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Effective Fog Networking Communications using An Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme Decentralized Server.


Fogging can be apparent both in large cloud systems and big data structures, making reference to the mounting difficulties in accessing information objectively. The property of fogging on cloud computing and big data systems may vary. In cloud computing we use number of server nodes are few but in the fog computing the server nodes are very large. Security is undefined in cloud computing but can be defined in fog computing. The Geo-distribution is centralized in cloud computing but distributed in fog computing. Rather than presenting and working from a centralized cloud, fog operate on network edge. So it consumes less time. By setting small servers called edge servers in visibility of users, it is possible for a fog computing platform to pass up response time and the scalability issues.

I. Ease of Use

A. Curtail Latency:

Milliseconds matter when you are trying to prevent manufacturing line shutdowns or do up electrical service. analyze data close to the device that collected the data can make the difference between forestalling tragedy and a cascade system failure.

B. Gather and secure data across a wide geographic area with different environmental conditions:

IOT devices can be distributed over hundreds or more four-sided figure miles. Device deploy in unsympathetic environment such as road ways, railways, utility field substation, and vehicles valor need to be ruggedized. That is not the case for device in controlled, indoor environments.

Fog computing can be professed both in large cloud systems and big data structures, making orientation to the increasing difficulties in access information objectively. This results in a be short of of quality of the obtained content. The possessions of mist computing on obscure computing and big data systems may vary; yet, a common aspect that can be extract is a restriction in accurate content distribution, an issue that has been tackle with the creation of metrics that attempt to improve accuracy.

Fog networking consists of a control plane and a data plane. For example, on the statistics flat surface fog computing enables computing services to occupy at the edge of the network as opposed to servers in a datacenter. Compared to cloud computing, fog computing emphasize nearness to end-users and client objectives, intense geographical distribution and local resource pooling, latency reduction and backbone bandwidth savings to attain better quality of service(QoS) and edge analytics/stream mining, resulting in superior user-experience and idleness in case of failure.

Fog networking supports the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, in which most of the devices used by humans on a daily basis will be connected to each other. Examples include phones, wearable health monitoring devices, connected vehicle and improved reality using devices such as the Google glass

Multi-ability CP-ABE:

Here we give the necessary environment on multi-authority CP-ABE schemes and their security definition. For background on access structures, linear secret-sharing schemes, and complex order bilinear groups, see Appendix A.

A multi-authority Cipher Text-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption system is comprised of the Following five algorithms:

Global Setup ()

Authority Setup ()

Encryption ()

Key Generation ()

Decryption ()

Existing Protocol Model:

In order to achieve the security requirements of the communications between fog nodes and the cloud, we propose an encrypted key swap protocol based on CP-ABE More specifically, we design a protocol such that each fog node is associated with a set of attributes, and assign each cipher text with an communicative access structure that is defined over these attributes. This feature enforces the decryption method based on the fog node's attributes. Each cipher text carries an access structure such that the fog can decrypt the cipher text and obtain the shared key only if it possesses the precise attributes in the access structure. In this section, we propose our protocol based on the combination of CP-ABE and digital autograph techniques. First, we define the access structure of our protocol.

Fog Computing:

The fog computing platform provides a highly scalable solution for IoT devices and applications. Many works discussed the role of fog computing in IoT environment. Alrawais et al. discussed the security and privacy challenges of fog computing in IoT environments. Elementary, they described how to use fog computing to augment the security and privacy issues in IoT environments. Additionally, Hong et al. analyzed the programming model for large scale and latency aware IoT applications utilizing the fog computing platform. They studied the model with a camera network and connected vehicle applications and showed the efficient role of fog computing in IoT.

Another work evaluated the appropriateness of fog computing in the perspective of IoT environments. The authors developed a mathematical model to calculate the applicability of fog computing and compare it with the traditional cloud computing in terms of latency, cost, and power consumption. Their results depicted the efficiency, provisioned QoS, and eco-kindliness of fog computing in IoT technology compared to cloud computing. Recent works have recognized the role of fog computing on more specific IoT applications. Al Faruque and Vatanparvar proposed a Software Defined Network (SDN) based on vehicle ad hoc networking supported by fog computing.

The proposed architecture solves many issues in vehicle ad hoc networks by increasing the connectivity between vehicles, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and vehicle-to-base-station while integrating fog computing to diminish latency and provide source function

The work in introduced the fog podium as a novel solution for energy management. They illustrated the energy management as a service over fog computing on two different domains of home energy management and micro grid-level energy management. Their results showed that fog computing can improve efficiency, flexibility, interoperability, and connectivity, and can minimize the cost and time of energy management services. Another effort in focused on health care applications, specifically a pervasive health monitoring application, which entail slow latency and low network overhead. The authors employed fog computing to monitor falls or stroke by analyzing the data throughout the network and provide real-time detection. Their experiments showed that the anticipated system achieves a low miss rate and low false positive rate.

Precautions GOALS:

Our main safety goals are to establish secure communications in the fog computing network. Thus, the system should achieve the following security objectives:


Sensitive data should be lone disclose to lawful entities. In our system, we utilize CP-ABE to make sure confidentiality of the transmitted data.


The system should prevent an active adversary who does not have the dispensation to change or learn information of the transmitted data. Thus, a proper security mechanism should be adopted to ensure the authenticity of the data.

Admittance Control:

To reduce the risk of statistics revelation by an active challenger, a fine-grained access control should be enforced. The primary goal of our scheme design is to exchange the shared key securely; however, our proposal can exist utilized to grant different access rights for each fog node in the same group.


From the entity's signature, the fog node can be converted that the message is generate by the same article.


Encrypt(M, (A, [rho]), GP, {PK})[right arrow]CT The encryption algorithm takes in a message M, an [eta]xl access matrix A with [eta] mapping its rows attributes, the global parameter, and the public keys of the relevant authorities. It chooses a random and a random vector v [euro] [Z.sup.l.sub.N] with s as its first entry. We let [[lambda].sub.x] denote [A.sub.x]. v, where [A.sub.Z] is row x of A. It also chooses a random vector w [euro] [Z.sup.l.sub.N] with 0 as its first entry. We let [[omega].sub.x] denotes [A.sub.x]. w. For each row of [A.sub.x] it chooses a random [r.sub.x] [euro] [Z.sub.N]. The cipher text is computed as:

[C.sub.0] = Me[(gl,gi).sup.s],[C.sub.1,x] = [(g1, g1).sup.[lambda]x]e[(g1, g1).sup.[varies]][rho][(x).sup.rx][C.sub.2,x] = [g1.sup.rx], [C.sub.3,x=][g1.sup.y[rho](x)rx][g1.sup.wx]

Key Gen (GID, I, SK, GP) [right arrow] [K.sub.i,GIB] To create a key for GID for attribute I belonging to an Authority, the authority computers:

[mathematical expression not reproducible]

Decrypt(CT,{[K.sub.i,GID]},GP}[right arrow]M We assume the ciphertext is encrypted under an access matrix (A, [rho]).To decrypt, the decryptor first computes H(GID).If the decryptor has the secret keys {[K.sub.p(x),GID]} for a subset of rows [A.sub.x] of A such that (1,0, ..., 0) is in the span of these row, then the decryptor proceeds as follows. For each such x, the decryptor computes.

[C1,.sub.x] . e(H(GID), [C3,.sub.x])/e([K.sub.[rho](x),GID,] [C2,.sub.x]) = e[(g1,g1).sup.[lambda]x]e(H(GID),[g1.sup.wx].

The decryptor then choose constants [e.sup.x] [euro] [Z.sub.n] such that [[SIGMA].sub.x] [C.sub.x] [A.sub.x] = (1, 0, ..., 0) and computes:

[mathematical expression not reproducible]

(We recall that [[lambda].sub.x] = [A.sub.x] . v and [[omega].sub.x] = [A.sub.x] .w, where v.(1,0,_,0)=s and w.(1,0, ..., 0)=0.)

The message can then obtained as:

M = [C.sub.0]/ e[(g1,g2).sup.s]


Decentralized compute is the progress of assets both hardware and software, to each being fatal, or office area In disparity federal computing exists when the majority of functions are approved out, or obtained from a distant federal location. Decentralized computing is a trend in contemporary business environments. This is the opposite of centralized computing, which was prevalent during the premature days of computers. A decentralized computer system has much settlement over an unadventurous federal network. Desktop computers have advanced to rapidly, that their potential performance far exceeds the supplies of most commerce application.

2. Result:

This results in most desktop computer lasting at rest (in next of kin to their full prospective). A decentralize system can use the potential of these systems to maximize effectiveness. However, it is questionable whether these networks increase overall efficiency. All computers have to be simplified individually with new software, unlike a centralized computer system.

Decentralize structure tranquil enables file distribution and all computers can split peripherals such as printer and scanners as well as modems, allow all the computers in the network to fuse to the internet. A collection of decentralized computers system are mechanism of a larger computer network, held together by local stations of equal importance and potential. These systems are capable of management independently of each other.


Distributed key generation is an encryption process in which multiple parties contribute to the calculation of a shared public and private key set .Distributed key generation prevents single parties from having access to the private key

Centralization means the authority is centralized at the top level of the organization. It is a type of network where all users connect to a central server ,which is acting agent for all communications


In this paper, we design an encrypted key swap protocol to launch secure interactions among a group of fog nodes and the cloud. In our protocol, we utilize the digital Signature and CP-ABE methods to achieve the primary precautions goals: confidentiality, authentication, verifiability, and access control. We analyze the security of our protocol and show its precision and probability.

In this earlier paper they be determined to design a secure protocol with less estimation transparency to make it suitable for IOT communications. In our research we will realize the secure and well-organized communication, we will design an efficient access structure for fog computing and IOT devices are using decentralized servers.


[1.] Alrawais, A. Alhothaily, C. Hu and X. Cheng, 2017. "Fog computing for the Internet of Things: Security and privacy issues," IEEE Internet Comput., 21(2): 34-42.

[2.] Arwa Alrawais1,2, (Graduate Student Member, IEEE), Abdulrahman Alhothaily1,3,Chunqiang Hu1,4, (Member, IEEE), Xiaoshuang Xing5, AND Xiuzhen Chengl, (Fellow, IEEE)

[3.] Cao, S. Chen, P. Hou and D. Brown, 2015. "Fast: A fog computing assisted distributed analytics system to monitor fall for stroke mitigation," in Proc.IEEE Int. Conf. Netw., Archit. Storage (NAS), pp: 2-11.

[4.] Hong, D. Lillethun, U. Ramachandran, B. Ottenwalder and B. Koldehofe, 2013. "Mobile fog: A programming model for large-scale applications on the Internet of Things," in Proc. 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Mobile Cloud Comput., pp: 15-20.

[5.] Hur, 2013."Improving security and efficiency in attribute-based data sharing," IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 25(10): 2271-2282.

[6.] Hong, K., D. Lillethun, U. Ramachandran, B. Ottenwalder and B. Koldehofe, 2013. "Mobile fog: A programming model for large-scale applications on the Internet of Things," in Proc. 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Mobile Cloud Comput., pp: 15-20.

[7.] Xu, L., X. Wu and X. Zhang, 2012. "Cl-PRE: A certi_cateless proxy reencryption scheme for secure data sharing with public cloud," in Proc. 7th ACMSymp. Inf., Comput. Commun. Secur., pp: 87-88.

[8.] Al Faruque, M. and K. Vatanparvar, 2012."Energy management-as-a-service over fog computing platform," IEEE Internet Things J., 3(2): 161 -169.

[9.] Li, M., S. Yu, Y. Zheng, K. Ren and W. Lou, 2013."Scalable and secure sharing of personal health records in cloud computing using attribute- based encryption," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., 24(1): 131-143.

[10.] Truong, N.B., G.M. Lee and Y. Ghamri-Doudane, 2015. "Software defined networking-based vehicular Adhoc network with fog computing," in Proc. IFIP/IEEE Int. Symp. Integr. Netw. Manage. (IM), pp: 12021207.

(1) Archana T, (2) Oviya S, (3) Janani R, (4) Mrs.Ponnarasi S

(1,2,3,4) Anjalai Ammal Mahalingam Engineering College, Koyilvenni (Anna university, Department of Information Technology.

Received 14 September 2017; Accepted 15 October 2017; Available online 30 October 2017

Address For Correspondence:

Archana T, Anjalai Ammal Mahalingam Engineering College, Koyilvenni (Anna university, Department of Information Technology, E-mail:

Caption: Fig. 1: Edge computing

Caption: Fig. 2: Already proposed protocol

Caption: Fig. 3: our proposed Protocol
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Author:T., Archana; S., Oviya; R., Janani; S., Ponnarasi
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Oct 1, 2017
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