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Effect of weather variability on phenological stages and growth indices in Bt-cotton under CLCuD incidence.

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) plays a dominant role in India's agrarian and industrial economy. The major use of cotton lint is for the production of a variety of fabrics and related products. Among several pest and disease CLCuD is major constraint responsible for lower productivity and production cotton. Maximum area under cotton cultivation in India is covered under Gossypium hirsutum (American cotton) varieties/ hybrids which are susceptible to CLCuD.

In India the disease was first reported on G barbadense at Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi in 1989 then after reported on American cotton (G hirsutum) in Sriganganagar area of Rajasthan state during 1993 (1) and during 1994 it appeared in Haryana and Punjab (8,9) states on hirsutum cotton and posed a major threat to its cultivation in northern India (10). CLCuV as well as all the other 114 species of Begomoviruses are vectored exclusively by B. tabaci (5). The typical symptoms of the disease include upward or downward leaf curling, dark green veins, vein thickening and enation that appeared in bead-shaped, small fine leaf like structures on the under surface of the leaves (2,3). The severely affected plants have bushy appearance with dark green colour, short internodes without flowers and bolls4. Weather has a crucial role in disease development and its spread by its vector whitefly. Small alteration in sowing environment may become a very effective tool towards avoidance of CLCuD incidence on crop growth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted at research farm of department of agricultural meteorology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Hisar is situated in the semi arid zone at an elevation of 215.2 m with a longitude of 75[degrees] 46' E and latitude of 29[degrees]10'N. Delinted and certified seeds of recommended SP 7007, Pancham 541 and RCH 791 of Bt- cotton cultivars were sown in three growing environments (10th May, 25th May & 9th June respectively) by hand plough, keeping a distance of 67.5 cm from row to row. Thinning was done one month after sowing maintaining a plant to plant distance of 30 cm. The following phenological observations were recorded:

(i) 50% Square initiation

(ii) 50% Flower initiation

(iii) 50% Boll formation

(iv) 50% Boll opening

[empty set] Plant height, LAI and dry matter were recorded on above mentioned phenophases.

[empty set] Online computer programme OP STAT was used for all the statistical analysis (http:// hau.ernet.in/sheoranop/) of the research field data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Cotton growth and development are greatly influenced by environmental circumstances, as well as seasonal management practices (7). As the same way cotton leaf curl disease causes a severe impact on all crop growth stages including 50% squaring, 50% flowering, 50% boll formation and 50% boll opening and greatly influenced by environmental factors. It was found that all the phenological stages appeared early in CLCuD infected plants leads to poor growth and development of the plants. Maximum impact of CLCuD was observed at 50% boll formation stage of late sown crop in Pancham-541 cultivar. RCH-791 showed very low impact of CLCuD. Iqbal and Khan, 2010 also reported that different cotton genotypes behave differently with respect to seed cotton yield and resistance against diseases like CLCuV in different ecological conditions and management practices. Late sowing was unfavourable for crop growth and development showed early occurrence of phenological stages (Table no. 01).

All the crop growth indices i.e. plant height, dry matter and leaf area index also affected severely at various phenological stages under CLCuD infestation. Minimum plant height, leaf area index & dry matter recorded (112.71cm, 3.33 & 192.82g respectively) at 50% boll opening stage in late sown crop among all different dates of sowing. Among cultivars Pancham-541 showed minimum height & dry matter (109.72cm & 198.62g respectively) and SP-7007 having minimum leaf area index (3.21) at 50% boll opening stage. A significant difference was found between healthy and diseased plants at all phenological stages regarding to crop observations (Table no. 02, 03&04). Similarly, Iqbal and Khan (2010) reported that CLCuD is caustic disease of cotton limiting vegetative growth and cotton productivity as well.

CONCLUSION

Altered weather patterns can increase crop vulnerability to infection, pest infestations. Cotton leaf curl disease has very severe impact on all growth parameters of the cotton and varies significantly according to sowing environment. Change in management practices may very potential tool to avoid CLCuD infestation. Under CLCuD infection plant shows early occurrence of phenological stages leads to disturbance of intensification of vegetative parameters. 50% boll formation stage has severely affected under CLCuD incidence. Early sowing is appropriate for Bt-cotton having timely occurrence of critical phenological stages and proper growth and development of the plants. Crop growth indices like plant height, leaf area index and dry matter potentially reduced under cotton leaf curl disease infestation. RCH-791 was minimum affected by CLCuD infestation may use as resistant cultivar directly in different breeding programme or may also recommend for field also.

REFERENCES

(1.) Ajmera, B.D. Occurrence of leaf curl virus on American Cotton (G. hirsutum) in north Rajasthan. Paper presentation, National Seminar on Cotton Production Challenges in 21st Century, April 18-20 Hisar. India, 1994.

(2.) Bink, F.A.Leaf curl and mosaic diseases of cotton in central Africa. Empire cotton growing review 1975; 52: 133-41.

(3.) Briddon, R.W. and Markham, P.G. Universal primers or dicot-infecting gcminiviruses. Molecular Biotechnology, 1994; 1: 202-205.

(4.) Chauhan, M. S. Researches in cotton pathology-An overview at CCS, HAU 1967-2004, 2004; 35-50.

(5.) Hogenhout, S.A., Ammar, E.D., Whitfield, A.E., Redinbaugh, M.G. Insect vector interactions with persistently transmitted viruses. Annu Rev phytopathol, 2008; 46: 327-59.

(6.) Iqbal, M, Khan, M.A., Management of Cotton leaf curl virus by planting time and plant spacing. Adv Agri Botanics: 2010; 2(1)

(7.) O'Berry NB, Faircloth JC, Edmisten KL, Collins GD, Stewart AM, Abaye AO, Herbert DA, Haygood JRA. Plant population and planting date effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and yield. J. Cotton Sci., 2008; 12: 178-187.

(8.) Rishi, N. and Chauhan, M.S. Appearance of leaf curl disease of cotton in Northen India. J. Cotton Res. Develop., 1994; 8: 179-180.

(9.) Singh, J., Sohi, A.S., Mann, H.S. and Kapur, S.P. Studies on whitefly B. tabaci (Genn.) transmitted cotton leaf curl virus disease in Punjab. J. Insect Sci., 1994; 7: 194-198.

(10.) Verma, A., Puri, S.N., Raj, S., Bhardwaj, R.P., Kannan, A., Jayaswal, A.P.., Srivastava, M. And Singh, J. Leaf curl disease of cotton in NorthWest India. Report of the ICAR Committee, 1995.

Priyanka Swami [1] *, Anupam Maharshi [2] and Ram Niwas [1]

[1] Department of Agrometeorology, CCSHAU, Hisar, Haryana -125001, India.

[2] Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, IAS, BHU, Varanasi-221005, India

(Received: 17 February 2016; accepted: 06 April 2016)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: priyankamah30@gmail.com
Table 1. Appearance of various phenophases in different cotton
cultivars under CLCuD incidence in different sowing environments

               50% square formation 50 % flowering

Treatment      Healthy   Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

SP 7007
10th May         46         41        70         64
25th May         44         40        67         63
9th Jun          42         39        65         62
Pancham 541
10th May         50         44        75         68
25th May         45         41        70         65
9th Jun          44         40        68         64
RCH 791
10th May         44         43        69         66
25th May         42         41        67         65
9th Jun          40         38        65         64

               50% boll formation   50% boll opening

Treatment      Healthy   Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

SP 7007
10th May         97         90        133       128
25th May         94         86        130       125
9th Jun          91         85        128       124
Pancham 541
10th May         102        91        136       130
25th May         98         86        134       129
9th Jun          94         86        131       125
RCH 791
10th May         95         89        131       129
25th May         93         88        129       128
9th Jun          92         86        128       127

Table 2. Heights (cm) of cotton cultivars at different phenophases
under CLCuD incidence in different sowing environments

                  50% square formation  50 % flowering

Treatment         Healthy    Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

Date of Sowing
10th May           39.61      37.92      52.71     50.72
25th May           41.58      40.40      54.94     52.32
9th Jun            37.90      36.38      51.30     48.31
SE(m)               0.47       0.39      0.53       0.72
CD at 5%            1.91       1.60       NS        2.90
Cultivars
SP7007             36.64      34.24      51.26     47.92
Pancham-541        40.01      38.98      52.98     51.21
RCH-791            42.43      41.48      54.72     52.22
SE(m)               0.47       0.42      0.67       0.70
CD at 5%            1.50       1.32      2.10       2.20

                  50% boll formation    50% boll opening

Treatment         Healthy    Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

Date of Sowing
10th May           99.17      92.77     122.17     113.50
25th May           102.89     98.46     128.89     121.40
9th Jun            97.13      87.74     122.78     112.71
SE(m)               0.93       1.49      0.88       0.95
CD at 5%            3.73       6.00      3.56       3.81
Cultivars
SP7007             105.13     98.59     136.22     125.72
Pancham-541        97.89      88.06     117.88     109.72
RCH-791            96.17      92.32     119.73     118.43
SE(m)               0.86       1.18      0.85       0.73
CD at 5%            2.70       3.69      2.65       2.27

Table 3. Dry matter (gm/plant) of cotton cultivars at different
phenophases under CLCuD incidence in different sowing environments

                         50% square formation  50 % flowering

Treatment                Healthy    Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

Date of Sowing
10th May                  22.50      22.12      57.31     56.41
25th May                  23.61      22.99      58.31     57.41
9th Jun                   21.87      21.21      56.87     55.26
SE(m)                      0.42       0.40      0.55       0.60
CD at 5%                    NS         NS        NS         NS
Cultivars
SP7007                    23.36      22.28      59.29     57.60
Pancham-541               22.11      21.91      56.46     55.86
RCH-791                   22.51      22.13      56.74     55.62
SE(m)                      0.64       0.60      0.40       0.34
CD at 5%                    NS         NS       0.26       1.08

                         50% boll formation    50% boll opening

Treatment                Healthy    Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

Date of Sowing
10th May                  127.72     122.83    231.67     216.70
25th May                  135.26     131.02    242.26     235.36
9th Jun                   125.67     120.24    219.23     192.82
SE(m)                      1.50       1.29      5.75       8.29
CD at 5%                   6.06       5.23       NS         NS
Cultivars
SP7007                    129.79     122.27    229.99     221.81
Pancham-541               126.29     123.40    228.83     198.62
RCH-791                   132.57     128.43    234.33     224.44
SE(m)                      1.44       1.40      5.04       5.60
CD at 5%                   4.48       4.35       NS       17.70

Table 4. LAI (Leaf area index) of cotton cultivars at different
phenophases under CLCuD incidence in different sowing environments

                       50% square        50 % flowering
                        formation

Treatment         Healthy   Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

Date of Sowing
10th May           0.33       0.28      1.08       1.06
25th May           0.43       0.36      1.29       1.10
9th Jun            0.29       0.24      1.08       0.94
SE(m)              0.02       0.01      0.05       0.02
CD at 5%           0.06       0.04       NS        0.10
Cultivars
SP7007             0.31       0.27      0.98       0.94
Pancham-541        0.36       0.29      1.21       1.07
RCH-791            0.39       0.32      1.27       1.08
SE(m)              0.01       0.01      0.07       0.02
CD at 5%           0.05       0.03      0.23       0.08

                  50% boll formation    50% boll opening

Treatment         Healthy   Diseased   Healthy   Diseased

Date of Sowing
10th May           1.71       1.52      3.85       3.62
25th May           1.85       1.64      4.03       3.77
9th Jun            1.57       1.36      3.65       3.33
SE(m)              0.03       0.03      0.05       0.06
CD at 5%           0.15       0.14      0.20       0.24
Cultivars
SP7007             1.60       1.42      3.51       3.21
Pancham-541        1.63       1.48      3.80       3.60
RCH-791            1.90       1.62      4.22       3.92
SE(m)              0.05       0.04      0.07       0.07
CD at 5%           0.16       0.15      0.21       0.22
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Author:Swami, Priyanka; Maharshi, Anupam; Niwas, Ram
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2016
Words:2025
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