Effect of water irrigation intervals, compost and dry yeast on growth, yield and oil content of Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant.
Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub that its abundant branches are soft and fluffy when young and leaves are thin and mutual. Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L, is a member of mint family Lamiaceae. It is endemic to the Mediterranean regions and commonly grown in many parts of the world. Application of plants and herbs are a conventional remedy for treating diseases in large parts of the world, especially in advanced countries. Medicinal plants can compensate the coimnon disadvantages of using antibiotics. The essence of plants including Rosemary is reported to have anti-microbial properties (Bakkali et al., 2008; Tiwari et al., 2006). Rosemary is also anti-emphysema, lias disinfectant properties and increases the secretion of digestive juices and bile and also blood circulation. Rosemary is recoimnended for flatulence, heartburn and as a digestive. It improves food absorption by stimulating digestion. It is also used to inhibit kidney and bladder-stone formation. Studies on rosemary conducted in Paraguay showed that it almost completely inhibits the enzyme urease which contributes to kidney stone formation. It makes an antiseptic gargle for sore throats, gum problems and canker sores. Researchers speculate that rosemarinic acid might even be a good treatment for septic shock. In addition, it inhibited, although didn't destroy, 87% of the cancer cells tested in a laboratory study. It also works for treating rheumatism and migraine. Essential oils include cineole, boreal, camphene, camphor, linalool, verbenol; flavonoids (diosmin, apigenin, diosmctin. luteolin), rosemarinic acids, tannins, diterpenes (picrosalvin), rosmaricine, bomylacetat, dipenten, eucalyptol, D-a-pinen, camphor, L-a-thujon.
Water stress is the most influential factor affecting crop yield particularly in irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, it is necessary to get maximum yield in agriculture by using available water in order to get maximum profit from per unit area because existing agricultural land and irrigation water are rapidly diminishing due to rapid industrialization and urban development. Optimizing irrigation management due to water scarcity together with appropriate crops for cultivation is highly in demand; the cost of irrigation pumping and inadequate irrigation scheme capacity as well as limited water sources is among the reasons that force many countries to reduce irrigation applications. Potential of water stress tolerance and the economic value of medicinal and aromatic plants, make them suitable alternative crops in dry lands (Ghanbari et at., 2007).
Several strategies have been proposed to alleviate the degree of cellular damage caused by abiotic stress and to improve crop tolerance. Among them, the applications of organic manure such as compost (Woodbury, 1992). The potential of the compost to supply nutrient and support beneficial microbes has being recognized recently. Compost has all characteristic to use it as the most valuable organic manure. Compost also produced plant hormones; mineralize plant available nutrients, fixes nitrogen and providing useful microorganisms that colonize leaf surfaces. Many investigators reported similar promotion effect for compost fertilizer on different plants, Edris et al.,( 2003) on origanum majorana, El-Sherbeny et at., (2007) on Ruta graveotensand Hendawy (2008) on Ptantago arenaria.
In the present agricultural practices there are number of microbial inoculants that used as bio-fertilizers; Bio-fertilizers are capable of mobilizing nutritive elements from no usable form to usable form through biological processes (Tiwari et at., 2006). Active dry yeast has been given much attention as they are beneficial to plant growth and yield of crops under field inoculation. Active dry yeast is a natural safety bio fertilizers causes various promoted effect on plants. It is considered as a natural source of cytokines which simulates cell division and enlargement as well as the synthesis of protein, nucleic acid and B-vitamin (Amer, 2004). It also releases CO2 which reflected in improving net photosynthesis (Kurtzman and Fell, 2005). Heikal (Heikal, 2005) reported that active dry yeast as foliar fertilizer enhanced growth, plant nutritional and essential oil yield of thyme plants. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) plants sprayed with dry yeast at a rate of 2g/L, showed the highest yield of calyxes as revealed by Ahmed et at., (1998). Khedr and Farid (2000) demonstrated that the effect of dry yeast is due to its capability in induction of endogenous hormones like GA3 and IAA. Moreover, several investigators studied the response of other plants to application of dry yeast i.e. El-Sayed et at. (2002) on coriander, Naguib and Khalil (2002) on black cumin and Wahba (1962) on Oenothera plants. Recently, dry yeast is used as an alternative source of growth substances in bio/organic fertilization system.
The main aim of this work is to study the effect of compost and active dry yeast on growth, yield, oil % and yield, oil composition and NPK content of rosemary plants under different irrigations intervals.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The following three irrigation intervals were applied throughout the entire growth period of the crop:
IR1 = Irrigation every 5 days, the soil moisture content depleted from 100 % to 75 %.
IR2 = Irrigation every 10 days, the soil moisture content depleted from 100 % to 55%.
IR3 = Irrigation every 15 days, the soil moisture content depleted from 100 % to 25%.
These irrigation intervals were applied 30 days after transplanting. All pots were weighted on a beam balance before and during the irrigation, and the calculating amount of water was added. The general principal stated by Boutraa and Sanders (2001) was used for the water treatments application.
Organic fertitizer treatment:
The following compost treatments were used during the experiment:
C0 = 0 kg/pot
C1 = 0.25kg/pot
C2 = 0.5kg/pot
The physical and chemical characters of compost were (PH 8.2, total nitrogen 1.2%, ammonium nitrogen 263 mg/kg, organic substance 47.76%,organic carbon 18.89%, ash 39.56%,C:N ratio 15.2:1, total phosphorus 0.471% and total potassium 0.802%). Compost treatments were added during the preparation of soil.
The following active dry yeast (Candida tropicalis) treatments were used during the experiment:
Y0 = 0g/L
Y1 = 8g/L
Y2 = 12g/L
Yeast solution was prepared according to method described by according to Morsi et al. (2008). Yeast activation done overnight by sucrose before treatment. The plants were treated by yeast two times during the plant life, the first application was after 45 days from transplanting and the second was two weeks later. The plants were treated with yeast as soil application.
Design of the Experiments:
This experiment included 27 treatments which included all combinations between three irrigations intervals (IR1, IR2, and IR3), three compost rates (C0,C1 and C2) and three active dry yeast treatments (Y0 ,Y1 and Y2) which were arranged in factorial (6 x 4) experiment and split-split plot design with three replicates was used. The different irrigation intervals were assigned at random in the main plots, while subplots were devoted to the different compost rates applied, and different yeast concentrations were allotted in the sub-sub plots. However, the statistical analysis of the experiment was done as described in the randomized complete plot design.
Planting and growth conditions:
A pot experiment was conducted at the green house of National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt, during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons. Uniform transplants (thirty days old) of Rosmarinous officinalis L. about 10 to 12 cm length bearing 10 to 12 leaves, provided from Medicinal and Aromatic plants Department, Horticultural Research Institute. Which were planted on 15th of October and were sown in earthenware pots (40 cm in diameter) containing 15 kg of sandy loam soil. Physico-chemical properties of the soil used in the experiment were evaluated according to Jackson (1973). The soil type was sandy loam in texture with water holding capacity 29.0 %, pH 7.8, O.M 0.35% and E.C. 1.15 [dSm.sup.-1]. The soil analysis, 0.55% containing CaCO3, available 4.46, 23.46, 169 and 32.2 mg 100[g.sup.-1] soil of P, K, Mg and Na, respectively and also available 7.2, 9.4, 2.80 and 4.82 ppm of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, respectively. All pots received a recommended dose of NPK fertilizers, namely 2 g calcium super phosphate (15.5% P2O5), 1.5 g potassium sulphate (48% K2O), which was added immediately after transplanting, and 2 g ammonium nitrate (33.5% N), which was divided into two equal portions: the first immediately after transplanting and the second 2 weeks later.
Two cuts were harvested, the first in April and the second three months later. The plant herbage was harvested by cutting 5 cm above the soil surface and plant growth parameter for the two cuts were recorded as plant height, number of branches per plant, fresh and dry weights of herb. Representative fresh samples were taken from each treatment for determination of essential oil content, Relative water content and water fractions. The dynamic characteristic of the tissue water exchange was performed by Gusev (1960). The method is based on the use of sucrose solution and the concentration is measured refractometrically. The leaves segments were immersed in the sucrose solutions for 3 hours to reach the equilibrium of water concentration between solutions and the tissue. The amount of the water, which was detracted from the leaves to the sucrose solutions, was referred as to "free" water and it was calculated as X = (A - B).T/B, where A is the primary concentration of sucrose solution (%); B is the end concentration of sucrose solution (%); T is the primary weight of 2 ml of the sucrose solution. The total water content in the plant tissue was measured after a total drying of the leaves at 105oC for 6 h. The difference between the total water content and the "free" water was referred as to "bound" water. The amounts of the "free" water and the "bound" water were calculated as a percent from the total water content in the leaves. The amount of "free" water, calculated in the different sucrose solutions, plotted against the total water amount in the leaves was referred to dynamic characteristic of the water exchange. The relative water content percent was measured also on fresh leaves according to Weatherly (1962) where the leaves petioles were removed and the fresh weight (FW) were determined before submerging them in water under light. After 4 h, the submerged leaves were patted dry with a paper towel and the saturated weight (SW) of the leaves was determined. The dry weights of saturated leaves (DW) were measured as described by Singh et al., (2005). The RWC was calculated as (FW-DW)/ (SW-DW) X100.Samples of dry leaves were collected and dried for 48 h at 70[degrees]C for constant weight to determine nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which were analyzed according to methods described by Horneck and Miller (1998), Olsen and Sommers (1982), Horneck and Hanson (1998) respectively.
Quantitative determination of essential oil obtained from different treatments was achieved by hydro distillation of the second cut. Distillation of 100 g fresh herb was continued for 2.5-3.0 h after water boiling till no further increase in the oil was observed. The oil was permitted to stand undisturbed and the amount of oil obtained from plant material was calculated Oil (%) = observed volume of oil (ml)/weight of sample (g) x 100. Essential oil yield per plant was calculated by multiplying the average fresh weight of plant by the average oil percentage. Oil yield/plant = plant fresh weigh (g) x oil %. Essential oils from the second cut were separated and analyzed qualitatively by GC/MS in National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. The GC analysis was carried out using Varian 3400 GC, equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. Mass spectrometer was a Varian-Finnigan SSQ 7000. GC-MS systems. The
column temperature was computed to start at 60[degrees]C, increasing to 200[degrees]C at 3[degrees]C/min. The carrier gas at 1 ml/min was nitrogen for GC and helium for GC-MS. In addition, the oil was recovered at regular time intervals and analyzed by GC in order to follow yield and oil composition (Boutekedjiret et al., 1998).
The data of the two seasons were summed together and means were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis of variance using the normal (F) test; the means were evaluated by using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 5% probability level according to the procedure of Snedecor and Cochran (1980).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Herb growth and yield:
The data presented in Table 2 indicated the effect of different irrigation intervals in addition to different compost treatments and/or yeast applications on plant height (cm), number of branches/plant, fresh and dry weights (g), oil percent and oil content of Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant. It was clear from the data that growth patterns and yield components of both cuts during the two seasons were significantly affected. By increasing the severity and duration of drought from 5 to 15 days the growth and yield parameters of treated plants were correspondingly declined. Increasing irrigation interval from 5 to 15 days led to decrease both fresh and dry weights of Rosmarinu sofficinalis L. herb during both seasons (Table 2). The maximum mean values of vegetative and yield parameters were obtained as a result of IR1 treatment compared with the other water treatments. In the contrary, irrigation every 10 days (IR2) gave the maximum mean values of essential oil% (0.73) followed by gradual decrease with further increasing in water stress (0.66 under IR3 treatment). The reduction in essential oil content may be due to disturbance in photosynthesis and carbohydrate production under water stress condition and suppression of the plant growth (Flexas and Medrano, 2002). Reduction in oil content and compositional alterations in the essential oil as a consequence of drought has also been described in mints (Charles et al., 1990); sweet basil (Simon et al., 1992) and dragon head (SaidAl Ahl et al. 2009). Moreover, Shabih et al. (1999) reported that the production of secondary metabolites such as essential oil is even stimulated by limited stressful environments. The improvement in vegetative growth and yield under the shortest irrigation interval (IR1) may be due to proper balance of moisture in plants, which creates favorable conditions for nutrients uptake, photosynthesis and metabolites translocation. Other possibility was increasing available water and nutrients uptake which ultimately accelerated the rate of vegetative growth. These results agree with Norwood (2000), Abdrabbo et al, (2007), Khalil and El-Noemani (2015) who found that proper water quantity led to increase in plant growth and yield in comparison with low water quantity. Doorenbos and Pruitt (1979) mentioned that shortening irrigation interval had a positive effect on chemical constituents of the plant, which resulted in promotion of growth parameters; also the absorption of nutrient elements could be increased. The metabolic processes can also be promoted. However, water stress reduced photosynthesis rate (Pascale et al., 2001). In addition, water stress leads to more loss in photosynthetic area in the plant (Taiz and Zeiger, 2002) which in turn reduced yield and caused deficiency in nutrients rather than water (Silber et al., 2003). Increasing plant yield by decreasing irrigation period could be explained through the effect of frequent irrigation on stimulating the vegetative growth. These results support other results obtained by Singh and Rao (1994) on cumin and Tomar et al. (1994), Osman and El-Faeky (2005), Kumar et al. (2008), Hassan et al. (2012) on coriander (Coriandrum stivum) plants and Khalil and El-Noemani (2015) on oregano.
Data presented in Table 2 indicated also that the two used rates of compost treatment increased all growth and yield parameters of Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant significantly in both cuts of the two seasons compared to control treatment, since the highest increments of these parameters were obtained by addition of 0.5kg compost/pot (C2) compared with the other treatments. The significant positive effect of compost fertilizer on vegetable growth and yield characters may be due to the improvement in soil physical and biological properties, and may be activates many species of living organisms which release phytohormones and may stimulate the plant growth and absorption of nutrients, in addition to water use efficiency by different plants (Abd El-Moez et al., 1999; Ghallab and El-Gahadban, 2004).
As for bio-fertilizer treatment of Yeast or Candida tropicalis at the rates of (8g/L and12g/L), the data indicated that there were significant increases in growth and yield parameters of Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant compared with control one. Where, the highest significant means were obtained under 12 g/L (Y2) treatment in both seasons. Stimulating vegetative growth and yield by using dry yeast may be due to its influence on the nutritional signal transduction producing growth regulators and suppressing pathogen (El Ghadban et al., 2003). It is also a natural source of cytokinins that stimulates cell proliferation and differentiation, controlling shoot and root morphogenesis and chloroplast maturation (Amer, 2004). El-Tohamy and El-Greadly (2007) revealed that dry yeast treatments (5 and 10 g/L.) result in improving pods quality of snap beans plants (Phaseouls vulgaris) in terms of chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrates and decreased fiber content.
Regarding the effect of bi-interaction (Table 2), the data of interaction between different irrigation intervals and different compost rates showed that IR1XC2 treatment proved to be the most effective interaction in increasing growth and yield parameters of Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant compared with the other treatments and with significant differences and IR2XC2 treatment for oil% compared with the other treatments. Furthermore, the data of interaction between different irrigation intervals and different yeast concentrations illustrated that IR1XY2 for growth, yield and oil content and IR2XY2 for oil% overcame the other interactions significantly in the two cuts of both seasons. Taking into consideration the effect of compost and yeast, results showed that the interaction treatments between compost and active dry yeast had augmented growth and yield parameters compared with control. The maximum significant mean values of all characters under study have been recorded with applying of 0.5kg/pot of compost+12g/L dry yeast (C2XY2) in both cuts and seasons. This might be related to the improvement of physical of soil provided energy for microorganism's activity and increase the availability and uptake of N, P and K, which was reflected on growth and yield. Results agreed with these obtained by Ali et al. (2001) on garlic, ELGhadban et al. (2003) on marjoram and Mazrou (2008) on Cymbopogon citratus.
The tri-interaction between the three studied factors proved that plants grown under the shortest irrigation interval (IR1) and treated with 0.5kg/pot compost (C2) as well as 12 g/L active dry yeast (Y2), i.e. IR1XC2XY2 revealed significantly greater plant height, number of branches/plant, aerial fresh and dry weights and oil content than the other plants. For oil% the highest significant means observed under IR2XC2XY2 treatment compared with the other means.
I- Relative water content (RWC %):
The obtained data illustrated in Table (3) indicated that during the two growing seasons for both cuts the relative water content % of Rosemary leaves was attained their highest mean values under the shortest irrigation interval (IR1) (62.1% and 53.55% respectively) which decreased to (37.10 and 33.96 respectively) under the longest irrigation interval IR3. One of the first signs of water shortage was the decrease in turgor which causes a decrease in both growth and cell development, especially in the stem and leaves. In the case of long irrigation interval, plants have mechanisms for preventing turgor loss under drought conditions such as stomata closure and osmotic adjustment accompanied by decreases in elasticity and increase in ABA (A' Ivarez et al, 2009). It has been reported that high relative water content is a mechanism of drought resistance rather than drought escape and it is believed that high relative water content is the result of higher osmotic regulation of tissue with lower elasticity (Ritchie et al, 1990). These results were in agreement with Khalil and Ismail (2010), Sepehri and Golparvar (2011), Kourosh et al. (2012), and Hooman et al., (2014). The decline in RWC% with decrease in soil moisture level may be due to that stress causes modifications in plants metabolic pathway thus declining their osmotic and water potentials with concomitant preliminary decrease in their RWC % (Abdalla and El-Khoshiban, 2007).
Analysis of variances showed also that RWC% was significantly affected by the compost treatments (Table 3). However, increasing compost dosage resulted in significant and progressive increase in RWC% in both cuts, where the maximum records for RWC% (57.12 and 49.04 for both cuts respectively) were recorded under C2 treatment (0.5 kg/pot compost), and this might be due to better growth and development of plant as the organic nutrient sources become readily available to the plants after application. Use of compost, had led to an increase in macronutrient's content. This increase might be related to the positive effect of compost in increasing water use efficiency. These suggestions are supported by the study of Siddiquia et al., (2011) and Lamo et al. (2012).
Furthermore, treated plants with active dry yeast caused significant increase in RWC% compared with control treatments in both cuts and seasons. The highest records for RWC% (56.6 and 49.93 for both cuts respectively) were obtained in plants treated with 12g/L (Y2 treatment), while the lowest record obtained in control plants. Our results were in line with that obtained by Khalil and Ismael (2010) and Abolfazl et al., (2015). Bio-fertilizer plays a significant role in the process of photosynthesis and producing green levels and increasing relative water content by increasing nitrogen uptake and increasing its efficiency, followed by vigor growth and flowering (Han and Lee, 2006).
From the data of bi-interaction between different irrigation intervals and different compost doses which presented in (Tables 3), it seems that the lowest irrigation interval IR1 and the highest compost treatment C2 had the highest effect on the RWC% (IR1XC2) compared with the other treatments. This result may be due to that water facilities the solubility and uptake of different nutrients which causes osmotic adjustments and increase the plant turgidity (Khalil and Ismael, 2010). In addition, the obtained data of interaction between different irrigation intervals and different yeast treatments revealed that pronounced results were obtained by IR1XY2 treatment compared with the others and with significant difference. It is obvious also form Table 3 also that both compost and active dry yeast treatments had a significantly increments in RWC% as compared to control. Where, the highest significant means were observed under C2XY2 treatment. This increase might be related to the positive effect of compost and microorganisms on increasing the root surface area per unit of soil volume, increased water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity, thus affected physiological processes directly. These suggestions are supported by Siddiquia et al., (2011) and Lamo et al. (2012).
Concerning the effect of tri- interaction between the three studied factors on RWC%, the obtained data indicated that the application of different compost doses and different active dry yeast concentrations caused significant increases in RWC% under different irrigation intervals compared with their controls. However, the highest increment in RWC% obtained under the combined effect of IR1XC2XY2 compared with the other treatments (Table 3).
II- Water fractions:
Data concerning the effect of different irrigation intervals, different compost treatments, as well as yeast applications and their interactions on water fractions (free, bounded and total water contents) are presented in Table 3.The data showed in both cuts that the mean values of water fractions were significantly affected by different irrigation intervals. The percentages of free and total water were decreased with increasing the severity and duration of drought from IR1 to IR3, and recorded higher means under the shortest irrigation interval IR1. In contrast to free and total water, bounded water % values in leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis plants increased significantly in response to water stress application, where the maximum records were observed under IR3 treatment as compared to the other water treatments (Table 3). Confirmed results were obtained by Hammad (1991), Nour (1999), Ismail (2004) and Alvarez et al., (2009), who reported reduction in both free and total water and increase in bounded water as response to water stress.
The bound water in living tissue is more likely to play a major role in tolerance to abiotic stresses (El-Saidi et al., 1975 and Rascio et al., 1998) by maintaining the structural integrity and/or cell wall extensibility of the leaves, whilst the decreased amount of free water might be able to enhance solute accumulation, leading to better osmotic adjustment and tolerance to water stress, and maintenance of the volumes of sub-cellular compartments. Studying the free and bound water contents in the cells of growing tissues may therefore be a valuable indicator of the true status of water in expanding cells of tissues growing under drying conditions (Misik 2000). Moreover, the reduction in total water content was associated with current measures of plant water status in relation to decrease in soil moisture level.
Data on hand, illustrated also that both compost rates caused significant increases in all water fractions of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, the more pronounced effect on these water fractions were obtained under the highest compost dose C2 compared with control treatment and with significant difference. This increments in water fraction as response to compost treatments may be due to the improvement in nutrients content which led to more bound water to maintain their structural integrity and cell wall properties as compared with low-nutrient plants. Likewise, we proposed that leaves of high-nutrients plants may also have greater accumulation of free water and solutes as compared with low-nutrient plants for expansive leaf growth in a drying soil (Vijaya et al., 2005).
The obtained values of plant water fraction of both seasons showed also significant and progressive increase in water fraction due to treatment with different yeast applications compared with control treatment. Furthermore, the highest significant means of water fraction were obtained under the highest yeast treatment Y2compared with untreated plants. In agreement with our results those reported by Abo El-Khashab (2002) and Khalil and Ismail (2010). The positive effect of yeast applications could be due to the capability of these organisms to produce growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinies and gibberllins which affect production of root biomass and nutrients uptake (Abo El-Khashab, 2002).
Concerning the effect of bi- interaction between the different irrigation intervals and compost treatments, the data on hand showed that the highest free and total water percent obtained under the effect of IR1XC2 treatment, while the highest records for bounded water obtained under the effect of IR3XC2 treatment, compared with the other treatments in both cuts and seasons. In addition, the data of interaction between different irrigation intervals and different yeast treatments pointed out that IR1XY2 showed the highest significant increases in Rosmarinus officinalis free and total water and IR3XY2for bounded water compared with the other treatments in both cuts. Furthermore, the interaction between the different compost treatment and different yeast applications illustrated out that C2XY2 revealed the highest records for leaves water fraction of rosemary as compared with the other treatments.
The effect of tri-interaction between the three interacted factors illustrated that treating plants with both organic and bio-fertilizers under different irrigation intervals showed significant increases in water fraction% compared with their controls. IR1XC2XY2 treatment revealed significant increases in free and total water % content compared with the others. While, IR3XC2XY2 revealed the highest means for bounded water % as compared with the other treatments.
N, P and K Percentages:
Based on our experimental data, the percentage of N, P and K in leaves were decreased by increasing the irrigation interval from 5 to 15 days in both seasons. The highest values in this respect were recorded by applying the shortest irrigation interval (IR1 treatment), however the longest irrigation interval (IR3) gave the lowest N, P and K percentages (Table 4).The decreased levels of each of N, P and K % in response to stress in both seasons were ascertained by the work of each of Bie et al. (2004), Wu and Xia (2006) and Khalil et al. (2012). Such reductions in their contents in different tissues were attributed primarily to soil water deficiency which markedly reduces the flow rates of elements in soil, their absorption by stressed root cells and also its ability to translocate through the different organs and tissues within the plant (Sawhney and Singh, 2002). Also, Metin et al. (2006) and Hassan et al. (2013) recorded stimulatory effect of water on the absorbing efficiency of ions and their movement.
The data evidently showed that there was gradual significant increase in N, P and K percentage of Rosemary leaves with different compost doses compared with control treatments. Where the highest significant means obtained under C2 treatment compared to control treatment. Increasing N, P and K concentrations by compost fertilization might be due to the increase in root surface per unit of soil volume as well as the high capacity of the plants supplied with compost fertilizer in building metabolites, which in turn contribute much to the increase of nutrient uptake. In this respect Abd El-Moez et al. (1999) on fennel and coriander plants, Ghallab and El-Gahadban (2004) and Abdel Wahab et al. (2013) on marjoram plants, found that the macro-nutrients uptake by roots plant increased significantly by the addition of organic composts to prepared soil. They attributed results to the effect of organic fertilizer in improving not only the soil's physical and biological properties but also chemical characteristics resulting in more release of available nutrient elements to be absorbed by plant roots and the water efficiency by different plants.
It can be obviously noticed also from the data in Table 4 that bio-fertilizer treatment (active dry yeast application) led to significant increases in N, P and K % as compared to control, where the highest significant increment in its content obtained with Y2 treatment. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Omar et al., (1991), Harridy et al., (2001), Abdel Wahab et al., (2013) and Khalil and ElNoemani (2015). On the ground of this the promotion effects of the bio- fertilizer on macronutrients accumulation could be attributed to the inoculation of Rosemary plants resulted in a furtherance effect on root development and consequently their function in the uptake of both water and nutrients by enhancing osmotic adjustment and root initiation (Khalil et al., 2012).
It was revealed from the data of bi-interaction in Table 4, that the interaction between different irrigation intervals and different compost treatments showed that the highest significant increase in NPK% obtained under IR1XC2 treatment compared to the others. As for the interaction between different irrigation intervals and different yeast concentrations IR1X Y2 induced a marked significant increase in NPK% compared with the others. Furthermore, the data of interaction between different compost treatments and different yeast concentrations visualized that the highest NPK% obtained under C2XY2 treatment compared with the others.
The effect of tri-interaction between the three interacted factors illustrated that, treatment Rosemary plant with both organic and bio fertilizers under different irrigation intervals showed significant increases in minerals % compared with their controls. Moreover, IR1XC2XY2 treatment revealed the highest significant increases in ions% compared with the others.
Volatile oil composition:
There were 36 constituents identified for the Rosemary essential oil (Table 5). The main components of volatile oil were 1, 8 Cineol (ranging from 52.0 to 53%), Camphor (ranging from 12.1 to 13%), [alpha]-Pinene (ranging from 5 to 5.5%), [beta]-Pinene (ranging from 5.5 to 6%) and [beta]-Caryophyllene (ranging from 4.2 to 4.5%).Other constituents such as [gamma]-Terpinene,Sabinene hydrate, Terpinolene, Terpinene-4-ol,[alpha]-Copaene [alpha]-Humulene, Germacrene D, [alpha]-Mumolene, [alpha]-Famesene, [gamma]-Cadinene, [delta]-Cadinene, Calacorene, Caryophyllene oxide I, Caryophyllene oxide II and Palmitic acid were present in amount less the 1%. While other constituents were present in traces (< 0.05%) such as [beta]-PhellandreneThymol, Carvacrol, Eugenol, Calamenene, [alpha]-Cadinene, Humuladienol, Humulene oxide and Miristic acid.
Data presented in Table 5 indicate also that the volatile oil composition of Rosemary was affected by irrigation intervals. Long irrigation interval increased 1, 8 Cineol, Camphor, [alpha]-Pinene, Sabinen hydrate, and [alpha]-Humulene; which reached their maximum records under IR3 treatment. On the other hand, Camphene, [gamma]-Terpinene, Borneoland [alpha]-Caryophyllene were decreased by increasing the length of irrigation interval, and recorded their maximum values under IR1 treatment compared with the other treatments. The changes in essential oil composition occurring at different irrigation intervals are likely due to the changes of the activity of the related biosynthesis enzymes in response to drought (Sangwan et al., 1994).
The formation of monoterpenes is catalyzed by terpene synthesis whose activity is mediated by developmental and stress- related programs (Tholl and Curr. 2006). Increasing volatile oil ratio with water deficit may be also due to the increment in total carbohydrates since volatile oils are formed as secondary metabolites. Not only oil ratio but also oil composition was affected since some components were increased and other components were decreased. Khalid (2006) and Ekren et al., (2012) found that the essential oil content and composition were affected by different water treatments. Santoyo et al. (2005) identified 33 compounds of the Rosemary plant essential oil. The main components of these fractions were alpha-pinene, 1-8-cineole, camphor, verbenone and borneol constituting 80% of the total oil. Also, Rao et al. (1999), deduced that early distillate fractions contained most of the alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, betapinene and 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), while later fractions contained most of the camphor and bornyl acetate.
Alpha pinene, [beta]-Pinene, Camphene,Myrcene, 1, 8-Cineol, Camphor, p-Cymene and Caryophyleene recorded a positive increased under compost and bio fertilizer treatments. Application of compost increased oil content in plants grown under water stress this may be attributed to the effect of compost in increasing the radical scavenging activity, the rosmarinic and carnosic acids were found to be the best Rosmary scavengers (Luis and Johnson et al., 2005). The highest percentage of some oil composition obtained by bacteria inoculation may be due to the effect of microorganisms which produce growth promoting substances resulting in more efficient absorption of nutrients, which main components of photosynthetic pigments and consequently the carbohydrate was increased and this may reflected on increasing the main constituents of Rosemary oil. These results were in accordance with the findings of Reynders and Vlassak (1982), Abdel-Kader (1999), Khater (2001), Edris et al. (2003) and El-Hady (2005). Other components listed in Table 5 were not affected by compost nor biofertilizer use under different irrigation intervals as Terpinolene, Linalool, Terpinene-4-ol, Bomyl acetate, a-Copaene, Caryophyllene oxide I, Caryophyllene oxide II and Palmitic acid.
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(1) Soha E. Khalil and (2) Ashraf M. Khalil
(1) Water Relations & field Irrigation Dept., National Research Centre. S3 El-Tahrir St.. Dokki. 12622 Giza. Egypt.
(2) Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Horticulture Research Institute. Agriculture Research Center. Cairo. Egypt.
Received 12 June 2015; Accepted August28 2015; Available online 22 September 2015
Address For Correspondence:
Prof. Ass. Dr. Soha E Khalil, National Research Centre, Water Relations and Field Irrigation Department, Agricultural & Biological Research Division, 33 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
E-mail: soha firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Chemical analysis of yeast extract. Amino acids mg/100g dry Mineral mg /100g Vitamins weight dry weight mg /100g dry weight Arginine 1.99 Total N 7.23 Vit. [B.sub.1] 2.23 Histidine 2.63 [P.sub.2] 51.68 Vit. [B.sub.2] 1.33 [O.sub.5] Isoleucine 2.31 [K.sub.2]O 34.39 Vit. [B.sub.5] 19.56 leucine 3.09 MgO 5.76 Vit. [B.sub.6]) 1.25 Lysine 2.95 CaO 3.05 Vit. [B.sub.7] 0.09 Methionine 0.72 Si[O.sub.2] 1.55 Vit. [B.sub.8] 0.26 Phenyl alanine 2.01 S[O.sub.2] 0.49 Vit. [B.sub.9] 4.36 Threonine 2.09 NaCl 0.30 Vit [B.sub.12] 0.15 Tryptophan 0.45 Fe 0.92 Nicotinic acid 39.88 Valine 2.19 Ba 157.5 Pamino benzoic 9.23 acid Glutamic acid 2.00 Co 67.8 Carbohydrates 23.2 Serine 1.59 Pd 438.6 Glucose 13.33 Aspartic acid 1.33 Mn 81.3 Cystine 0.23 Zn 335.6 Proline 1.53 Tyrosine 1.49 Table 2: Influence of different irrigation intervals, different compost rates as well as active dry yeast treatments and their interactions on Rosmarinus officinalis L. growth and yield in both growing seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Plant height No. of branches (cm) Charact. treatments 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress IR1 48.89 55.56 15.89 15.56 IR2 40.67 46.22 13.00 13.00 IR3 34.78 40.22 9.22 9.89 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.09 2.78 1.11 1.00 Compost rates C0 34.44 42.56 10.67 10.56 C1 42.11 46.67 12.11 13.00 C2 47.78 52.78 15.33 14.89 [LSD.sub.0.05] 2.76 3.12 3.01 1.04 Yeast treatments Y0 33.44 42.88 10.66 10.77 Y1 41.22 46.77 13.00 12.00 Y2 49.66 52.33 14.44 15.66 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.21 1.93 0.94 0.67 Fresh weight Dry (g) weight (g) Charact. treatments 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress IR1 66.89 82.44 33.33 32.13 IR2 44.67 71.33 23.00 22.23 IR3 33.56 52.67 20.44 21.42 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.89 5.09 2.11 1.19 Compost rates C0 43.67 61.44 22.77 23.84 C1 47.22 61.89 24.55 24.58 C2 54.22 83.11 29.44 27.35 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.93 2.87 1.94 1.33 Yeast treatments Y0 43.22 53.78 22.00 20.45 Y1 48.44 71.33 26.22 25.40 Y2 53.44 81.33 28.55 29.93 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.01 3.68 0.94 1.07 Oil% Oil content Charact. treatments (ml/plant) Water stress IR1 0.67 0.22 IR2 0.73 0.17 IR3 0.66 0.13 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.03 0.02 Compost rates C0 0.65 0.14 C1 0.69 0.17 C2 0.71 0.21 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.04 0.01 Yeast treatments Y0 0.67 0.14 Y1 0.69 0.18 Y2 0.70 0.20 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.01 0.04i Plant height No. of branches (cm) 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates C0 42.66 52.33 12.33 13.00 IR1 C1 46.33 53.66 15.66 15.66 C2 57.66 60.66 19.66 18.00 IR2 C0 33.00 41.33 10.33 11.33 C1 41.00 45.00 13.00 14.33 C2 48.00 52.33 15.66 13.33 IR3 C0 27.66 34.00 9.33 7.33 C1 39.00 41.33 7.66 9.00 C2 37.66 45.33 10.66 13.3 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.76 I 5.79 1.95 2.07 Water stress X yeast treatments IR1 Y0 39.66 51.66 13.33 14.66 Y1 48.00 53.66 16.66 14.00 Y2 59.00 61.33 17.66 18.00 IR2 Y0 32.00 43.33 11.33 10.33 Y1 41.66 44.33 13.00 12.66 Y2 48.33 51.00 14.66 16.00 IR3 Y0 28.66 33.66 7.33 7.33 Y1 34.00 42.33 9.33 9.33 Y2 41.66 44.66 11.00 13.00 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.18 4.71 2.90 3.01 Fresh weight Dry (g) weight (g) 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates C0 62.00 72.00 31.00 26.73 IR1 C1 63.67 71.00 30.33 30.86 C2 75.00 104.33 38.66 38.80 IR2 C0 36.33 66.33 19.33 21.46 C1 45.67 65.67 23.00 23.63 C2 52.00 82.00 26.66 21.60 IR3 C0 32.67 46.00 18.00 23.33 C1 32.33 49.00 20.33 19.26 C2 35.67 63.00 23.00 21.66 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.97 5.11 3.39 2.78 Water stress X yeast treatments IR1 Y0 60.33 56.33 27.00 26.26 Y1 68.33 85.00 36.33 33.20 Y2 72.00 106.00 36.66 36.93 IR2 Y0 43.33 56.66 21.00 17.13 Y1 42.33 76.33 22.33 23.53 Y2 48.33 81.00 25.66 26.03 IR3 Y0 26.00 48.33 18.00 17.96 Y1 34.67 52.66 20.00 19.46 Y2 40.00 57.00 23.33 26.83 [LSD.sub.0.05] 5.12 4.23 4.01 3.67 Oil% Oil content (ml/plant) Water stress X Compost rates C0 0.62 0.19 IR1 C1 0.67 0.20 C2 0.72 0.27 IR2 C0 0.71 0.13 C1 0.74 0.17 C2 0.75 0.20 IR3 C0 0.63 0.11 C1 0.66 0.13 C2 0.68 0.15 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.02 0.03 Water stress X yeast treatments IR1 Y0 0.66 0.17 Y1 0.67 0.24 Y2 0.68 0.2 IR2 Y0 0.72 0.15 Y1 0.73 0.16 Y2 0.74 0.19 IR3 Y0 0.64 0.11 Y1 0.66 0.13 Y2 0.66 0.15 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.05 0.01 Plant height No. of branches (cm) 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Compost rates X Yeast treatments C0 Y0 28.00 38.67 8.33 7.33 Y1 34.33 41.33 11.66 10.33 Y2 41.00 47.67 12.00 14.00 C1 Y0 32.33 41.67 9.33 11.66 Y1 41.67 47.00 13.66 12.66 Y2 52.33 51.33 13.33 14.66 C2 Y0 40.00 48.33 14.33 13.33 Y1 47.67 52.00 13.66 13.00 Y2 55.67 58.00 18.00 18.33 [LSD.sub.0.05] 5.34 6.01 1.95 2.01 Fresh weight Dry (g) weight (g) 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Compost rates X Yeast treatments C0 Y0 41.66 51.66 21.33 17.86 Y1 39.66 61.33 22.00 23.33 Y2 49.66 71.33 25.00 30.33 C1 Y0 44.00 44.66 20.33 19.76 Y1 47.66 64.66 25.33 25.86 Y2 50.00 76.33 28.00 28.13 C2 Y0 44.00 65.00 24.33 23.73 Y1 58.00 88.00 31.33 27.00 Y2 60.66 96.33 32.66 31.33 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.90 5.65 3.19 4.04 Oil% Oil content (ml/plant) Compost rates X Yeast treatments C0 Y0 0.64 0.13 Y1 0.66 0.14 Y2 0.67 0.16 C1 Y0 0.68 0.13 Y1 0.69 0.17 Y2 0.70 0.19 C2 Y0 0.70 0.17 Y1 0.72 0.22 Y2 0.74 0.25 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.05 0.04 Plant height No. of branches (cm) 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates X Yeast treatments IR1 C0 Y0 32 49 10.00 10.00 Y1 42 49 13.00 12.00 Y2 54 59 14.00 17.00 C1 Y0 35 49 13.00 16.00 Y1 44 52 17.00 15.000 Y2 60 60 17.00 16.000 C2 Y0 52 57.0 17.00 18.000 Y1 58 60.0 20.00 15.000 Y2 63 65.0 22.00 21.000 IR2 C0 Y0 28 37 7.00 7.000 Y1 32 40 13.00 11.000 Y2 39 47 11.00 16.000 C1 Y0 32 41 10.00 12.00 Y1 40 46 15.00 14.00 Y2 51 48 14.00 17.00 C2 Y0 36 52 17.00 12.00 Y1 53 47 11.00 13.00 Y2 55 58 19.00 15.00 IR3 C0 Y0 24 30 8.00 5.00 Y1 29 35 9.00 8.00 Y2 30 37 11.0 9.00 C1 Y0 30 35 5.00 7.00 Y1 41 43 9.00 9.00 Y2 46 46 9.00 11.0 C2 Y0 32 36 9.00 10.00 Y1 32 49 10.0 11.00 Y2 49 51 13.0 19.00 [LSD.sub.0.05] 6.21 4.12 2.33 3.02 Fresh weight Dry (g) weight (g) 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates X Yeast treatments IR1 C0 Y0 58.00 63.00 28.00 20.20 Y1 61.00 69.00 32.00 30.00 Y2 67.00 84.00 33.00 30.00 C1 Y0 62.0 40.00 23.00 25.40 Y1 64.0 72.00 34.00 31.40 Y2 65.0 101.0 34.00 35.80 C2 Y0 61.00 66.00 30.00 33.20 Y1 80.00 114.00 43.00 38.20 Y2 84.00 133.00 43.00 45.00 IR2 C0 Y0 38.00 52.00 20.00 17.00 Y1 30.00 71.00 17.00 22.80 Y2 41.00 76.00 21.00 24.60 C1 Y0 44.00 44.0 20.00 15.40 Y1 45.00 74.0 22.00 27.00 Y2 48.00 79.0 27.00 28.50 C2 Y0 48.00 74.00 23.00 19.00 Y1 52.00 84.00 28.00 20.80 Y2 56.00 88.00 29.00 25.00 IR3 C0 Y0 29.00 40.0 16.00 16.40 Y1 28.00 44.0 17.00 17.20 Y2 41.00 54.0 21.00 36.40 C1 Y0 26.00 50.00 18.00 18.5o Y1 34.00 48.00 20.00 19.20 Y2 37.00 49.00 23.00 20.10 C2 Y0 23.00 55.00 20.00 19.00 Y1 42.00 66.00 23.00 22.00 Y2 42.00 68.00 26.00 24.00 [LSD.sub.0.05] 5.80 4.31 5.27 4.94 Oil% Oil content (ml/plant) Water stress X Compost rates X Yeast treatments IR1 C0 Y0 0.61 0.17 Y1 0.63 0.20 Y2 0.64 0.21 C1 Y0 0.66 0.15 Y1 0.68 0.23 Y2 0.69 0.23 C2 Y0 0.71 0.21 Y1 0.72 0.31 Y2 0.73 0.31 IR2 C0 Y0 0.69 0.21 Y1 0.71 0.31 Y2 0.73 0.31 C1 Y0 0.73 0.13 Y1 0.74 0.12 Y2 0.75 0.15 C2 Y0 0.74 0.14 Y1 0.76 0.16 Y2 0.76 0.20 IR3 C0 Y0 0.62 0.17 Y1 0.64 0.21 Y2 0.64 0.22 C1 Y0 0.65 0.09 Y1 0.67 0.10 Y2 0.67 0.13 C2 Y0 0.67 0.13 Y1 0.69 0.15 Y2 0.69 0.17 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.03 0.01 IR1 = irrigation every 5 days IR2 = irrigation every 10 days IR3 = irrigation every 15 days. C0 = zero compost C1 = 0.25 kg/pot C2 = 0.5kg/pot. Y0 = zero yeast Y1 = 4g/L yeast Y2 = 8g/L yeast. Table 3: Influence of different irrigation intervals, different compost rates as well as active dry yeast treatments and their interactions on water relations of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves in both growing seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. RWC% Free water % Charact. treatments 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress IR1 62.10 53.55 27.97 27.57 IR2 58.97 49.50 21.45 22.43 IR3 37.10 33.96 6.12 11.02 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.03 5.23 6.30 4.44 Compost rates C0 49.85 43.01 17.96 18.89 C1 51.20 44.96 18.90 20.12 C2 57.12 49.04 18.68 22.02 [LSD.sub.0.05] 2.88 1.01 0.32 2.05 Yeast treatments Y0 49.19 42.07 17.80 19.19 Y1 52.37 45.01 18.47 20.34 Y2 56.60 49.93 19.27 21.50 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.06 1.74 1.11 1.03 Bound water% Total water % Charact. treatments 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress IR1 35.16 31.94 63.13 59.52 IR2 39.71 36.34 61.01 58.67 IR3 43.96 40.64 50.09 50.77 [LSD.sub.0.05] 2.94 4.11 3.95 4.09 Compost rates C0 36.23 35.67 54.91 53.98 C1 39.37 36.09 58.28 55.91 C2 43.23 37.15 61.04 59.07 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.29 1.96 1.77 2.06 Yeast treatments Y0 36.17 35.87 55.44 55.06 Y1 40.37 35.67 58.69 56.03 Y2 42.29 37.37 60.10 57.87 [LSD.sub.0.05] 2.26 0.92 1.56 2.04 RWC% Free water % 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates IR1 C0 59.15 51.70 24.08 26.50 C1 60.24 51.78 29.02 27.20 C2 66.90 57.18 30.82 29.03 IR2 C0 56.61 50.54 21.09 21.13 C1 57.58 47.30 20.38 22.53 C2 62.72 50.66 22.86 23.63 IR3 C0 33.80 26.79 4.13 9.03 C1 35.78 35.80 6.94 10.63 C2 41.73 39.29 7.31 13.40 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.74 4.75 6.36 5.11 Compost rates X Y east treatments IR1 Y0 57.33 48.62 25.92 26.60 Y1 61.43 52.86 28.28 27.46 Y2 67.54 59.18 29.72 28.66 IR2 Y0 56.16 47.60 21.69 21.73 Y1 57.52 48.67 21.01 22.36 Y2 63.23 52.23 21.64 23.20 IR3 Y0 34.10 29.99 6.40 9.23 Y1 38.16 33.51 6.13 11.20 Y2 39.04 38.38 5.85 12.63 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.90 4.29 6.31 5.54 Bound water% Total water % 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates IR1 C0 31.37 32.00 62.20 58.50 C1 33.76 31.90 62.76 59.10 C2 40.35 31.93 64.44 61.93 IR2 C0 38.58 35.33 59.68 56.46 C1 39.96 35.10 60.35 57.63 C2 40.60 38.60 63.01 60.96 IR3 C0 38.74 40.96 42.86 47.00 C1 44.40 40.03 51.72 51.00 C2 48.74 40.93 55.68 54.33 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.91 4.31 2.77 3.33 Compost rates X Y east treatments IR1 Y0 31.19 31.86 60.89 58.46 Y1 35.56 31.63 63.84 59.10 Y2 38.75 32.33 64.67 61.00 IR2 Y0 38.50 35.66 60.20 57.40 Y1 40.11 36.26 60.65 58.33 Y2 40.53 37.10 62.18 60.30 IR3 Y0 38.83 40.09 45.23 49.33 Y1 45.46 39.13 51.58 50.66 Y2 47.60 42.70 53.45 52.33 [LSD.sub.0.05] 2.59 3.57 4.28 4.01 RWC% Free water % 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Compost rates X Yeast rates C0 Y0 47.37 39.07 18.40 17.97 Y1 49.16 44.15 18.42 18.70 Y2 53.02 45.81 19.22 20.00 C1 Y0 47.86 42.91 18.49 19.10 Y1 50.75 44.67 18.83 20.10 Y2 55.00 47.28 19.39 21.16 C2 Y0 52.36 44.23 16.17 20.50 Y1 57.20 46.22 18.52 22.23 Y2 61.79 56.69 19.40 23.33 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.87 4.29 1.02 0.89 Bound water% Total water % 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Compost rates X Yeast rates C0 Y0 34.15 34.83 53.38 52.80 Y1 37.01 35.13 55.40 53.83 Y2 37.53 37.30 55.95 55.33 C1 Y0 35.56 35.70 54.93 54.80 Y1 42.00 34.83 59.06 55.26 Y2 40.57 36.50 60.83 57.66 C2 Y0 38.81 37.10 58.01 57.60 Y1 43.55 37.06 61.60 59.00 Y2 47.34 38.33 63.52 60.63 [LSD.sub.0.05] 4.03 2.85 2.22 3.31 RWC% Free water % 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates X Yeast treatments IR1 C0 Y0 56.66 48.32 28.56 25.50 Y1 57.33 52.80 25.47 26.00 Y2 63.47 54.00 18.23 28.00 C1 Y0 56.98 48.55 29.66 26.00 Y1 57.05 52.13 28.59 27.60 Y2 66.71 54.66 28.81 28.00 C2 Y0 58.36 48.99 30.74 28.30 Y1 69.91 53.66 30.78 28.80 Y2 72.44 68.98 30.96 30.00 IR2 C0 Y0 53.96 48.00 22.41 20.40 Y1 55.87 50.23 20.35 20.90 Y2 60.01 53.39 20.52 22.10 C1 Y0 55.90 46.20 20.52 21.80 Y1 57.10 46.90 20.02 22.30 Y2 59.75 48.80 20.60 23.50 C2 Y0 58.63 48.60 22.14 23.00 Y1 59.61 48.90 22.66 23.90 Y2 69.94 54.50 23.80 24.00 IR3 C0 Y0 31.50 20.89 4.30 8.01 Y1 34.30 29.43 4.09 9.20 Y2 35.60 30.06 4.00 9.90 C1 Y0 30.70 34.00 8.01 9.50 Y1 38.10 35.00 6.86 10.40 Y2 38.54 38.40 7.07 12.00 C2 Y0 40.10 35.10 6.90 10.20 Y1 42.10 36.11 7.43 14.00 Y2 42.99 46.68 6.49 16.00 [LSD.sub.0.05] 3.77 4.99 2.08 2.22 Bound water% Total water % 1st cut 2nd cut 1st cut 2nd cut Water stress X Compost rates X Yeast treatments IR1 C0 Y0 29.63 32.50 60.59 58.00 Y1 31.85 32.50 62.63 58.50 Y2 32.65 31.00 63.39 59.00 C1 Y0 31.30 32.50 60.90 58.50 Y1 34.71 31.20 63.30 58.80 Y2 35.29 32.00 64.10 60.00 C2 Y0 32.64 30.60 61.200 58.90 Y1 40.12 31.20 65.50 60.00 Y2 48.31 34.00 66.54 64.00 IR2 C0 Y0 37.132 35.00 59.55 55.40 Y1 39.30 35.10 59.65 56.00 Y2 39.32 35.90 59.84 58.00 C1 Y0 39.43 34.10 59.95 55.90 Y1 40.07 34.70 60.10 57.00 Y2 40.39 36.50 61.00 60.00 C2 Y0 38.96 37.90 61.11 60.90 Y1 40.96 39.00 62.22 62.00 Y2 41.90 38.90 65.70 62.90 IR3 C0 Y0 35.69 36.99 40.00 45.00 Y1 39.90 37.80 43.96 47.00 Y2 40.63 42.80 44.63 49.00 C1 Y0 35.95 40.5 43.96 50.00 Y1 46.93 38.60 53.80 50.00 Y2 50.34 41.00 57.41 53.00 C2 Y0 44.84 39.00 51.74 53.00 Y1 49.57 41.00 57.00 55.00 Y2 51.83 48.10 58.32 55.00 [LSD.sub.0.05] 5.37 4.22 5.00 3.76 IR1 = irrigation every 5 days IR2 = irrigation every 10 days IR3 = irrigation every 15 days. C0 = zero compost C1= 0.25 kg/pot C2 = 0.5kg/pot. Y0 = zero yeast Y1 = 4g/L yeast Y2 = 8g/L yeast. Table 4: Influence of different irrigation intervals, different compost rates as well as active dry yeast applications and their interactions on minerals % N, P and K of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves in both growing seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Charact. treatments N % P % K % Water stress IR1 1.98 0.61 1.13 IR2 1.79 0.55 1.02 IR3 1.61 0.47 0.87 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.03 0.05 0.03 Compost rates C0 1.73 0.51 0.95 C1 1.79 0.55 1.00 C2 1.85 0.58 1.07 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.02 0.03 0.01 Yeast treatments Y0 1.77 0.52 0.98 Y1 1.79 0.54 1.01 Y2 1.82 0.57 1.03 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.04 0.02 0.03 N % P % K % Water stress X Compost rates IR1 C0 1.91 0.58 1.07 C1 1.98 0.62 1.13 C2 2.05 0.64 1.21 IR2 C0 1.74 0.51 0.97 C1 1.79 0.55 1.01 C2 1.84 0.59 1.09 IR3 C0 1.55 0.44 0.82 C1 1.61 0.47 0.87 C2 1.68 0.50 0.91 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.05 0.03 0.02 Water stress X Yeast treatments IR1 Y0 1.95 0.59 1.09 Y1 1.98 0.61 1.14 Y2 2.01 0.64 1.17 IR2 Y0 1.77 0.54 1.01 Y1 1.79 0.55 1.02 Y2 1.81 0.57 1.04 IR3 Y0 1.59 0.45 0.85 Y1 1.61 0.47 0.87 Y2 1.63 0.49 0.88 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.03 0.03 0.02 N % P % K % Compost rates X Yeast treatments C0 Y0 1.71 0.49 0.93 Y1 1.73 0.51 0.96 Y2 1.76 0.53 0.97 C1 Y0 1.77 0.52 0.98 Y1 1.79 0.55 1.01 Y2 1.81 0.57 1.03 C2 Y0 1.83 0.56 1.04 Y1 1.85 0.58 1.07 Y2 1.88 0.60 1.10 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.01 0.03 0.03 N % P % K % Water stress X Compost rates X Yeast treatments IR1 C0 Y0 1.89 0.56 1.04 Y1 1.90 0.58 1.09 Y2 1.94 0.60 1.10 C1 Y0 1.96 0.60 1.08 Y1 1.99 0.62 1.14 Y2 2.00 0.64 1.17 C2 Y0 2.02 0.61 1.16 Y1 2.00 0.64 1.21 Y2 2.09 0.68 1.26 IR2 C0 Y0 1.72 0.50 0.95 Y1 1.74 0.52 0.98 Y2 1.78 0.53 0.99 C1 Y0 1.77 0.53 1.00 Y1 1.79 0.56 1.01 Y2 1.81 0.58 1.04 C2 Y0 1.83 0.59 1.08 Y1 1.84 0.59 1.09 Y2 1.86 0.61 1.11 IR3 C0 Y0 1.53 0.44 0.81 Y1 1.55 0.46 0.83 Y2 1.58 0.46 0.84 C1 Y0 1.59 0.45 0.86 Y1 1.61 0.47 0.88 Y2 1.63 0.50 0.89 C2 Y0 1.66 0.48 0.89 Y1 1.68 0.51 0.91 Y2 1.70 0.50 0.93 [LSD.sub.0.05] 0.06 0.05 0.07 IR1 = irrigation every 5 days IR2 = irrigation every 10 days IR3 = irrigation every 15 days. C0 = zero compost C1 = 0.25 kg/pot C2 = 0.5kg/pot. Y0 = zero yeast Y1 = 4g/L yeast Y2 = 8g/L yeast. Table 5: Essential oil composition (%) of Rosmarinus officinalis plants grown under different irrigation intervals, compost and bio fertilizer treatments during 2nd cut of the 2nd season. Treatments IRC0Y0 IRC0Y0 IR3C0Y0 [alpha]-Pinene 5.0 5.2 5.4 Camphene 3.2 3.0 2.8 [beta]-Pinene 5.5 5.0 5.9 Myrcene 1.9 2.4 1.5 [beta]-Phellandrene trace trace trace p-Cymene 2.4 2.0 2.2 1,8-Cineol 52.0 52.6 52.9 [gamma]-Terpinene 0.5 0.5 1.0 Sabinene hydrate 0.3 0.3 0.8 Terpinolene 0.2 0.2 0.2 Linalool 1.1 1.1 1.1 Camphor 12.1 12.3 12.6 Borneol 3.9 3.7 3.4 Terpinene-4-ol 0.7 0.7 0.7 [alpha]-Terpineol 2.1 2.1 2.1 Bornyl acetate 1.1 1.1 1.1 Thymol trace trace trace Carvacrol trace trace trace Eugenol trace trace trace [alpha]-Copaene 0.2 0.2 0.2 [beta]-Caryophyllene 4.2 4.1 4.0 [alpha]-Humulene 0.4 0.5 0.6 Germacrene D 0.3 0.3 0.3 [alpha]-Muurolene 0.2 0.2 0.2 [alpha]-Farnesene 0.1 0.1 0.1 [gamma]-Cadinene 0.4 0.3 0.4 Calamenene trace trace trace [delta]-Cadinene 0.3 0.4 0.3 Calacorene 0.2 0.2 0.2 [alpha]-Cadinene trace trace trace Caryophyllene oxide I 0.1 0.1 0.1 Caryophyllene oxide II 0.1 0.1 0.1 Humuladienol trace trace trace Humulene oxide trace trace trace Palmitic acid 0.1 0.1 0.1 Miristic acid trace trace trace Treatments IR1C2Y2 IR2C2Y2 IR3C2Y2 [alpha]-Pinene 5.2 5.4 5.5 Camphene 3.5 3.0 3.0 [beta]-Pinene 5.7 5.0 6.0 Myrcene 2.1 2.5 1.7 [beta]-Phellandrene trace trace trace p-Cymene 2.6 2.2 2.4 1,8-Cineol 52.4 52.7 53.0 [gamma]-Terpinene 0.6 0.5 0.5 Sabinene hydrate 0.3 0.3 0.9 Terpinolene 0.2 0.2 0.2 Linalool 1.1 1.1 1.1 Camphor 12.3 12.8 13.0 Borneol 3.4 3.2 3.0 Terpinene-4-ol 0.7 0.7 0.7 [alpha]-Terpineol 2.7 2.1 2.1 Bornyl acetate 1.1 1.1 1.1 Thymol trace trace trace Carvacrol trace trace trace Eugenol trace trace trace [alpha]-Copaene 0.2 0.2 0.2 [beta]-Caryophyllene 4.5 4.3 4.2 [alpha]-Humulene 0.5 0.6 0.8 Germacrene D 0.3 0.3 0.3 [alpha]-Muurolene 0.2 0.2 0.2 [alpha]-Farnesene 0.1 0.1 0.1 [gamma]-Cadinene 0.4 0.4 0.4 Calamenene trace trace trace [delta]-Cadinene 0.3 0.3 0.3 Calacorene 0.2 0.2 0.2 [alpha]-Cadinene trace trace trace Caryophyllene oxide I 0.1 0.1 0.1 Caryophyllene oxide II 0.1 0.1 0.1 Humuladienol trace trace trace Humulene oxide trace trace trace Palmitic acid 0.1 0.1 0.1 Miristic acid trace trace trace IR1 = irrigation every 5 days IR2 = irrigation every 10 days IR3 = irrigation every 15 days. C0 = zero compost C1 = 0.25 kg/pot C2 = 0.5kg/pot. Y0 = zero yeast Y1 = 4g/L yeast Y2 = 8g/L yeast. Trace < 0.05%.
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|Author:||Khalil, Soha E.; Khalil, Ashraf M.|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2015|
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