Effect of temperature, drought and salinity stresses on germination of Portulaca Oleracea L., Trigonella Foenum-Graecium L., Borago Officinalis L. and Hypericum Perforatum L.
Environmental stresses such as drought and salinity stresses are of abiotic stresses that affect the germination, growth and crop yield. In recent years, consumption of herbal plants in various uses increase especially local people prefer to use this plants for medicinal useful. Initial stages in plant growth, especially seeds germination, is one of the most sensitive growth stage that is considerably affected by stress and in other words germination and seedling initial growth stages are critical stages for establishing plant in salinity stress condition . Survival and plants growth evaluation in this stage can be somehow the indicator of the amount of tolerance of stress. The ability of seed for accessing to water is decreased by the reduction of osmotic potential and matric and can cause the disorder in seed germination [9, 20]. Different reports showed that low potential of water in the environment is the main factor in limiting the germination [4, 12]. Several studies showed that germination and seedling growth will be decreased in effect of different lifeless stresses like salinity, drought and cold weather [1, 2, 11, 13, 23, 24]. Drought stress can increase the uniformity and the time of germination onset. Generally, with the increase of drought stress, the ability of suction of water by seeds will be decreased and the necessary duration for water sucking will be increased and consequently the start of germination processes will be postponed and in addition there will a disorder in it and the time will be increased until the start of germination .
Borage with its scientific name Borago officinalis L. is a biennial or perennial belongs to the species of Boraginaceae. This species is one of the valuable medical plants that grow wildly in north districts of Iran. Knowing the importance of that borage is a medical plant and its increasing process of consumption in traditional medicine and by knowing the damage that is resulted from intensive beneficiary of this wild plant in the Flore of Iran, the necessity of sowing this plant in a large amount and commercially is considered .
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) from Portulaca family is promising crop for pollution agriculture. In this regard, purslane is a reasonable selection due to its high nutritive and antioxidant properties as human food, animal feed and medical utilization [6, 7].
Hypericum perforatum L. from Hypericaceae  plant spreads rapidly by means of runners or from the prodigious seed production and can invade pastures, disturbed sites, dirt roads, the sides of roads and highways, and sparse woods. The plant has a wide range of medicinal applications, including skin wounds, eczema, burns, diseases of the alimentary tract and psychological disorders .
Trigonella L. is a large genus with close to 135 species belonging to the family Leguminosae. Most of the species are distributed in the dry regions . The objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of salinity, drought and temperature on seeds of Portulaca oleracea L., Trigonella foenum-graecium L., Borago officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
This research was conducted by completely randomized design with 3 replications in a factorial layout in Herbal Research Institute, Islamic Azad University branch of Shahrekord. The drought stress treatments had 4 levels (0, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 bar) by using of PEG [Poly Ethylene Glycol 6000]. The salinity treatments was performed in 3 levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 M) by using NaCl. The temperatures levels conducted in 4 levels (0, 15, 20, 25 [degrees]C). The seeds at first are sterilized with hypo chloride sodium (%3) in 2 minutes and then washed in 3 steps superficially with distilled water and 100 seeds transferred to glass Petri dish with 10 cm diameter. During the experimental period, the number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. Germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, rootled and stem length and seedling dry weight were measured.
GDD required for different stages of germination using the following equation was calculated. For measurement of GDD, base temperature for Portulaca oleracea, Trigonella foenum-graecium, Hypericum perforatum and Borago officinalis L. were 11.8[degrees] [degrees]C, 10[degrees]C, 0 [degrees]C and 5[degrees]C respectively [5, 21. 22. 23. 24]. Statistical Analysis SAS statistical analysis software and comparison using Duncan's test at 5%.
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
Analysis of variance of the effect of treatments on measured characters was significant. Single effects and double effects of treatments in most of characters were significant but in some cases triple effects of salinity, drought and temperature no had significant effectiveness (tables1-4). By increasing of salinity and drought, length of stem in all of plant decreased but roots of them in some cases was increased. Seeds of Portulaca oleracea L. in all of plants were the most tolerant. There was significant differences between measured characters that we saw high correlation between germination percentage with root/stem length and root dry weight in all of plants (tables 5-8).
We obtained that by increasing of temperature, more of the characters especially seed germination, stem length were significantly increased. It seems that in these seeds, the seeds of Purslane better showed the better correlation of measured characters. Dry weight of stem and root had better correlation by germination percentage and in ANOVA showed higher significant differences in treatments. Significant reduction of germination with increasing salinity was reported [22, 23, 24]. Salinity stress have an influence on seed germination via osmotic effects and ion toxicity. Different levels of salinity stress has a significant effects on germination component and with the increase in salinity the amount of germination indexes were reduced. Maybe the reason of the reduction in the germination rate in levels upper the salinity stress, the reduction in water potential and consequently reduction in the rate of sucking water and the toxic effect of sodium ion was obtained [22, 23, 24, 25].
Many researchers reported the destructive effects of salinity and decrease growth parameters for example Brassica napus L. [25, 26], Plantago sp L., Alyssum spp, Portulaca oleracea, Sesamum indicum, Origanum majorana, Trigonella foenum, Anethum graveolens, Melilotus officinalis, Trachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Lactuca sativa and Lallemantia royleana [23, 24]. The reduction in germination indexes under the effects of salinity and drought stress were attributed to the reduction in the amount of initial sucking of water and also the negative influence of low osmotic potential and the toxicity of ions on biochemical process of catabolic and anabolic phases [24, 25]. In all of seeds the effects of salinity and dry stress had more significant effectiveness on many characters especially germination percentage than other interactions between treatments (tables 1-4).
The reduction in normal seedling percentage with the increase of salinity stress levels attributed by the toxic effects of ions that influenced the normal seedling growth and in this way, reduction in normal seedling percentage, seedling length and dry weight of root and stem was made. Decrease in stem/root length, root/stem fresh/dry weight made by the increase of salinity and drought concentration levels were reported by other scientists [20, 22, 24, 26].
Our results showed that the drought and salinity stress were the cause of reduction in germination indexes contain of germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, rootled and stem length and seedling dry weight. The reduction in germination indexes can be attributed to diminish of water uptake in the condition of high levels of drought and salinity stress. By increasing of salinity, root and stem dry/fresh weight, root/stem length decreased in all of seedlings. Germination percentage was increased by higher level of temperature but decreased by upper levels of salinity and drought stresses. Salinity and drought stress had significant effectiveness on germination percentage of seeds. The highest percentage seed germination was made in temperature of 25[degrees]C and no salinity/drought stress (0 concentration).
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Reza Mirzaiyan Dehkordi, Mehrab Yadegari and Behzad Hamedi
Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.
Received 12 October 2014
Received in revised form 26 December 2014
Accepted 1 January 2015
Available online 17 February 2015
Corresponding Author: Mehrab Yadegari, Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.
Tel: +98 9133814318; Fax: +98 38 3336109;3 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Table 1: Analysis of variance of Portulaca oleracea seeds under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature. Source of Degree Mean of squares Variation of Freedom Stem length Root length Stem wet weight Salinity 3 440.72 ** 85.858 ** 0.0593 ** Dry 3 19.52 ** 29.61 ** 0.01 ** Temperature 3 833.59 ** 184.77 ** 0.145 ** Salinity x Dry 9 1.12 (ns) 1.16 (ns) 0.0009 ** Salinity x 9 44.58 ** 8.12 ** 0.0043 ** Temperature Dry x Temperature 9 1.45 (ns) 1.20 (ns) 0.0011 ** Salinity x Dry x 27 0.81 (ns) 1.40 ** 0.0014 ** Temperature Error 126 1.22 (ns) 0.48 0.000001 Coefficient 6.6 6.91 7.56 of Variance Source of Variation Stem dry Root wet weight weight Salinity 0.0105 ** 0.154 ** Dry 0.0133 ** 0.005 ** Temperature 0.0540 ** 0.058 ** Salinity x Dry 0.00012 ** 0.00058 ** Salinity x 0.00159 ** 0.0105 ** Temperature Dry x Temperature 0.00156 ** 0.00072 ** Salinity x Dry x 0.00137 ** 0.00058 ** Temperature Error 0.00012 ** 0.000014 ** Coefficient 5.11 12.2 of Variance Source of Variation Root dry Germination weight Percentage Salinity 0.95 ** 2887.90 (ns) Dry 0.108 ** 1608.005 (ns) Temperature 0.198 ** 16386.54 ** Salinity x Dry 0.1009 ** 13817.11 ** Salinity x 0.534 ** 1681.69 (ns) Temperature Dry x Temperature 0.539 ** 1656.98 (ns) Salinity x Dry x 0.127 ** 1596.01 (ns) Temperature Error 0.0023 1557.43 Coefficient 8.8 5.7 of Variance Table 2: Analysis of variance of Trigonella foenum seeds under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature. Source of Variation Degree of Mean of squares Freedom Stem Root length length Salinity 3 311.86 ** 989.74 ** Dry 3 21.92 ** 123.09 ** Temperature 3 1318.9 192.53 * Salinity x Dry 9 1.18 ** 10.56 ** Salinity x Temperature 9 19.99 ** 19.07 ** Dry x Temperature 9 1.66 ** 1.56 (ns) Salinity x Dry x 27 0.75 ** 1.33 (ns) Temperature Error 126 0.17 ** 0.5102 Coefficient of Variance 5.89 6.74 Source of Variation Mean of squares Stem fresh Stem dry Root wet weight weight weight Salinity 0.319 ** 0.755 ** 0.93 ** Dry 0.217 ** 0.382 ** 0.003 ** Temperature 0.074 ** 1.92 ** 0.056 ** Salinity x Dry 0.181 ** 0.158 ** 0.0003 ** Salinity x Temperature 0.178 ** 0.496 ** 0.001 ** Dry x Temperature 0.12 ** 0.138 ** 0.003 ** Salinity x Dry x 0.08 ** 0.164 ** 0.0002 ** Temperature Error 0.00002 0.0000085 0.00001 ** Coefficient of Variance 2.15 0.259 12.49 Source of Variation Mean of squares Root dry Germination weight Percentage Salinity 0.046 ** 8002.81 ** Dry 0.025 ** 2015.2 ** Temperature 0.054 ** 3736.2 ** Salinity x Dry 0.0425 ** 119.2 ** Salinity x Temperature 0.0318 ** 13.18 (ns) Dry x Temperature 0.0353 ** 45.88 (ns) Salinity x Dry x 0.033 ** 18.04 (ns) Temperature Error 0.0023 22.65 Coefficient of Variance 10.81 10.35 Table 3: Analysis of variance of Hypericum perforatum seeds under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature. Source of Variation Degree of Mean of squares Freedom Stem Root length length Salinity 3 431.8 ** 589.6 ** Dry 3 7.008 ** 28.90 ** Temperature 3 290.89 ** 144.54 ** Salinity x Dry 9 0.183 (ns) 0.794 ** Salinity x Temperature 9 14.52 ** 4.318 ** Dry x Temperature 9 1.037 ** 1.254 ** Salinity x Dry x 27 0.296 ** 0.334 ** Temperature Error 126 0.066 0.057 Coefficient of Variance 10.19 6.38 Source of Variation Mean of squares Stem wet Stem dry Root wet weight weight weight Salinity 0.429 ** 0.825 ** 0.89 ** Dry 0.78 ** 0.25 ** 0.448 ** Temperature 1.89 ** 0.71 ** 1.134 ** Salinity x Dry 0.12 ** 0.35 ** 0.193 ** Salinity x Temperature 0.19 ** 0.63 ** 0.336 ** Dry x Temperature 0.07 ** 0.177 ** 0.133 ** Salinity x Dry x 0.146 ** 0.117 ** 0.147 ** Temperature Error 0.00001 0.0011 0.00006 Coefficient of Variance 11.31 6.39 11.38 Source of Variation Mean of squares Root dry Germination weight Percentage Salinity 0.34 ** 680.84 ** Dry 0.444 ** 247.3 ** Temperature 0.1307 ** 2278.5 ** Salinity x Dry 0.195 ** 265.44 ** Salinity x Temperature 0.305 ** 23.79 (ns) Dry x Temperature 0.1315 ** 23.36 (ns) Salinity x Dry x 0.1459 ** 24.62 (ns) Temperature Error 0.00002 11.37 Coefficient of Variance 8.66 11.27 Table 4: Analysis of variances of Borago officinalis seeds under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature. Source of Degree Mean of squares Variances o Freedom Stem Root length length Salinity 3 265.05 ** 832.46 ** Dry 3 15.60 ** 46.875 ** Temperature 3 1136.97 ** 254.67 ** Salinity x 9 0.37 (ns) 0.422 (ns) Dry Salinity x 9 6.006 ** 18.37 (ns) Temperature Dry x 9 0.692 (ns) 0.51 (ns) Temperature Salinity x 27 0.427 (ns) 0.809 ** Dry x Temperature Error 126 0.657 0.190 Coefficient 14.78 5.3 of Variance Source of Mean of squares Variances Stem wet Stem dry Root wet weight weight weight Salinity 0.589 ** 1.16 ** 0.53 ** Dry 0.27 ** 0.43 ** 0.014 ** Temperature 1.08 ** 1 71 ** 0.048 ** Salinity x 0.138 ** 0.79 ** 0.0006 ** Dry Salinity x 0.302 ** 0.223 ** 0.0002 ** Temperature Dry x 0.207 ** 0.154 ** 0.0005 ** Temperature Salinity x 0.136 ** 0.271 ** 0.0008 ** Dry x Temperature Error 0.00003 0.000730 0.0000009 Coefficient 11.77 12.25 8.46 of Variance Source of Mean of squares Variances Root dry Germination weight Percentage Salinity 0.446 ** 4762.06 Dry 0.06 ** 1399.4 Temperature 0.228 ** 1641.5 ** Salinity x 0.111 ** 222.9 ** Dry Salinity x 0.286 ** 6.2 (ns) Temperature Dry x 0.06 ** 11.6 (ns) Temperature Salinity x 0.061 ** 3.4 (ns) Dry x Temperature Error 0.00000068 10.29 Coefficient 5.38 8.33 of Variance (ns), * and ** are not significant and significant at 5% and 1% probability levels respectively. Table 5: Correlation between measured characters of Portulaca oleracea L. seeds, under treatments. Characters Stem Root Stem wet Stem dry length length weight weight Stem length 1 Root length 0.21 1 Stem wet 0.56 ** 0.26 1 weight Stem dry 0.45 ** 0.24 0.52 ** 1 weight Root wet 0.17 0.64 ** 0.44 ** 0.58 ** weight Root dry 0.24 0.68 ** 0.53 ** 0.66 ** weight Germination 0.41 ** 0.8 ** 0.12 0.17 Percentage Characters Root wet Root dry Germination weight weight Percentage Stem length Root length Stem wet weight Stem dry weight Root wet 1 weight Root dry 0.56 ** 1 weight Germination 0.37 0.51 ** 1 Percentage Table 6: Correlation between measured characters of Trigonella foenum L. seeds, under treatments. Characters Stem Root Stem wet Stem dry length length weight weight Stem length 1 Root length 0.33 1 Stem wet weight 0.55 ** 0.14 1 Stem dry weight 0.6 ** 0.13 0.25 1 Root wet weight 0.27 0.55 ** 0.33 0.55 ** Root dry weight 0.14 0.48 ** 0.44 ** 0.56 ** Germination Percentage 0.57 ** 0.47 ** 0.26 0.28 Characters Root wet Root dry Germination weight weight Percentage Stem length Root length Stem wet weight Stem dry weight Root wet weight 1 Root dry weight 0.54 ** 1 Germination Percentage 0.33 0.48 ** 1 Table 7: Correlation between measured characters of Hypericum perforatum L. seeds, under treatments. Characters Stem Root Stem wet Stem dry length length weight weight Stem length 1 Root length 0.15 1 Stem wet weight 0.44 ** 0.13 1 Stem dry weight 0.49 ** 0.28 0.27 1 Root wet weight 0.32 0.55 ** 0.24 0.68 ** Root dry weight 0.17 0.62 ** 0.42 ** 0.55 ** Germination Percentage 0.69 ** 0.55 ** 0.4* 0.35* Characters Root wet Root dry Germination weight weight Percentage Stem length Root length Stem wet weight Stem dry weight Root wet weight 1 Root dry weight 0.44 ** 1 Germination Percentage 0.67 ** 0.49 ** 1 Table 8: Correlation between measured characters of Borago officinalis L. seeds, under treatments. Characters Stem Root Stem wet Stem dry length length weight weight Stem length 1 Root length 0.4 * 1 Stem wet weight 0.63 ** 0.11 1 Stem dry weight 0.46 ** 0.29 0.45 ** 1 Root wet weight 0.26 0.67 ** 0.14 0.55 ** Root dry weight 0.12 0.63 ** 0.19 0.67 ** Germination Percentage 0.45 ** 0.61 ** 0.52 ** 0.33 Characters Root wet Root dry Germination weight weight Percentage Stem length Root length Stem wet weight Stem dry weight Root wet weight 1 Root dry weight 0.53 ** 1 Germination Percentage 0.44 ** 0.6 ** 1
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|Author:||Dehkordi, Reza Mirzaiyan; Yadegari, Mehrab; Hamedi, Behzad|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2015|
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