and weevils in outdoor and greenhouse crops (Akmal et al., 2013; Shah and Goettel, 1999; Wraight et al., 2000; Vestergaard et al., 2003; Torrado-Leon et al., 2006; Daniel and Wyss, 2010). Several studies have been reported on the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against different life stages of whitefly i.e., eggs and nymphal instars (Wraight et al., 1998; Saito and Sugiyama, 2005; Park and Kim, 2010; Norhelina et al., 2013).

Owing to the increasing threats of whitefly in the region and indirect loss by the injudicious use of chemical insecticides, a study was carried out to evaluate the virulence of different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana on different developmental stages of whitefly on different host plants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Collection and rearing of insects

The whitefly, B. tabaci was collected from cotton fields of Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan with help the of manual aspirator, which were later released in rearing cages (60x60x60cm3) containing host plants. Adults were allowed to settle and feed on the host plants. Temperature was maintained at 282C with photoperiod of 14: 10 h, while 60-70% relative humidity was maintained with adequate supply of water. After 48-72 h plants were monitored for eggs. The plants containing eggs were kept in separate cages for hatching and to obtain uniform generation of whiteflies.

Entomopathogenic fungi

Different isolates of B. bassiana Bb-01, Bb-08 and Bb-10 acquired from Laboratory of Insect Microbiology were tested against different life stages of whitefly. For this purpose the slants of monoconidial cultures of the strain already grown on PDA at 25C in darkness and then stored at 4C were used. For further propagation the spores from these slants were spread on to the PDA plates (9 cm diameter) and these plates were kept at 25C in darkness at 70-75% RH for 14 days. After 14 days of growth of the fungus the spores were used to treat the insects or were stored at 4C until used for insect bioassay.

Preparation of fungal concentrations

For bioassay, different fungal concentrations were prepared by scrapping spores in flask containing Tween 80 (0.05%) solution. The number of spores were counted with the help of haemocytometer and concentration of stock solution was determined. The required concentrations i.e., 1x10 6, 1x10 7, 1x10 8, 2x10 8 were further prepared from stock solution by serial dilution.

Host plants

Four different plants (40-60 days old) i.e. cotton (G. hirsutum), tomato (L. esculentum), chillies (Capsicum annum L.) and eggplant (S. melongena) were used as host plants. The plants were grown in 25 cm (length) pots. Mixture of soil and farm yard manure was used as growth media.

Bioassay

The experiment was conducted under the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications in each treatment at 281C with 50-60 RH (relative humidity) and photoperiod of 14 h. Five leaves on each plant (one replication) were covered with the zip lock pouches and 50 adults (sex ratio 1: 1) of B. tabaci were released in each replication. After 72 h the plants were checked for egg laying, which were then counted on leaves. The plant leaves were then sprayed by using hand sprayer with different concentrations and different isolates of B. bassiana. The cage containing control plants were sprayed with Tween 80 (0.05%) solution only, while similar procedure was applied separately for nymphs.

Data collection

The plants were daily examined under the microscope and percent mortality data was recorded for eggs and nymphs, separately. The eggs with blackish appearance after the application of fungi were considered and counted as dead, while percent mortality of nymphs was accounted on 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the application of fungus. The reddish black nymphs were considered dead as a result of fungus application.

Data analysis

The mortality data was corrected by using Abbott's formula (Abbott, 1925) while LC50 values of each isolate were calculated for eggs and nymphs on all host plants separately by using probit analysis (Finney, 1971). In addition to this, the lethal time to kill more than 50 percent of the population was also calculated. Means were analyzed and compared by LSD test with the help of Statistix vseriosn 8.1 (Tallahassee, 2005).

RESULTS

Effect of fungus on eggs

Virulence of three isolates of B. bassiana was tested on eggs of whitefly on cotton (G. hirsutum) tomato (L. esculentum), chillies (C. annum) and brinjal (S. melongena). Mortality percentage was significantly different for isolates of B. bassiana on all hosts. B. bassiana (Bb-01) showed the least LC50 values (2.4x10 7 spores/ml) on G. hirsutum, L. esculentum (3.7x10 7 spores/ml), C. annum (5.2x10 7 spores/ml) and S. melongena (7.6x10 7 spores/ml) proving to be highly effective against the eggs of whitefly. In addition, the LC50 values of all three isolates on different hosts are represented in Table I.

The virulence of three isolates of B. bassiana (Bb-01, Bb-08 and Bb-10) was evaluated against eggs of whitefly on G. hirsutum, L. esculentum, C. annum and S. melongena plants. The mortality rates were highly significant and response was concentration dependent for each isolate. For Bb-01 the highest percent mortality of eggs (65.300.98) was noted on G. hirsutum followed by L. esculentum (61.422.06) and S. melongena (59.562.68) at concentration level of 2x10 8 spores/ml.

Table I.-LC50 (spores/ml) values of B. bassiana isolates against whitefly eggs on different hosts.

Host###Fungi isolate###LC50 (spores/ml)###FDa###Slope

Gossypium hirsutum###Bb-01###2.4x107###1.3x107-4.4x107###0.33 0.05

###Bb-08###6.5x107###3.3x107-1.2x108###0.36 0.05

###Bb-10###1.0x108###5.2x107-2.0x108###0.38 0.05

Lycopersicum esculentum###Bb-01###3.7x107###1.5x107-8.9x107###0.25 0.05

###Bb-08###2.2x108###6.8x108-7.6x108###0.27 0.06

###Bb-10###2.6x108###8.1x107-8.7x108###0.29 0.06

Capsicum annum###Bb-01###5.2x107###1.9x107-1.3x108###0.25 0.06

###Bb-08###1.8x108###5.8x107-6.0x108###0.28 0.06

###Bb-10###2.5x108###6.9x107-9.4x108###0.28 0.06

Solanum melongena###Bb-01###7.6x107###2.9x107-2.0x108###0.22 0.06

###Bb-08###1.8x108###4.5x107-7.6x108###0.26 0.06

###Bb-10###2.5x108###6.1x107-9.9x108###0.28 0.07

The lowest mortality (36.224.17) was observed in the case of G. hirsutum at concentration level of 1x106 spores/ml (F=0.2, P=0.003) (Table II). In the case of Bb-08 highest percent mortality of eggs (58.987.25) was noted on G. hirsutum followed by S. melongena (55.293.85) and C. annum (54.666.78) at concentration level of 2x10 8 spores/ml (F=0.19, P=0.0021) (Table II), while for Bb-10, the highest percent egg mortality (55.007.30) was observed on G. hirsutum followed by S. melongena (52.733.05) at 2x10 8 spores/ml concentration level (F=0.13, P=0.0001) (Table II).

Effect of fungus on 2nd instar nymphs

Virulence of three isolates of B. bassiana was tested on nymphs of whitefly on different host plants. Mortality percentage was significantly different for all isolates of B. bassiana on all hosts. B. bassiana (Bb-01) showed the least LC50 values (2.7x10 6 spores/ml) on G. hirsutum, L. esculentum (4.3x10 6 spores/ml), C. annum (9.3x10 6 spores/ml) and S. melongena (9.3x10 6 spores/ml) plants proving to be highly effective against the nymphs of the whitefly. In addition, the LC50 values of all three isolates on different hosts are represented in Table III.

The virulence of different isolates of B. bassiana was evaluated against 2nd instar nypmhs of B. tabaci on G. hirsutum and L. esculentum plants. The mortality rate was highly significant and response was concentration dependent for each isolate. For G. hirsutum, the highest percent mortality (88.821.68) was recorded by Bb-01 by killing more than 50 percent of population in lethal time of 5.40 (2.79-10.46) days at concentration level of 2x10 8 spores/ml (F=78.0, P=0.000) (Table IV).

Similar trend was observed for the mortality percentage of nymphs on L. esculentum as for G. hirsutum. The highest percent mortality (80.663.88) was caused by Bb-01 with lethal time (LT50) of 5.81 (4.08-8.25) days at concentration level of 2x10 8 spores/ml (F=37.20, P=0.000) (Table IV).

The pathogenicity of different isolates of B. bassiana was evaluated against 2nd instar nypmhs of whitefly on C. annum and S. melongena plants. Bb-01 caused highest percent mortality (75.906.56) by killing more than 50 percent of population in lethal time (LT50) of 6.02 (2.46-14.74) days at concentration level of 2x10 8 spores/ml. Similar pattern was observed for the mortality percentage for G. hirsutum and L. esculentum. (F=28.4, P=0.000) (Table 5), while for S. melongena, the highest mortality (76.912.59) was caused by Bb-01 with lethal time (LT50) of 5.76 (4.08-8.10) days at concentration level of 2x10 8 spores/ml. The mortality rates were highly significant and response was concentration dependent for each isolate. Similar trend was observed in the mortality percentage for G. hirsutum, L. esculentum and C. annum (F=63.7, P=0.000) (Table V).

DISCUSSION

Microbial control and the use of pathogens for the management of Alyerodidae are limited to entomopathogenic fungi as it can penetrate and infect the insect cuticle effectively. Several insect pathogenic fungi have been identified earlier as potential bio control agents for B. tabaci. Out of these insect pathogenic fungi, B. bassiana is of great importance (Feng et al., 1994; Wraight et al., 2000; Torrado-Leon et al., 2006; Daniel and Wyss, 2010) as it penetrates through cuticle and propagates in the haemocoel to kill insect pests (Toledo et al., 2010).

Table II.-Percent mortality of whitefly eggs against B. bassiana isolates on different hosts

###Concentrations###Gossypium hirsutum###Lycopersicum esculentum###Capsicum annum###Solanum melongena

Bb-01

###2x108###65.300.98a###61.422.06ab###59.043.98ab###59.562.68ab

###1x108###58.335.22abc###53.706.19abcd###52.878.82abcde###49.289.53bcdef

###1x107###46.086.26cdef###46.568.02bcdef###40.255.82def###42.423.66def

###1x106###36.224.17f###38.674.12ef###37.804.89f###38.192.79f

###Control###4.550.84g###4.951.24g###3.210.39g###3.821.53g

###F-value###0.2

###P-value###0.003

###LSD-value###14.08

Bb-08

###2x108###58.987.25a###52.912.85ab###54.666.78ab###55.293.85ab

###1x108###49.658.84ab###44.834.68abcd###47.698.56abc###42.446.54bcde

###1x107###41.125.99bcdef###39.254.27bcdef###35.299.07cdef###36.133.39cdef

###1x106###29.085.11def###28.486.16def###29.303.16def###31.402.28def

###Control###3.852.00g###3.410.68g###2.560.28g###2.290.73g

###F-value###0.19

###P-value###0.021

###LSD-value###16.27

Bb-10

###2x108###55.007.30a###51.922.48ab###51.278.24ab###52.733.05ab

###1x108###46.149.75abc###42.345.03abcd###43.587.19abcd###40.8311.35abcde

###1x107###36.909.46bcdef###35.804.41bcdef###32.689.08bcdef###33.611.54cdef

###1x106###23.138.41ef###25.7910.26ef###28.033.88def###28.103.14def

###Control###1.650.67g###1.730.19g###1.280.64g###1.530.76g

###F-value###0.13

###P-value###0.001

###LSD-value###17.36

Table III.-LC50 (spores/ml) values of B. bassiana isolates against 2nd instar of whitefly on different hosts

Host###Fungi isolate###LC50 (spores/ml)###FDa###Slope

Gossypium hirsutum###Bb-01###2.7x106###1.5x105-4.9x107###0.51 0.12

###Bb-08###5.5x106###3.1x106-9.7x106###0.42 0.05

###Bb 10###1.6x107###8.7x106-3.1x107###0.32 0.05

Lycopersicum esculentum###Bb-01###4.3x106###2.4x106-8.0x106###0.45 0.05

###Bb-08###1.4x107###6.2x106-3.1x107###0.27 0.05

###Bb-10###4.5x107###1.9x107-1.0x108###0.25 0.05

Capsicum annum###Bb-01###9.3x106###5.1x106-1.7x107###0.41 0.06

###Bb-08###8.5x107###4.2x106-1.7x107###0.36 0.06

###Bb-10###1.8x107###8.4x106-3.9x107###0.30 0.06

Solanum melongena###Bb-01###9.3x106###5.2x106-1.6x107###0.46 0.06

###Bb 08###1.2x107###5.1x106-3.0x107###0.29 0.06

###Bb-10###2.0x107###9.8x106-4.3x107###0.34 0.06

Table IV.-Percent mortality and lethal time LT50 of whitefly nymphs against B. bassiana isolates on Gossypium hirsutum and Lycopersicum esculentum

Fungi###Concentration###% Mortality###LT###FDa###Slope

Gossypium hirsutum

###Bb-01###2x10###88.821.68a###5.4###2.79-10.46###6.09 1.59

###1x10###73.043.49b###5.87###4.99-6.89###5.05 0.63

###1x10###60.805.98c###6.95###5.38-8.99###4.72 0.73

###1x10###45.114.00d

###Control###3.501.14e

###F###43.4

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###13.38

###Bb-08###2x10###77.772.08a###5.71###4.37-7.46###5.32 0.87

###1x10###69.085.18a###6.11###5.31-7.03###4.93 0.59

###1x10###51.897.47b###7.93###6.12-10.28###3.77 0.53

###1x10###42.883.32b

###Control###2.730.73c

###F###43.4

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###13.38

###Bb-10###2x10###69.303.61a###5.95###5.67-6.25###4.63 0.31

###1x10###55.634.45a###6.81###6.39-7.25###4.53 0.36

###1x10###48.136.99ab

###1x10###38.484.88bc

###Control###2.241.00c

###F###30.0

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###13.91

Lycopersicum esculentum

###Bb-01###2x10###80.663.88a###5.81###4.08-8.25###5.47 1.07

###1x10###71.287.49ab###6.1###5.07-7.35###5.04 0.70

###1x10###60.584.31b###6.79###5.12-9.00###4.82 0.82

###1x10###40.226.25c

###Control###2.670.38d

###F###37.20

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###15.31

###Bb-08###2x10###66.305.63a###6.43###5.07-8.71###5.02 0.80

###1x10###57.904.75a###7.19###5.75-8.99###4.33 0.63

###1x10###52.664.07ab###7.68###6.09-9.69###3.96 0.57

###1x10###39.975.95b

###Control###3.260.51c

###F###28.7

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###13.91

###Bb-10###2x10###61.256.37a###6.77###5.68-8.07###4.68 0.62

###1x10###52.204.31ab###7.57###6.26-9.16###4.14 0.53

###1x10###43.644.03bc

###1x10###36.864.38c

###Control###2.100.82d

###F###27.0

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###13.16

Table V.-Percent mortality and lethal time LT50 of whitefly nymphs against B. bassiana isolates on Capsicum annum and Solanum melongena

Fungi###Concentration###% Mortality###LT###FDa###Slope

Capsicum annum

###Bb-01###2x10###75.906.56a###6.02###2.46-14.74###5.89 1.99

###1x10###66.296.44ab###6.51###5.23-8.10###4.59 0.69

###1x10###51.247.17bc###7.21###6.68-7.78###4.63 0.42

###1x10###38.591.53c

###Control###3.870.74d

###F###28.4

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###15.88

###Bb-08###2x10###73.363.14a###6.22###3.77-10.25###5.48 1.36

###1x10###65.486.47a###6.63###5.48-8.02###4.67 0.67

###1x10###51.247.17b###7.57###6.11-9.38###4.38 0.65

###1x10###40.661.84b

###Control###3.510.98c

###F###34.7

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###13.92

###Bb-10###2x10###67.522.03a###6.41###4.62-8.90###5.17 1.02

###1x10###55.944.44b###7.06###6.53-7.65###4.23 0.37

###1x10###47.316.01bc

###1x10###37.922.10c

###Control###1.330.84d

###F###47.0

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###10.95

Solanum melongena

###Bb-01###2x10###76.912.59a###5.76###4.08-8.10###5.64 1.18

###1x10###67.044.00a###6.4###5.17-7.92###5.15 0.83

###1x10###55.495.54b###6.96###6.43-7.54###4.35 0.41

###1x10###35.193.45c

###Control###3.860.89d

###F###63.7

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###10.96

###Bb-08###2x10###69.495.49a###6.37###4.94-8.22###4.92 0.86

###1x10###61.739.60a###6.75###6.28-7.25###4.68 0.43

###1x10###52.785.63ab###7.27###6.64-7.96###4.15 0.40

###1x10###39.881.89b

###Control###3.890.87c

###F###63.7

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###10.96

###Bb-10###2x10###63.255.12a###6.73###5.17-8.76###4.67 0.82

###1x10###55.638.59ab###7.2###6.60-7.85###4.31 0.42

###1x10###43.040.75bc

###1x10###36.363.46c

###Control###2.330.79d

###F###24.6

###P###less than 0.0001

###LSD-value###14.35

In the current study, B. tabaci was reared on several host plants in the laboratory and its different life stages were assessed with number of isolates of B. bassiana for their susceptibility at various hosts. The findings of the current research showed that mortality percentage of B. tabaci eggs on different hosts was concentration dependent. Similar results were observed in case of the nymphal mortality. In addition, the lethal time (LT50) decreased with the increase in nympal mortality in response to higher concentrations of fungi. The whitefly eggs mortality was assessed on four different hosts against the three isolates of B. bassiana. Out of four host and three fungal isolates, the highest percent egg mortality (65.300.98) (F=33.1, P=0.0000) was caused by Bb-01 on G. hirsutum with LC50 of 2.4x107 spores/ml.

The findings of current work are in favour of Chan-cupul et al. (2013) who evaluated the virulence of I. fumosorosea on whitefly eggs and observed native isolate to have least LC50 (5.5 x 104 conidia mL-1) and proved to be effective against B. tabaci eggs.

In addition, 2nd nymphal instar of B. tabaci was also evaluated for its virulence against three isolates of B. bassiana on four different hosts. The 2nd nymphal instar showed high mortality as a result of fungal infection caused by isolates of B. bassiana and lies in agreement with the previous studies. High pathogenic activity of B. bassiana was reported against the B. argentifolii (Wright et al., 1998). In addition, excellent control of T. vaporariorum nymphs by P. fumosorosea was reported earlier by Poprawski et al. (2000). Moreover, different isolates of M. anisopliae have showed high virulence against B. tabaci nymphs on brinjal (Norhelina et al., 2013).

Pathogenicity of different isolates of B. bassiana was evaluated by Santiago-alvarez et al. (2006) on the fourth instar nymphs of whitefly and was highly dependent on the host plant. The mortality of nymphs differed significantly among 10 host plant species. In the current study, the susceptibility of 2nd nymphal instar to B. bassiana was significantly affected by the host plant and virulence of B. bassiana was highly dependent on host plant species. P. fumosoroseus showed efficacy against nymphs of T. vaporariorum reared on cucumber while less effective against nymphs reared on tomato (Bolckmans et al., 1995). In addition, significant differences in susceptibility of L. decemlineata to B. bassiana were observed, when reared on four different Solanaceae species (Hare and Andreadis, 1983). However, the results of current study are contrary to findings of Vidal et al. (1998) where infection potential of P. fumosoroseus to B. agrentifolli was not affected by host plant species.

In addition, no effect was observed on potato and tomato to susceptibility of L. decemlineata to B. bassiana (Costa and Gaugler, 1989).

Infection rate and susceptibility of insects to insect pathogenic fungi which differ on host plants can be recognized as effects of host plants both physically and chemically. The physical aspects may include physical structure such as presence or absence and distribution of hairs on the lower surface of the leaves. Hairs of plant surface increase the surface area for attachment of conidia especially on the lower surface of leaves where nymphs are located. It will result in increased spores attachment to the insect and ultimately increase the infection opportunity. For this reason plant type must be taken in account for foliar application of B. bassiana (Kouassi et al., 2003).

In the current study, pathogenecity of isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was variable and factors which cause variation often remain unclear. However, these differences may be due to genotype of isolate either it produces large quantity of toxin or more energy was consumed during vegetative phase of growth. In addition, physical aspects of plants such as pubescence may also have an effect in this case G. hirsutum has more number of hairs as compared to others it possibly increased the infection opportunity and resulted in high mortality.

Microclimate conditions are very much important for the germination and growth of fungal spores. Leaves play an important part in providing humidity around the spores. Infection rates of B. agrentifolli by P. fumosoroseus and B. bassiana were slightly affected by ambient humidity due to microclimate by leaves and adequate humidity could be supplied by leaf and insect (Wraight et al., 2000). Porous plants can limit water transpiration and affecting the process of fungal infection (Olleka et al., 2009).

Secondary compounds produced by plants may also influence fungal infection that is transferred to insect through feeding (Poprawski et al., 2000). Several cases have been reported where secondary compounds produced by plants had significant effect on the infection rates by insect pathogenic fungi (Lacey and Mercadier, 1998; Inyang et al., 1999; Klingen et al., 2002).

In the current study whitefly had shorter survival duration on host plants where it was more susceptible to insect pathogenic fungi. The virulence of B. bassiana (Bb-01) was found highest on G. hirsutum. It is suggested that B. bassiana isolate Bb-01 could be used as biocontrol agent for B. tabaci with respect to different host species. However, further detailed research is needed to focus the application of virulent isolate of B. bassiana (Bb-01) in glass house and field conditions.

REFERENCES

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Author:Zafar, Junaid; Freed, Shoaib; Khan, Basir Ali; Farooq, Muzammil
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
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Date:Feb 29, 2016
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