Printer Friendly

Effect of temperature, drought and salinity stresses on germination of Portulaca Oleracea L., Trigonella Foenum-Graecium L., Borago Officinalis L. and Hypericum Perforatum L.

INTRODUCTION

Environmental stresses such as drought and salinity stresses are of abiotic stresses that affect the germination, growth and crop yield. In recent years, consumption of herbal plants in various uses increase especially local people prefer to use this plants for medicinal useful. Initial stages in plant growth, especially seeds germination, is one of the most sensitive growth stage that is considerably affected by stress and in other words germination and seedling initial growth stages are critical stages for establishing plant in salinity stress condition [18]. Survival and plants growth evaluation in this stage can be somehow the indicator of the amount of tolerance of stress. The ability of seed for accessing to water is decreased by the reduction of osmotic potential and matric and can cause the disorder in seed germination [9, 20]. Different reports showed that low potential of water in the environment is the main factor in limiting the germination [4, 12]. Several studies showed that germination and seedling growth will be decreased in effect of different lifeless stresses like salinity, drought and cold weather [1, 2, 11, 13, 23, 24]. Drought stress can increase the uniformity and the time of germination onset. Generally, with the increase of drought stress, the ability of suction of water by seeds will be decreased and the necessary duration for water sucking will be increased and consequently the start of germination processes will be postponed and in addition there will a disorder in it and the time will be increased until the start of germination [16].

Borage with its scientific name Borago officinalis L. is a biennial or perennial belongs to the species of Boraginaceae. This species is one of the valuable medical plants that grow wildly in north districts of Iran. Knowing the importance of that borage is a medical plant and its increasing process of consumption in traditional medicine and by knowing the damage that is resulted from intensive beneficiary of this wild plant in the Flore of Iran, the necessity of sowing this plant in a large amount and commercially is considered [8].

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) from Portulaca family is promising crop for pollution agriculture. In this regard, purslane is a reasonable selection due to its high nutritive and antioxidant properties as human food, animal feed and medical utilization [6, 7].

Hypericum perforatum L. from Hypericaceae [15] plant spreads rapidly by means of runners or from the prodigious seed production and can invade pastures, disturbed sites, dirt roads, the sides of roads and highways, and sparse woods. The plant has a wide range of medicinal applications, including skin wounds, eczema, burns, diseases of the alimentary tract and psychological disorders [5].

Trigonella L. is a large genus with close to 135 species belonging to the family Leguminosae. Most of the species are distributed in the dry regions [19]. The objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of salinity, drought and temperature on seeds of Portulaca oleracea L., Trigonella foenum-graecium L., Borago officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

This research was conducted by completely randomized design with 3 replications in a factorial layout in Herbal Research Institute, Islamic Azad University branch of Shahrekord. The drought stress treatments had 4 levels (0, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 bar) by using of PEG [Poly Ethylene Glycol 6000]. The salinity treatments was performed in 3 levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 M) by using NaCl. The temperatures levels conducted in 4 levels (0, 15, 20, 25 [degrees]C). The seeds at first are sterilized with hypo chloride sodium (%3) in 2 minutes and then washed in 3 steps superficially with distilled water and 100 seeds transferred to glass Petri dish with 10 cm diameter. During the experimental period, the number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. Germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, rootled and stem length and seedling dry weight were measured.

GDD required for different stages of germination using the following equation was calculated. For measurement of GDD, base temperature for Portulaca oleracea, Trigonella foenum-graecium, Hypericum perforatum and Borago officinalis L. were 11.8[degrees] [degrees]C, 10[degrees]C, 0 [degrees]C and 5[degrees]C respectively [5, 21. 22. 23. 24]. Statistical Analysis SAS statistical analysis software and comparison using Duncan's test at 5%.

RESULTS AND DISCUSION

Analysis of variance of the effect of treatments on measured characters was significant. Single effects and double effects of treatments in most of characters were significant but in some cases triple effects of salinity, drought and temperature no had significant effectiveness (tables1-4). By increasing of salinity and drought, length of stem in all of plant decreased but roots of them in some cases was increased. Seeds of Portulaca oleracea L. in all of plants were the most tolerant. There was significant differences between measured characters that we saw high correlation between germination percentage with root/stem length and root dry weight in all of plants (tables 5-8).

We obtained that by increasing of temperature, more of the characters especially seed germination, stem length were significantly increased. It seems that in these seeds, the seeds of Purslane better showed the better correlation of measured characters. Dry weight of stem and root had better correlation by germination percentage and in ANOVA showed higher significant differences in treatments. Significant reduction of germination with increasing salinity was reported [22, 23, 24]. Salinity stress have an influence on seed germination via osmotic effects and ion toxicity. Different levels of salinity stress has a significant effects on germination component and with the increase in salinity the amount of germination indexes were reduced. Maybe the reason of the reduction in the germination rate in levels upper the salinity stress, the reduction in water potential and consequently reduction in the rate of sucking water and the toxic effect of sodium ion was obtained [22, 23, 24, 25].

Many researchers reported the destructive effects of salinity and decrease growth parameters for example Brassica napus L. [25, 26], Plantago sp L., Alyssum spp, Portulaca oleracea, Sesamum indicum, Origanum majorana, Trigonella foenum, Anethum graveolens, Melilotus officinalis, Trachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Lactuca sativa and Lallemantia royleana [23, 24]. The reduction in germination indexes under the effects of salinity and drought stress were attributed to the reduction in the amount of initial sucking of water and also the negative influence of low osmotic potential and the toxicity of ions on biochemical process of catabolic and anabolic phases [24, 25]. In all of seeds the effects of salinity and dry stress had more significant effectiveness on many characters especially germination percentage than other interactions between treatments (tables 1-4).

The reduction in normal seedling percentage with the increase of salinity stress levels attributed by the toxic effects of ions that influenced the normal seedling growth and in this way, reduction in normal seedling percentage, seedling length and dry weight of root and stem was made. Decrease in stem/root length, root/stem fresh/dry weight made by the increase of salinity and drought concentration levels were reported by other scientists [20, 22, 24, 26].

Conclusion:

Our results showed that the drought and salinity stress were the cause of reduction in germination indexes contain of germination percentage, germination rate, normal seedling percentage, rootled and stem length and seedling dry weight. The reduction in germination indexes can be attributed to diminish of water uptake in the condition of high levels of drought and salinity stress. By increasing of salinity, root and stem dry/fresh weight, root/stem length decreased in all of seedlings. Germination percentage was increased by higher level of temperature but decreased by upper levels of salinity and drought stresses. Salinity and drought stress had significant effectiveness on germination percentage of seeds. The highest percentage seed germination was made in temperature of 25[degrees]C and no salinity/drought stress (0 concentration).

REFERENCES

[1] Almansouri, M., J.M. Kinet and S. Lutts, 2001. Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on germination in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Plant Soil, 231: 243-254.

[2] Ansari, A., R. Tavakolafshari, F. Sharifzadeh and A. Shayanfar, 2012. The consumption of stored substantial process and mountain rye seed germination (Secale montanum) under the salinity stress and priming condition. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 44(2): 181-189.

[3] Ansari, O., H. Choghazardi, F. Sharif Zadeh and H. Nazarli, 2012. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of treated seeds of mountain rye (Secale montanum) as affected by drought stress. Cercetari Agronomicein Moldova, 2(150): 43-48.

[4] Boydak, M., H. Dirik, F. Tilki and M. Calikoglu, 2003. Effects of water stress on germination in six provenances of Pinus brutia seeds from different bioclimatic zones in Turkey. Turk, J. Agric, 27: 91-97.

[5] Butterweck, V., 2003. Mechanism of action of St. John's Wort in depression. What is known? CNS Drugs, 17: 539-562.

[6] Dkhil, M., A. Abdel Moniem, S. Al-Quraishy and R. Awadallah, 2011. Antioxidant effect of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and its mechanism of action. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(90): 1589-1563.

[7] Salehi, M., F. Salehi., K. Poustini and H. Heidari-Sharifabad, 2008. The effect of salinity on the nitrogen fixation in 4 cultivars of Medicago sativa L. in the seedling emergence stage. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 4: 413-415.

[8] Ghaderi, F.A., A. Soltani and H.R. Sadeghipur, 2008. Cardinal temperature of germination in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. stryaca), borago (Borago officinalis) and black cumin (Nigella sativa). Asian journal of plants sciences, 574-578.

[9] Gill, P.K., A.D. Shama, P. Singh and S. Singh Bhullar, 2002. Osmotic stress-induced changes in germination, growth and soluble sugar content of Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds. Bulgarian Journal of Plant, 28: 12-25.

[10] Hasegawa, P.M.R.A., J.K. Bressan and H.J. Bohnert, 2000. Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol, 51: 463-485.

[11] Jaleel, A., C. Gopi., R. Sankar and R. Panneerselvam, 2007. Studies on germination, seeding vigour, lipid peroxidation and proline metabolism in Catharanthus roseus seedlings under salt stress. American Journal of Botany, 73: 190-195.

[12] Jaleel C.A., P. Manivannan, A. Wahid and R. Pannerselvam, 2009. Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 11: 100-105.

[13] Kaya M.D., G. Okcu, M. Atak, Y. Cikili and O. Kolsanci, 2006. Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.). Eur. J. Agron, 24: 291-295.

[14] Kaya, M., G. Kaya., M.D. Atak and C.Y. Ciftci, 2008. Interaction between seed size and NaCl on germination and early seedling growth of some Turkish cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.). Journal Zhejiang University Science, 9: 371-377.

[15] Mabberley, D.J., 1987. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[16] Patade, V.Y., K. Maya and A. Zakwan, 2011. Seed priming mediated germination improvement and tolerance to subsequent exposure to cold and salt stress in capsicum. Research Journal of Seed Science, 4 (3): 125-136.

[17] Roy, P., K. Niyogi, D.N. Sengupta and B. Ghosh, 2005. Spermidine treatment to rice seedling recovers salinity stress-induced damage of plasma membrane and PM--bound H+-ATPase in salt--tolerant and salt--sensitive rice cultivars. Plant Sci, 168: 583-591.

[18] Soltani, A., M. Gholipoor and E. Zeinali, 2006. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of wheat as affected by drought and salinity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 55: 195-200.

[19] Townsend, C.C., 1974. Leguminosae.--In: Townsend, C.C., Guest, E. (ed.): Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. The University Press, Glasgow.

[20] Willenborg, C.J., J.C. Wildeman, A.K. Miller and B.G. Rossnagel, 2005. Oat germination characteristics differ among genotypes, seed size and osmotic potentials. Crop Science, 45: 2023-2029.

[21] Yadegari, M., S. Karimi and R. Irani Pour, 2013. The effect of heavy metals (Cd and Ni) on growth, yield and other characters of Portulaca oleracea L. Journal of Applied Science and Agriculture, 8(7): 1438-1445.

[22] Yadegari, M. and A. Shakerian, 2014. Irrigation Periods and Fe, Zn Foliar Application on Agronomic Characters of Borago officinalis, Calendula Officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Alyssum desertorum. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(4): 1054-1062.

[23] Yadegari, M. and M. Ahmadi, 2014. The Effect of Salinity and Drought Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Biochemical Changes in Borago. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(17): 1082-1087.

[24] Yadegari, M., 2014. Study of Ratio and Speed Germination of Twelve Medicinal Plants under Several Treatments of Salinity. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(2): 425-430.

[25] Zadeh, H.M. and M.B. Naeni, 2007. Effects of salinity stress on the morphology and yield of two cultivars of canola (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agronomy, 6: 409-414.

[26] Zhang, H. and J. Hodson, 2001. Engineering salt tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil quality in transgenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 48: 12832-12836.

Reza Mirzaiyan Dehkordi, Mehrab Yadegari and Behzad Hamedi

Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 12 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 December 2014

Accepted 1 January 2015

Available online 17 February 2015

Corresponding Author: Mehrab Yadegari, Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.

Tel: +98 9133814318; Fax: +98 38 3336109;3 E-mail: mehrabyadegari@gmail.com.
Table 1: Analysis of variance of Portulaca oleracea seeds
under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature.

Source of             Degree     Mean of squares
Variation           of Freedom

                                 Stem length   Root length   Stem wet
                                                              weight

Salinity                3         440.72 **     85.858 **    0.0593 **
Dry                     3         19.52 **      29.61 **      0.01 **
Temperature             3         833.59 **     184.77 **    0.145 **
Salinity x Dry          9         1.12 (ns)     1.16 (ns)    0.0009 **
Salinity x              9         44.58 **       8.12 **     0.0043 **
  Temperature
Dry x Temperature       9         1.45 (ns)     1.20 (ns)    0.0011 **
Salinity x Dry x        27        0.81 (ns)      1.40 **     0.0014 **
  Temperature
Error                  126        1.22 (ns)       0.48       0.000001
Coefficient                          6.6          6.91         7.56
  of Variance

Source of
Variation

                     Stem dry     Root wet
                      weight       weight

Salinity            0.0105 **     0.154 **
Dry                 0.0133 **     0.005 **
Temperature         0.0540 **     0.058 **
Salinity x Dry      0.00012 **   0.00058 **
Salinity x          0.00159 **    0.0105 **
  Temperature
Dry x Temperature   0.00156 **   0.00072 **
Salinity x Dry x    0.00137 **   0.00058 **
  Temperature
Error               0.00012 **   0.000014 **
Coefficient            5.11         12.2
  of Variance

Source of
Variation

                    Root dry     Germination
                     weight      Percentage

Salinity             0.95 **    2887.90 (ns)
Dry                 0.108 **    1608.005 (ns)
Temperature         0.198 **     16386.54 **
Salinity x Dry      0.1009 **    13817.11 **
Salinity x          0.534 **    1681.69 (ns)
  Temperature
Dry x Temperature   0.539 **    1656.98 (ns)
Salinity x Dry x    0.127 **    1596.01 (ns)
  Temperature
Error                0.0023        1557.43
Coefficient            8.8           5.7
  of Variance

Table 2: Analysis of variance of Trigonella foenum seeds
under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature.

Source of Variation       Degree of     Mean of squares
                           Freedom
                                        Stem        Root
                                       length      length

Salinity                      3       311.86 **   989.74 **
Dry                           3       21.92 **    123.09 **
Temperature                   3        1318.9     192.53 *
Salinity x Dry                9        1.18 **    10.56 **
Salinity x Temperature        9       19.99 **    19.07 **
Dry x Temperature             9        1.66 **    1.56 (ns)
Salinity x Dry x             27        0.75 **    1.33 (ns)
  Temperature
Error                        126       0.17 **     0.5102
Coefficient of Variance                 5.89        6.74

Source of Variation                 Mean of squares

                          Stem fresh   Stem dry     Root wet
                            weight      weight       weight

Salinity                   0.319 **    0.755 **     0.93 **
Dry                        0.217 **    0.382 **     0.003 **
Temperature                0.074 **     1.92 **     0.056 **
Salinity x Dry             0.181 **    0.158 **    0.0003 **
Salinity x Temperature     0.178 **    0.496 **     0.001 **
Dry x Temperature          0.12 **     0.138 **     0.003 **
Salinity x Dry x           0.08 **     0.164 **    0.0002 **
  Temperature
Error                      0.00002     0.0000085   0.00001 **
Coefficient of Variance      2.15        0.259       12.49

Source of Variation           Mean of squares

                          Root dry    Germination
                           weight     Percentage

Salinity                  0.046 **    8002.81 **
Dry                       0.025 **     2015.2 **
Temperature               0.054 **     3736.2 **
Salinity x Dry            0.0425 **    119.2 **
Salinity x Temperature    0.0318 **   13.18 (ns)
Dry x Temperature         0.0353 **   45.88 (ns)
Salinity x Dry x          0.033 **    18.04 (ns)
  Temperature
Error                      0.0023        22.65
Coefficient of Variance     10.81        10.35

Table 3: Analysis of variance of Hypericum perforatum seeds
under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature.

Source of Variation       Degree of       Mean of squares
                           Freedom

                                         Stem        Root
                                        length      length

Salinity                      3        431.8 **    589.6 **
Dry                           3        7.008 **    28.90 **
Temperature                   3       290.89 **    144.54 **
Salinity x Dry                9       0.183 (ns)   0.794 **
Salinity x Temperature        9        14.52 **    4.318 **
Dry x Temperature             9        1.037 **    1.254 **
Salinity x Dry x             27        0.296 **    0.334 **
  Temperature
Error                        126        0.066        0.057
Coefficient of Variance                 10.19        6.38

Source of Variation              Mean of squares

                          Stem wet   Stem dry   Root wet
                           weight     weight     weight

Salinity                  0.429 **   0.825 **   0.89 **
Dry                       0.78 **    0.25 **    0.448 **
Temperature               1.89 **    0.71 **    1.134 **
Salinity x Dry            0.12 **    0.35 **    0.193 **
Salinity x Temperature    0.19 **    0.63 **    0.336 **
Dry x Temperature         0.07 **    0.177 **   0.133 **
Salinity x Dry x          0.146 **   0.117 **   0.147 **
  Temperature
Error                     0.00001     0.0011    0.00006
Coefficient of Variance    11.31       6.39      11.38

Source of Variation             Mean of squares

                          Root dry    Germination
                           weight     Percentage

Salinity                   0.34 **     680.84 **
Dry                       0.444 **     247.3 **
Temperature               0.1307 **    2278.5 **
Salinity x Dry            0.195 **     265.44 **
Salinity x Temperature    0.305 **    23.79 (ns)
Dry x Temperature         0.1315 **   23.36 (ns)
Salinity x Dry x          0.1459 **   24.62 (ns)
  Temperature
Error                      0.00002       11.37
Coefficient of Variance     8.66         11.27

Table 4: Analysis of variances of Borago officinalis seeds
under different levels of salinity, drought and temperature.

Source of       Degree    Mean of squares
Variances          o
                Freedom

                             Stem         Root
                            length       length

Salinity           3      265.05 **    832.46 **
Dry                3       15.60 **    46.875 **
Temperature        3      1136.97 **   254.67 **
Salinity x         9      0.37 (ns)    0.422 (ns)
  Dry
Salinity x         9       6.006 **    18.37 (ns)
  Temperature
Dry x              9      0.692 (ns)   0.51 (ns)
  Temperature
Salinity x        27      0.427 (ns)    0.809 **
  Dry x
  Temperature
Error             126       0.657        0.190
Coefficient                 14.78         5.3
  of Variance

Source of       Mean of squares
Variances

                Stem wet   Stem dry   Root wet
                 weight     weight     weight

Salinity        0.589 **   1.16 **     0.53 **
Dry             0.27 **    0.43 **    0.014 **
Temperature     1.08 **    1 71 **    0.048 **
Salinity x      0.138 **   0.79 **    0.0006 **
  Dry
Salinity x      0.302 **   0.223 **   0.0002 **
  Temperature
Dry x           0.207 **   0.154 **   0.0005 **
  Temperature
Salinity x      0.136 **   0.271 **   0.0008 **
  Dry x
  Temperature
Error           0.00003    0.000730   0.0000009
Coefficient      11.77      12.25       8.46
  of Variance

Source of       Mean of squares
Variances

                 Root dry    Germination
                  weight     Percentage

Salinity         0.446 **      4762.06
Dry              0.06 **       1399.4
Temperature      0.228 **     1641.5 **
Salinity x       0.111 **     222.9 **
  Dry
Salinity x       0.286 **     6.2 (ns)
  Temperature
Dry x            0.06 **      11.6 (ns)
  Temperature
Salinity x       0.061 **     3.4 (ns)
  Dry x
  Temperature
Error           0.00000068      10.29
Coefficient        5.38         8.33
  of Variance

(ns), * and ** are not significant and significant at 5%
and 1% probability levels respectively.

Table 5: Correlation between measured characters of
Portulaca oleracea L. seeds, under treatments.

Characters      Stem      Root     Stem wet   Stem dry
               length    length     weight     weight

Stem length       1
Root length     0.21        1
Stem wet       0.56 **    0.26        1
  weight
Stem dry       0.45 **    0.24     0.52 **       1
  weight
Root wet        0.17     0.64 **   0.44 **    0.58 **
  weight
Root dry        0.24     0.68 **   0.53 **    0.66 **
  weight
Germination    0.41 **   0.8 **      0.12       0.17
  Percentage

Characters     Root wet   Root dry   Germination
                weight     weight    Percentage

Stem length
Root length
Stem wet
  weight
Stem dry
  weight
Root wet          1
  weight
Root dry       0.56 **       1
  weight
Germination      0.37     0.51 **         1
  Percentage

Table 6: Correlation between measured characters of
Trigonella foenum L. seeds, under treatments.

Characters                Stem      Root     Stem wet   Stem dry
                         length    length     weight     weight

Stem length                 1
Root length               0.33        1
Stem wet weight          0.55 **    0.14        1
Stem dry weight          0.6 **     0.13       0.25        1
Root wet weight           0.27     0.55 **     0.33     0.55 **
Root dry weight           0.14     0.48 **   0.44 **    0.56 **
Germination Percentage   0.57 **   0.47 **     0.26       0.28

Characters               Root wet   Root dry   Germination
                          weight     weight    Percentage

Stem length
Root length
Stem wet weight
Stem dry weight
Root wet weight             1
Root dry weight          0.54 **       1
Germination Percentage     0.33     0.48 **         1

Table 7: Correlation between measured characters of
Hypericum perforatum L. seeds, under treatments.

Characters                Stem      Root     Stem wet   Stem dry
                         length    length     weight     weight

Stem length                 1
Root length               0.15        1
Stem wet weight          0.44 **    0.13        1
Stem dry weight          0.49 **    0.28       0.27        1
Root wet weight           0.32     0.55 **     0.24     0.68 **
Root dry weight           0.17     0.62 **   0.42 **    0.55 **
Germination Percentage   0.69 **   0.55 **     0.4*      0.35*

Characters               Root wet   Root dry   Germination
                          weight     weight    Percentage

Stem length
Root length
Stem wet weight
Stem dry weight
Root wet weight             1
Root dry weight          0.44 **       1
Germination Percentage   0.67 **    0.49 **         1

Table 8: Correlation between measured characters of Borago
officinalis L. seeds, under treatments.

Characters                Stem      Root     Stem wet   Stem dry
                         length    length     weight     weight

Stem length                 1
Root length               0.4 *       1
Stem wet weight          0.63 **    0.11        1
Stem dry weight          0.46 **    0.29     0.45 **       1
Root wet weight           0.26     0.67 **     0.14     0.55 **
Root dry weight           0.12     0.63 **     0.19     0.67 **
Germination Percentage   0.45 **   0.61 **   0.52 **      0.33

Characters               Root wet   Root dry   Germination
                          weight     weight    Percentage

Stem length
Root length
Stem wet weight
Stem dry weight
Root wet weight             1
Root dry weight          0.53 **       1
Germination Percentage   0.44 **     0.6 **         1
COPYRIGHT 2015 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Dehkordi, Reza Mirzaiyan; Yadegari, Mehrab; Hamedi, Behzad
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Mar 1, 2015
Words:3733
Previous Article:Influence of Ti[O.sub.2] nanoparticle, summer savory and their combination on the growth of bacteria in meat.
Next Article:Studying the effect of intellectual capital on performance of optimizing fuel consumption firm mediated by Knowledge Management (KM).
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |