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Effective factors on job motivation and its relationship to social capital based on Herzberg model.

INTRODUCTION

Term motivation for the first time was taken from [Move] Latin word which means relocation. Motivation to say why behavior. In the other words individual behavior without any motivation or incentive does not do. Human motivation due to his needs, whether conscious or unconscious. So far describing motivation wean say: motivation or need is an internal state, shortage or deprivation that force people to do something. Rabins and Judge [11] describe motivation as ((great desire to try to meet the goals of the organization in a way this attempt leads to satisfy some individual requirements)) [11].

One of the most important goals in each organization is improving the efficiency and a set of factors are affecting on increasing the productivity which man power have a key role. Creating motivation in human power as the most valuable asset of organizations is the most important operating efficiency of organizations. Whatever those needs are more satisfied their behavior would be more rational and logical. So one of the organization's duty is recognizing employee's needs and creating motivation. Managers who are successful employee motivation, often will make an appropriate goals for satisfying employees in internal and external environment. Job performance is related to ability, environment and motivation [2].

Herzberg as the most important theorists believe that you must select the most motivated people. Many organizations believe that Money is the most powerful motivation but Herzberg's performance represents a more comprehensive approach [3].

Herzberg followed the question that what the people want of their jobs and he wants people to speak in detail about the situation of their jobs that can be so good or so bad. He classified these answers and he conclude that answers which shows good feel is so different from answers which shows bad feel. Some of these features have an strong relationship with job satisfaction and the other factors are related to dissatisfaction basic factors like: progress, recognition or reputation, nature of business, responsibility, rise are related to job satisfaction. In motivation and mental health theory, human's nature in terms of the satisfying needs quality have double features. A man's character is that in the Herzberg as the most important theorists believe that you must select the most motivated people. Many organizations believe that money is the most powerful motivation but Herzberg's performance represents a more comprehensive approach [3]. Herzberg followed the question that what the people want of their jobs and he wants people to speak in derail about the situation of their jobs that can be so good or so bad. He classified these answers and he conclude that answers which shows good feel is so different from answers which shows bad feel. Some of these features have an strong relationship with job satisfaction and the other factors are related to dissatisfaction basic factors like: progress, recognition or reputation, nature of business, responsibility, rise are related to job satisfaction. In motivation and mental health theory, human's nature in terms of the satisfying needs quality have double features. A man's character is that in that in the absence of appropriate factors and conditions feeling dissatisfaction, but when situation got better dissatisfaction feeling reduced. Most of the physiological factors affect this type. These factors can be called as health elements. The other characteristic feature of human beings is some satisfying needs and some dissatisfying. By satisfying these need employees will be sale. Needs that will satisfy by job and internal elements are: success, admiration for the work, more responsibility and growth in labor. If these factors be combined with job content in an appropriate manner will be stable. Considering these factors a manager can reduce factors tedious and improve satisfying [15].

In the other side social capital is a new concept which spread during recent decades in humanities and relation between different subjects. This capital consist of institutions, rules, methods, social habits, traditions and rules of behavior for a community. The impact of social capital on economic performance is from investment. It means that investment will provide quite environment and with social and political stability will impact on investment and performance of economic activity. Social capital provides environment to the business and economic activity that can facilitate economic transactions and activities and made them less coast.

Lynch and Kaplan [5] had introduced social capital as a kind of capital accumulation and networks that will create social cohesion, social commitment and finally a kind of satisfaction in organizations. As social capital has profound impact in different areas of human life and its development, this investment reflects the characteristics of social interaction in an organization and make better use of organization's physical, human and financial resources [1].

Putnam believes that social capital will refer to some social organization features like trust, norms and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating co-operative action. Putnam's description of social capital did not change much during the 1990. And in 1996 he told participants instead of society. In 2000 he said that ((the central idea of social capital theory is that social networks are valuable. Social contacts affect the performance of individuals and groups.)) [10].

Considering the importance of motivation in human resources, more effort and improving productivity, social capital facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit like the other concepts as physical capital and human being capital. Both concepts try to increase productivity by affecting on the main pillar of the organization means human power.

Hence this study aims to evaluate factors affected on increasing job motivation of directorate of sports and youth according to Herzberg and it's relationship with social capital research that has been done on the relationship between the two is rare. Some researchers also examined the affect of motivation and social capital dimensions, each of whom have and we will mentioned the most important.

Keshtkaran [6] has been investigated the motivational needs of nurses in teaching hospitals of selected medical university according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and he concluded that all five needs Maslow have a high level motivation power. The evaluation and comparison of motivational needs, the need to respect assigned the highest rating to the results showed that the five priorities of motivational needs of nurses working in hospitals Namazi, Martyer Faghihi, Chamran, Hafez and Khalili as follows: 1--the need to respect 2--physiological needs 3--the need for love and affection 4--the need to security 5--the need for self-actualization.

Salarzadeh and Hasanzadeh [13] to evaluate the effect of social capital on incentive pay for teachers in the city of Tabriz and found that there was a significant relationship between social capital and job incentives.

Samiee also examines the impact of cultural, social and economic capital. on children's academic success and career in Tehran and found that the ability to communicate is at a low level of social capital respondents, also in the acceptance of voluntary and informal groups are weak and all in all they are in a low level of social capital. Women have more social capital than men and employed people have. More social capital than unemployed workers. In the families that mother is employed there is more social capital. Social capital have not a significant association with father's occupation and academic success. Children with higher level of social capital will have more job success. Social capital variables have a significant relationship with father's education. With the increase in the amount of cultural capital, social capital increase. With the increase in social capital and economic capital are added.

Mohammadpoor et al. [7] had examined correlation between the level of social capital and job satisfaction among faculty and staff at the University of Kurdistan showed that a significant correlation between these two variables is. Result of the regression analysis also showed that satisfaction with social faction with social capita variables (Included self-confidence, family trust, trust your friends and colleagues, trust in institution, reliance on informal institution) between all variables just trust your friends and colleagues and trust institution and positive and significant impact on job satisfaction of staff at the university of Kurdistan.

Rafiei et al. [12] also showed that faculty members have enjoyed modest job motivation. The greatest satisfaction was related to work nature and the lowest satisfaction was related to salaries and benefits. With the Increase in salaries and benefits and providing opportunities to promote, job satisfaction can be increased in this group.

Another study carried by Mpeka on the level of job satisfaction and the influence of co-workers, pay, promotion, supervision, the work itself, age, and gender on the job satisfaction of Tanzanian Certified Public Accountants (Tanzanian CPAs). The research results showed that Tanzania public servants are experiencing dissatisfaction with the jobs. They were deprecate from job, salary amount and supervising. And the other dissatisfactions were lack of opportunities for growth and career development and few opportunities for professional. Women accountant were fewer dissatisfaction than men the results also show that African cultural values has a significant effect on job satisfaction of accountants. Accountant's women in Tanzania have fewer unaffected by these matters. Researcher has concluded that although Muray, Kendal and Hollin's theories about factors like satisfaction in the west have good validity and reliability but they are second set of factors in Africa. In the other words cultural difference in the workplace are the factors that in Tanzania has more value to the west and they will impact on job satisfaction.

Schneider et al. [16] studied management contract, organizational commitment, job satisfaction and significant relationship between four indicators of job characteristic and six variables of seven variables of job satisfaction. Also there is a significant relationship between the variables of job commitment and satisfaction. Managers are royal to each organizational commitment variable in different ways. Also there is a multidimensional structure of organizational commitment in the workplace. When the cost and benefits of a permanent hiring change, the relationship between employer and staff changes.

As the results of several studies suggest that several factors affect the motivation and social capital which culture, race, personality and demographic factors and similar things may be effective. The main purpose of this survey is examining effective factors directorate of sports and youth province and its relationship with social capital. Specific objective employees to recognize and appreciate the directorate of sports and youth province.

Method:

This study is a descriptive survey. The research include all employees of the province's directorate of youth and sport who had worked there in 1393. Based on the statics, their number was equal to 200. The sample studied, according to Krejcie and Morgan's sampling table were equal to 129. Which they were selected randomly.

The data had collected in this study with two types of questionnaires:

A) Hezberg's standard questionnaires that has five-item Likert type and consist of 19 question which evaluate 5 elements of employees motivation (table 1)

B) Researcher's questionnaires, which is created by social capital with five- item Likert type that contain 15 question written by Ardalan. Both face and content validity of the management educational sciences of psychology. The relationship using Cronbach's alpha for job motivation questionnaire was %94 and social capital questionnaire was calculated %82 which shows high level of reliability in both questionnaire. To analyze the data one-sample t- test and Person's correlation coefficient with Spss software version 17 was used.

Finding:

The results of statistical analysis of the data in table 2 show that salary, job security, job environment situation, supervising method and appreciating will impact on job motivation of employees.

Also there are significant and direct relationship between factors that affect the motivation of employees and social capital. So much higher employee job motivation, social capital can be strengthened and vice versa.

Discussion and conclusions:

The results of this study showed that the five factors, salary, job security, job environment situation, supervising method and appreciating have positive impact on job motivation of staff sport and youth organization and finally all these factors have direct relationship with social capital.

The results showed that the salary of employees is affected on Mazandaran province's general directorate of youth and sport motivation. This means that if the amount and type of work fit well with the employees needs of their living, they have higher job motivation on these results are consistent with researches of Keshtkaran [6] and Ostevar et al. [9].

Job security will effect on employees job motivation. This means that no matter how the staff justice officials to respect and they do not discriminate between and adequate facilities for prevention of occupational accidents in the organization exist. The will have higher job motivation and these results are aligned with Keshtkaran and Jahani et al. [4] researches.

Work environment situation will effect on the staff of general directorate of youth and sport's job motivation. It means that work environment is much more favorable physical conditions like light, sound, color ventilation and cleanliness and there was appropriate facilities and equipment for employees, they will have higher level of job motivation and this result are aligned with Ostevar research.

Supervising method will effect on the staff of general directorate of youth and sports job motivation. This means that if in the employees work there was easier avalablity to the staff when necessary and staff supervise correctly, there is more job motivation. Those results are aligned with Zandipour & mehravarmomeni [18] researches.

Appreciating is affective this means more respect during working will bring more job motivation. If the staff appreciate employees properly and they give enough attention to them it will motivate them better. These results is aligned with Keshtkaran research.

Results showed that there is relationship among the factors that affect the motivation of employees with social capital. More job motivation and better factors affecting job motivation will cause strengthening of social capital and vice versa.

These results are aligned with Salarzadeh & Hasanzadeh and Mohammadpoor et al. researches.

For increasing employee's job motivation and improving organization's social capital we suggested that:

1--Present research mentioned that job motivation have special importance and it has been considered by many scientists. To maintain the status quo, as well as access to the organization's goal is to keep this dynamic field.

2--Employees showed be encouraged to offer suggestion for this incentives will vary according to the type and value of any proposed. But in no case shall the encouragement ignored. As far as you proposed is very small and impractical, employee should be encourage because of considering the interests of the problems that work has shown.

3--Managers should show their interest in running. If employees feel that their initiative and their recommendation are ignored, they are discouraged and they will lose their interest.

4--Management should be treated respect fully and he should create employees who believe in their initiative and partnerships and collaboration respected.

REFERENCES

[1] Dinda, Soumyananda, 2008. Social capital in the creation of human capital and economic growth: A productive consumption approach. Journal of socio-economics, 37(5): 2020-2033.

[2] Hellriegel, D., W. Woodman, 1996. Organizational Behavior (South-Western College Publishing An International Thomson Publishing Company), 53-55.

[3] Herzberg, F., 1965. Job attitudes in the Soviet Union. Personnel Psychology, 18(3): 245-252.

[4] Jahani, F., A. Farazi, M. Rafeei, R. Jadidi, Z. Anbari, 2010. Job satisfaction and its related factors amonghospital staff in Arak in 2009. Arak Medical University Journal, 13(1): 32-39.

[5] Lynch, J., G. Kaplan, 1997. Understanding How Inequality in the Distribution of Income Effect Health. Journal of Health Psychology, 2: 297-314

[6] Keshtkaran, A., 2011. to evaluate the needs of nurses in teaching hospitals of the University on the basis of Maslow's needs hierarchy, Health Management Journal, 7(14): 48-51.

[7] Mohammadpoor, A., H. Soltanpana, S. Golbagh asadi, 2011. The relationship between social capital and job satisfaction: a case study of Kurdistan University's staff. First International Conference on Management and Innovation. Shiraz, Iran.

[8] Mpeka, R.L., 2012. A study to examine the determinants of job satisfaction for professional accountants in Tanzania, Afro-Asian J. Finance and Accounting, 3(1): 15-33.

[9] Ostevar, R., A. Moussaoui, H. Ghafarian Shirazi, M. Abbasi Moghadam, 2003. Factors Affecting the motivation of medical University employee, Armagane Danesh Journal, 8(31): 26-21.

[10] Putnam, R.D., K.A. Goss, 2002. Democracies in flux, The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society. New York: Oxford University Press.

[11] Robbins, S.P. T.A. Judge, 2012. Organizational Behavior (15th Edition) Prentice Hall;

[12] Rafiei, M., F. Jahani, S. Mosavipour, 2011. Evaluation of job satisfaction among faculty members of Arak University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Arak Medical University Journal (AMUJ), 14(54): 35-45

[13] Salarzadeh, N., D. Hasanzadeh, 2005. The effect of social capital on job satisfaction. Journal of Social Sciences (University of Allameh Tabatabai), 33: 1-26.

[14] Samiee, Z., 2000. The effect of cultural capital, social and economic families on children's educational and career success in Tehran. MA thesis, social researchers, University of Azzahra.

[15] Seyyed Jvadin, S.R., 2008. Theory of Management, Third Edition, Tehran; Negahe Danesh.

[16] Schneider, B., P.J. Hanges, D.B. Smith, A.N. Salvaggio, 2003. Which comes first: employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance? Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 836-851.

[17] Xu, F., C. Song and C. Hang, 2013. The influence of social capital on farmer specialized cooperatives. Theoretic Observation, 12: 82-83.

[18] Zandipour, T., J. Mehravarmomeni, 2011. A Study on the Relationship between Marital Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Employees of Sewage Water Company in Tehran. Quarterly Journal of Career & Organizational Counseling, 3(7): 113-129.

(1) Rashid Zaheri and (2) Seyyed Jafar Moosavi

(1) Department of Sport Management, Sari branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

(2) Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University Qaemshahr, Iran

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 11 October 2014

Received in revised form 21 November 2014

Accepted 25 December 2014

Available online 16 January 2015

Corresponding Author: Seyyed Jafar Moosavi, Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University Qaemshahr, Iran

E-mail: moosavi.s.j@gmail.com
Table 1: research component and questionnaire
questions composition.

Variables                    Related questions

Salary                              1-3
Job security                        4-7
Work environment situation         8-10
Supervising method                 11-15
Appreciation                       16-19

Table 2: the results of one-sample t-test to evaluate the
factors that affect the motivation of employees.

p-value   [alpha]   df      T      SD    mean       variables

0/000      0/05     128   24/96   0/7    4/03         Salary
0/000      0/05     128   12/03   0/65   3/58      Job security
0/000      0/05     128   19/97   0/75   4/18    Work environment
                                                    situation
0/000      0/05     128   6/68    0/74   3/72   Supervising method
0/000      0/05     128   18/43   0/7    3/87      Appreciation

Table 3: Examine the relationship between the dimension of social
capital, employee job motivation.

p-value   [alpha]     Pearson                variables
                    coefficient

0/000      0/05        0/37          salary and social capital
0/021      0/05        0/19       job security and social capital
0/000      0/05        0/28          job environment situation
                                         and social capital
0/000      0/05        0/31        supervising method and social
                                              capital
0/001      0/05        0/25       appreciating and social capital
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Author:Zaheri, Rashid; Moosavi, Seyyed Jafar
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 15, 2015
Words:3168
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