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Effect of skipping rope on body compositions and heart beat of inactive college students.

INTRODUCTION

Industrial progression and machine life have minimized physical activity during recent several years that led to numerous difficulties too. One of the problems is excess weight and reduction of heart--vascular and aspiration efficiency, that nowadays many people and particularly children and teenagers are affected by it. Obesity problems particularly in teenagers is critical and during previous decades, this crisis has attracted the researchers' consideration because of fatness intermixing with physical patients and on the other hand, researches on improper effects of excess weight and hypodermic fat mass around the organs have caused that the people do physical exercises and some researches were done on the physical composition and reduction of heart beat in rest situation in field of effects of physical activities that their results can be interested.

After a physical exercise program such as slow running, walking and average running, women can state the following changes: 1- Remarkable reduction of body fat (for example 2.5 to 3kg) -2 Few increase in fatless weight. 3- Few reduction in weight (3kg) [1].

Ride and Shephards study in 1993 and Nouri Habashi in 2010 revealed that, active persons are better than their inactive peers from concerning of hypodermic fat [2,3].Hamediyan in 2010 indicated that a chosen physical preparation on the aerobic power and 30-40 aged men's body compositions led to reduce the body fat percentage and had positive effected on physical composition and increased aspiration system efficiency of the sample persons[4]. Shari and et. all in 2008 with study on 25-35 aged men, concluded that regular physical activities cause to reduction of body compositions (fat percentage, weight and fat weight) of persons[5]. Masoumi in 2010 concluded in this study that the chosen exercise program (mixed exercise such as slow continuous running, continuous running and resistance exercises with tolerate of body weight for 12 weeks and each 4 weeks 90 minutes) has significant effect on the physiological capacities (reduction of heart beat in rest and exercise situation) and body compositions (reduction of body fat and fat weight) but it hasn't any significant effect on fatless weight[6].

Skinner in 2005 investigated volunteer men who average age was 20-30 years old. The applied exercises in this research included exercise for 30 minutes in each session for 20 weeks. 4 participated groups in this research, exercised for 1, 3 and 5 days in a week respectively and the forth group was not active. The measured factors were beating of heart in rest time, blood pressure, time of activity on the roller strip, maximum consumed oxygen, pulmonary volume and fat percentage. The results of research was revealed that there was significant difference between blood pressure, beating of heart in rest time and recovery, maximum beating of heart (rest and recovery, time of exercise on the roller stripe) and the exercise sessions. Moreover, hypodermic fat was decreased with 5 days exercises in a week. General result of this research indicates that the exercise sessions are effective on the cardiac-vascular factors and body fat [7].

Zafeiridis and et al have studied the fat people and obtained this result that anaerobic exercises have not significant effect on proper changes of body compositions [8]. But in the other hand, remarkable researches have been done about positive effect of aerobic exercises on body composition, weight control and heart beat in rest time [9, 10,11]. But few researches were done about effect of aerobic skipping the rope exercises on the changes of body compositions and heart beat in rest time, that it indicates the need of more study in this field, particularly for students. The present research has been done in order to examin the effect of skipping rope on body composition and heart beat in rest time of inactive boy students.

Method of research:

This is semi experimental method and experimental and control group were participated in it. Method of work was as the following:

30 college student of yazd payamenur university were selected in 2 group of experimental and control group with average age of 20-30 that they had higher than 30% fat. Both group were pre examined in order to measure first heart beat in perfectly rest time (at 8 (AM) oclock and after 15minutes resting in sitting situation) and then experimental group to measure body copositions performed skipping rope exercises which was included warm up for 3 minutes, skipping rope for 17 minutes with 3 times rest that take time 1 minute and activity intensity was 30 cycles in first week, 40 cycles in second week, 50 in third and 60 cycles in fourth. The exercises were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions (20 minutes) in each week but the control group did not perform any special exercise. They continued their exersises according to the previous procedure and both group did the past test again, at the end of exercise.

This research has been done in standard and equal condition, after satisfaction of college students, university authoritie's, then location and measurement time of operations section variables and experimental skipping rope activity were performed similarly. Body composites were measured in pretest and past test by Auto analyzer device (body composites) in sport saloon of Taft Peyamenour University.

After determination of fat percentage, in number was multiplied in body weight, the fat weight was obtained and reducing this number of total body weight, the fatless weight is calculated [12]. Digital cardiogram system (MBO, Digimad 16 made in England) was used in order to determine heart beat in rest situation.

Statistical method:

Finally, t-test of independent groups was used to examination of deference between experimental and witness groups (p[less than or equal to]0.05). Moreover, the obtained results from final test of experimental group was compared to pretest of this same group via correlated t- test and the changes average were considered using descriptive statistic. Dada was analyzed statistically via spss software (version 13.5).

Result:

The datas relevant to 30 experimental persons were examined with average age of 22/6 and high 177.1 cm that called experimental group and 15 persons with average age of 22.1 and high 174.4 cm that called control group who passed program regularly. Individul specifications of expeimental persons have been shown in table (1). With obtained results after performing correlated t-test for each depended variables in both value group separetely and too with attention to research hypothesis, were concluted that weight, fat mass, fat percentage and heart beat had a significant reduction in rest situation of experimental group. But increase in fatless mass was not significant in both experimental and control group. Certainly in spite of the fact that there wasn't any insignificant result in control group but a few changes were obsereved that perhaps these changes are at result of the lack of control the feeding program, physical activity, etc on examination persons. Result of the effects of skipping rope excercise on body comosites and heart beat in rest situation have been shown in table(2).

Discussion:

Findings of the present research about effect of skipping rope on the fat percentage and fat mass are conforming to the researches were done by: Ride and Shephard, Nouri Habashi, Fax and Matue's ideas, Skinner and et al.,Gorun and et al. Shari and et al. Masoumi and Hamedian. While, results of Grant's researches and Despres are different. Various reasons can be stated for difference between results of the researches and this research. The important reason can be type of activity, because the physiology reason of this subject is understanding the mechanisms by which the necessary energy is used to muscular application, since the volume and time was considered, regarding the researchers' advices in a way that aero activity program shall be done and it is expected that while doing the mentioned exercise the fat acids are used by the muscles as the main energy resource and decreases body fat. So, aerobic exercise is considered as the main factor to decrease the body fat, but interference of the various variables such as feed, daily activity of examination persons and their situation before beginning the research can be other reasons of results deference [3,12.13]. Results of this research is conforming to researches of Despres and et al. and Zafeiridis from viewpoint of lack of significant change in fatless mass, but it is different from Gorun and et al reports, that one of the factors is exercises duration that their exercises was longed for 17 weeks (Gorun and et al.). And other factors which create the differences are exercises intensity [9].

Findings of the present research about effect of skipping rope on the total body weight was conforming to researches results of Despres and et al. Ogurik and et al. shari and et al., Masoumi and Hamediyan. They were disagree to reports of Gorun and et al, Zafeiridis and Grant. The initial weight of under examination persons before test perhaps is the main reason of difference between the results which it was attempted to use the excess weighted under examination persons. The persons with more excessive weight before test, indicate more rapidity in their weight reduction, considering the results of the various researches [13,15]. Certainly, other factors like intensity and time o exercises and feeding can be noted as the factors of difference.

Skinner, Fax and Matuos and Masoumi's ideas are agree with effect of skipping rope on reduction of heart beat that skipping rope exercises are effective on reduction of heart beat in rest situation and increases heart efficiency, and receiving the blood volume becomes more according to Tomas, Andra, Ekman idea, and increase in heart contraction ability in blood pumpage due to regular sport activity (endurance, power and movement) can be reason for reducing heart beat in rest situation [11,16,17].

Conclusion:

Finally, according to the obtained results it was cleared that regular skipping rope exercises with the minimum facilities of time and cost for 8 weeks can have positive effect on body compositions that perhaps the fatless mass can be changed significantly by increasing the intensity and time of exercise.

According to the obtained results of this research, skipping the rope exercises can be effective on the weight, fat percentage, fat mass and heart beat in rest situation, since skipping the rope is an interesting and varied activity, thus it can be put in persons' exercise order who want to learn more benefit from physical activities in spite of medicine therapy.

Competingi nterest:

This paper is obtained from research project with code 89-30/660-156 in Peyamenour university of Yazd province.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 2 April 2014

Received in revised form 13 May 2014

Accepted 28 June 2014

Available online 23 July 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Ride, A., R.J. Shepherd, 1993. Acculturation an loss of finessing the preventive role of active leisure. Article of medicine research, 82(3): 107-120.

[2] Nouri Habashi, A., 2010. Study blood lipid, percentage blood lipids rate and Relationship between thire in eldery active and non-active. Res sport sci shahid bahshty Tehran univ., 3(9): 102-121.

[3] Hamadyan, H.A., 2010. The effects program select physical fitness on aerobic and body composition men 30-40, Olym Quar, 8(16): 31-43.

[4] Shari, S., Bassuk and Joann E. Manson, 2008. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of composition Body and cardiovascular disease. J Appl physical., 99: 1193-1204.

[5] Maeasomi, H., 2010. The effects of select exercise on the capacity physiology and body composition boys in the rang of age 16-17, Hara J Tehr univ, 3(9): 12-21.

[6] Skinner, 2005. Physiological Response of Men tol, 3 and 5 day per week Training Programs. Research quarterly, 57: 62.

[7] Zafeiridis, A., L. Smilics, R.V. Considering, 2003. Severe Vs moderate energy restriction with and without exercise in the treatment of clinical nutrition, 94(2): 591-597.

[8] Despres, J.P., Bouchard, A. Tremblay, R. Savard, M. Marcotte, 2001. Effects of aerobic training on fat distribution in male subjects. Med sci sport exercise, 17(3): 113-18.

[9] Kohrt, W.M., A.O. Kathleen, J.O. Holl PSZY, 1992. Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60 to 70 year old men and women. J Gerontol., 47: 99-105.

[10] Pluim, B.M., Z. Winder, H. Man, 2000. The athletes heart. Circulation, 101: 336-342.

[11] Dahkhoda, M.R., 1989. [Fitness and cardiovascular health] Persian. In: Brayan SH. Fitness physiology. 1sted. Tehran: Education Press, 229-252.

[12] Goran, M.I., E.T. Poehlman, 1992. Endurance training does not enhance total energy expenditure in healthy elderly persons. USA: American journal of physiology, 263(5pt7): 950-70.

[13] Grant, S., Aitchison and et al. 1992. The effects a university fitness program on health related variables in previously sedentary males. U.K : British journal of sport medicine, 26(1): 39-44.

[14] Ogurik. Zhao, L., N. DU, Y. Kato, 2004. Association of habitual Long--distance running, with the thickness of skeletal muscles and subcutaneous fat in the body extremities and trunk in middle-aged men. J. sports Men phys Fitness., 44: 417-423.

[15] Tomas, V.R., Rasa, 2005. Structure and function of distance heart. Medicina, 41(8): 658-692.

[16] Andra, D.G., 2002. Sergiopicaso. ventricular myocardial function in competitive athletes. Ital. J. Heart, 3: 525-527.

[17] Ekman and Wernstet, 2002. Adaptation of cardiac morphology and function to endurance training. Scand. J. Med., 12(1).

(1) Dashti Khavydaky Mohammad Hassan, (2) Pourfazeli Bahram, (3) Nikseresht Amin, (3) Nikseresht Mohsen, (3) Etemadi Hamid Reza, (3) Moaref Ali, (3) Sarvi Ali Asghar, (4)Bagheri Gholamreza

(1) Faculty member of Payam Noor University, Yazd Province.

(2) Social Determinants Health Research Center, Yasouj University of Medical Sciences, Yasouj, Iran.

(3) Department of physical education ,Lamerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lamerd, Iran.

(4) Department of Sport Management, Aras International Campus Branch, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Purfazeli Bahram, Social Determinants Health Research Center, Yasouj University of Medical Sciences, Yasouj, Iran.

Tel:+989177410830 E-mail: pourfazeli@yahoo.com
Table 1: Individual specifications.

Variables      Number   Age                 Height
group/

Experimental   15       22.6 [+ or -] 4.3   177.1 [+ or -] 7.4
Control        15       22.1 [+ or -] 3.7   174.4 [+ or -] 6.5

Table 2: Results of skipping rope test on the body compositions
and beating of heart in rest situation.

Variables            group          Pretest

Weight (kg)          Experimental   69.9 [+ or -] 6.2
                     Control        68.2 [+ or -] 4.1

Fat percentage (%)   Experimental   40.2 [+ or -] 3.1
                     Control        38.6 2.2

Fat mass(kg)         Experimental   24.7 [+ or -] 3.2
                     Control        20.7 [+ or -] 2.1

Fatless mass (kg)    Experimental   43.4 [+ or -] 5.3
                     Control        46.5 [+ or -] 3.4

Beating of heart     Experimental   872.02 [+ or -] 6.2
in rest situation
(b.[min.sup.1])

Variables            Past- test           p

Weight (kg)          68.1 [+ or -] 4.4    0.015 *
                     68.9 [+ or -] 3.8    0.071

Fat percentage (%)   36.5 [+ or -] 2.7    0.000 *
                     37.9 [+ or -] 3.1    0.112

Fat mass(kg)         19.6 [+ or -] 1.9    0.008 *
                     20.06 [+ or -] 0.9   0.521

Fatless mass (kg)    44.34 [+ or -] 4.4   0.231
                     46.6 [+ or -] 5.1    0.202

Beating of heart     70.3 [+ or -] 4.1    0.000 *
in rest situation
(b.[min.sup.1])
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Author:Hassan, Dashti Khavydaky Mohammad; Bahram, Pourfazeli; Amin, Nikseresht; Mohsen, Nikseresht; Reza, E
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2014
Words:2530
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