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Effect of polyzyme in broilers fed with corn (Zea mays L.) bran-based diets.

Introduction

Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in Iran and is cultivated for different purposes such as grain for food, feed and processing, and as green corn for silage or biogas production, thus having an impact on key sectors such as livestock and energy production. It is either grown as continuous corn or in rotation with other crops. Corn constitutes the main energy source in formulated feeds for broilers in Iran. It represents about 45-55% of most poultry diets [2]. Over the years, the increase in the price of corn among other ingredients, due in part to the competition for it between man and livestock, has caused a rise in the price of poultry feed and consequently poultry products. There is thus the need to search for alternative energy sources that are cheaper than corn and readily available. The incorporation of agro-industrial by-products (AIBs) in poultry feeds hold tremendous potential in alleviating the critical situation of high cost and inadequate supply of feed [3,9]. These AIBs however cannot be included in poultry feeds at high levels because they contain high amounts of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) which can account for some 70-95% of the cell wall [13]. These NSPs are such that the enzymes present in the gastrointestinal tract of the bird cannot fully digest or absorb [5]. Exogenous enzymes, added to the feed or used during feedstuff processing, have the ability to improve feed efficiency, reduce pollution associated with poultry manure and increase the use of low cost ingredients [6]. Among the enzymes, Solid State Fermentation (SSF) enzymes act synergistically and improve digestibility of feed, availability and utilization of nutrients. SSF enzymes shall provide additional nutrients such as organic minerals, vitamins and UGF. The substrate used in SSF enzymes are normally used in feed production therefore SSF enzymes are easily accepted by the animals. This study reports the supplementation of corn bran-based diets with an enzyme preparation (Polyzyme) on the performance of broilers.

Materials and Methods

Management of Experimental Birds:

The experiment was conducted at a Private Poultry Unit in Malayer, Iran. Corn bran used in the study was obtained from a local market. Polyzyme (Synergistically acting poly-enzyme complex produced from a single substrate by SSF technique) used for the study was manufactured and provided from Zeus Biotech Limited, Mysore, India. One hundred and fifty day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 Strain) used for the feeding trial were obtained from a local hatchery in Hamadan. The birds were given a commercial diet for 7 days after which they were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 3 replicates each. Each replicate had 10 birds. Five diets were formulated each for the starter and finisher phases. Diet 1 had no corn bran and served as the control. Diet 2 contained 20% corn bran and was supplemented with Polyzyme. Diet 3 contained 20% corn bran without the enzyme. Diet 4 contained 40% corn bran and was supplemented with the enzyme and diet 5 contained 40% corn bran without the enzyme. Polyzyme was added to the diets at the rate of 400g/tonne of feed. The initial weights of the birds were taken at the beginning of the feeding trial and subsequently on a weekly basis. They were given the starter diets for 21 days after which they were switched to the finisher diets which they were fed for another 28 days.

Digestibility Studies:

At the end of the finisher phase, 2 birds per replicate were kept in metabolic cages and their excreta was collected for 5 days (after a 4-day acclimatization period). The excreta samples were oven-dried at 70[degrees]C for 48 hours. The oven-dried samples were then ground in a 1mm sieve and kept for laboratory analysis in order to determine the apparent nutrient digestibility.

Chemical Analysis:

Samples of the test diets and excreta were analyzed for proximate composition using the procedure of A.O.A.C. [1].

Statistical Analysis:

Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedure of [15]. The means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test.

Results:

Diet Composition:

The gross composition of the experimental starter and finisher diets are shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. The crude fiber values of the diets increased as the dietary inclusion of corn bran increased. However the energy values decreased as the level of corn bran inclusion in the diets increased.

Performance Characteristics of Broilers Fed Corn Bran-based Diets with or Without Polyzyme:

Results of the performance of broilers fed the experimental diets with and without Polyzyme are shown in Table 3. Significant differences were observed in the weight gain and feed intake of the birds with birds on diet 4 (40% corn bran with Polyzyme) having the higher feed intake and weight gain (5835.23g and 2250.50g respectively) than birds on the other diets. Birds on the enzyme-supplemented diets (at both levels of corn bran inclusion) recorded significantly higher weight gain and feed intake than those on the un-supplemented diets. No significant differences were observed in the final weight and feed conversion ratio of the birds on all the dietary treatments. Except for birds on diet 3 (20% corn bran without Polyzyme), feed intake was higher for birds on the experimental diets than for birds on the control diet. Birds on diet 3 (20% corn bran without enzyme) recorded the lowest feed conversion ratio -2.24 while birds on diet 4 (40% corn bran with Polyzyme) had the highest feed conversion -2.59.

Apparent Nutrient Digestibility:

The results of the apparent digestibility of nutrients in broilers fed the different diets are shown in Table 4. The results show that there was no significant difference in all the parameters studied. In numerical terms however, diet 2 (20% corn bran with Polyzyme) had the highest digestibility values: dry matter digestibility of 79.25%; crude protein digestibility of 71.68%; crude fiber digestibility of 54.08%; ether extract digestibility of 59.79% and ash digestibility of 72.15%. It was also observed that birds on the enzyme-supplemented diets utilized the feeds better than those on diets without enzyme-supplementation.

Discussion

Performance Characteristics:

Results of the performance of broilers on the different diets showed that birds on the enzyme-supplemented diets recorded higher weight gain than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. Except for birds on diet 3 (20% corn bran without Polyzyme), feed intake was higher for birds on the corn bran diets than for birds on the control diet. This could be explained with the fact that when fibrous feed ingredients are fed to birds, there is an increase in feed intake resulting from birds trying to satisfy their energy requirements [2]. Birds on the enzyme-supplemented diets showed better growth than birds on the diets without enzyme supplementation. This could be attributed to the fact that the Polyzyme broke down the fiber component in the feed thereby making available the nutrients to the birds. This report is in line with the report of McNab and Smithand [10] that SSF enzyme complements the digestive enzymes of poultry to enhance the utilization of non-starch polysaccharides in cereals and their by-products. It could also be associated with an improved retention of protein and crude fiber. The increased weight gain and feed intake observed in the experiment are in agreement with the findings of Pourreza et al. [14]. The authors reported that a supplemental enzyme (a xylanase) significantly improved the body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chicks maintained on triticale (a viscous cereal). The increase in feed intake in the birds on the enzyme-supplemented diets corroborates the earlier report of Tuleun et al. [17] that enzyme supplementation enhanced feed intake by broilers.

Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Broilers Fed Graded Levels of Corn Bran-based Diets with and Without Polyzyme:

The results of the apparent digestibility of nutrients in broilers fed the different diets showed that birds on the enzyme-supplemented diets utilized the feeds better than those on diets without enzyme-supplementation. The observed increased crude protein, crude fiber and fat digestibility in this case is supported by the reports of Noy and Sklan [12]; Vukic and Wenk [18] and Taibipour and Kermanshahi [16] that apparent metabolizable energy, lipid digestibility and protein digestibility were all significantly improved when arabinoxylanase and beta-glucanase enzymes were added to wheat-soybean meal-based diets. The results are also in agreement with the findings of Han [8] who reported that a commercial enzyme preparation (CEP) improved dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and apparent protein digestibility (U-APD) in chicks fed a barley-based diet. Myashauskene et al. [11] also reported that the use of an enzyme in broiler feed caused greater proteolytic activity in the stomach and duodenum that ultimately improved the digestibility of crude protein. Of the nutrients, the least digested was the crude fiber with digestibility values lowest in birds on diet 5 (40% corn bran without Polyzyme). This could be attributed to the fact that the corn bran content was high and also because the diet had no enzyme added to it.

Conclusion:

With supplementation at 400g/tonne, corn bran can be incorporated in the diets of broilers at 40% level without eliciting any deleterious effects on growth and performance. Looking at the high cost of corn and its scarcity sometimes, corn bran-based diets supplemented with Polyzyme fed to broilers can help to reduce the cost of production. However, considering the final live weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, cost and other parameters, it is more economical to incorporate corn-bran in the diet of broiler at 20% level supplemented with Polyzyme.

References

[1.] AOAC, 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis 15th Edition. AOAC Incorporation, Viginia 22201, USA.

[2.] Atteh, J.O., 2004. Theory and practice of poultry production. Adlek Printers, Ilorin, Nigeria.

[3.] Babatunde, G.M., 1989. Alternative formulation of livestock feeds in Nigeria. Ed. G.M. Babatunde, Presidency, Federal Republic of Nigeria.

[4.] Bamgbose, A.M., S.D. Ogungbenro, E.E. Obasohan, M.B. Aruna, I.T. Oteku, U.F. Igene, C.S. Otoikhan and J.A. Imasuen, 2004. Replacement value of corn offal/cashew nut for corn in broiler diets. In The proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Nigeria Society for Animal Production (NSAP), 19th to 23rd March, Sokoto, Nigeria, 219-221.

[5.] Bedford, M.R. and H.L. Classen, 1992. Reduction of intestinal viscousity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration as effected through changes in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results in improved growth rate and feed conversion efficiency of broiler chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 122: 560-569.

[6.] Bedford, M.R., H.L. Classen and G.L. Campbell, 1991. The effect of pelleting, salt and pentosanase on the viscosity of intestinal contents and the performance of broilers fed rye. Poultry Science, 70: 1571-1577.

[7.] Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple F-test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

[8.] Han, Z., 1997. Effect of enzyme supplementation of diets on the physiological function and performance of poultry. In: Enzymes in poultry and swine nutrition. IDRC Publication, 1997: 154.

[9.] Longe, O.G., 1985. Effect of non-purified fibre from leafy vegetable on utilization of dietary nutrients in growing rats. Nig. J. Nutri. Sci., 4: 63-68.

[10.] McNab, J.M. and A. Smithhand, 1992. The impact of direct fed fibrolytic enzymes on the growth rate and feed efficiency of growing beef steers and heifers. Br. Poult. Sci., 29: 379-393.

[11.] Myashkauskese, A., E. Sirvidene and V. Sirvidis, 1984. Effective utilization of some enzyme preparations by meat-line chicks fed on low nutrient diets. Nauchnye Trudy Pribalttiiskoi Zonal noi opytnoi stantsii po Ptitsevodstvu, 9: 36-43 (Nutr. Abst. Rev.,56: 2728, 1986).

[12.] Noy, Y. and D. Sklan, 1995. Digestion and absorption in the young chick. Poult. Sci., 74: 366-373.

[13.] Oldale, P.M.O., 1996. Roche Nigeria Feed Seminar, Feb. 13.

[14.] Pourreza, J., A.H. Samie and E. Rowghani, 2007. Effect of supplemental enzyme on nutrient digestibility and performance of broiler chicks fed on diets containing triticale. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6(2): 115-117.

[15.] SAS, 1999. Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc. User's guide. Statistic Version 6th ed. Carry, North Carolina, USA.

[16.] Taibipour, K. and H. Kermanshahi, 2004. Effect of levels of tallow and NSP-degrading enzyme supplements on nutrient efficiency of broiler chickens. In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the British Society of Animal Science. University of York, York, UK, 5-7 April, 2004, 273.

[17.] Tuleun, C.D., P.C. Njoku and I.D.I. Yaakugh, 1998. The performance of pullet chicks fed Roxazyme in diets containing graded levels rice offals. In Proc of the 3rd Annual Conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria, pp: 74-76.

[18.] Vukic-Vranjes, M. and C. Wenk, 1996. Influence of Trichoderma viride enzyme complex on nutrient utilization and performance of laying hens in diets with and without antibiotic supplementation. Poult. Sci., 75: 551-555.

(1) Hossein Bagheri, (2) Milad Manafi and (1) Mohammad Yazdani

(1) Department of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

(2) Department of Animal Science, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Hossein Bagheri Department of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran. E-mail: Bagheri_hm2000@yahoo.com
Table 1: Gross composition (g/100g) of experimental broiler
starter diets (n = 3 replicates of 10 birds each).

Ingredients        Control   20% MB     20% MB     40% MB     40% MB
                             + Enzyme   - Enzyme   + Enzyme   - Enzyme

Corn               56.00     36.00      36.00      16.00      16.00
Corn bran          --        20.00      20.00      20.00      20.00
SBM                20.00     20.00      20.00      20.00      20.00
GNC                17.30     17.285     17.30      17.285     17.30
FM (72%CP)         1.00      1.00       1.00       1.00       1.00
Oyster shell       1.00      1.00       1.00       1.00       1.00
Bone meal          3.00      3.00       3.00       3.00       3.00
Lysine             0.85      0.85       0.85       0.85       0.85
M ethionine        0.35      0.35       0.35       0.35       0.35
Salt               0.25      0.25       0.25       0.25       0.25
Broiler Premix *   0.25      0.25       0.25       0.25       0.25
Polyzyme           --        0.015      --         0.015      --
Total              100.00    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00
Calculated
  Nutrients
CP (%)             22.51     22.30      22.31      22.10      22.11
CF (%)             3.30      5.29       5.30       7.29       7.30
ME (kcal/g)        2.95      2.75       2.76       2.57       2.58

Table 2: Gross composition (g/100g) of experimental
broiler finisher diets (n = 3 replicates of 10 birds each).

Ingredients        Control     20% MB      20% MB     40% MB     40% MB
                              + Enzyme   - Enzyme   + Enzyme   - Enzyme

Corn                 63.00      43.00      43.00      23.00      23.00
Corn bran               --      20.00      20.00      40.00      40.00
SBM                  20.00      20.00      20.00      20.00      20.00
GNC                  10.30     10.285      10.30     10.285      10.30
FM (72%CP)            1.00       1.00       1.00       1.00       1.00
Oyster shell          1.00       1.00       1.00       1.00       1.00
Bone meal             3.00       3.00       3.00       3.00       3.00
Lysine                0.85       0.85       0.85       0.85       0.85
M ethionine           0.35       0.35       0.35       0.35       0.35
Salt                  0.25       0.25       0.25       0.25       0.25
Broiler Premix *      0.25       0.25       0.25       0.25       0.25
Polyzyme                --      0.015         --      0.015         --
Total               100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00
Calculated
Nutrients
CP (%)               20.06      19.85      19.86      19.65      19.66
CF (%)                2.90       5.08       5.09       7.08       7.09
ME (kcal/g)           3.00       2.80       2.81       2.62       2.63

Table 3: Performance characteristics of broilers
fed corn bran-based diets with or without Polyzyme.

Parameter            Control   20% MB +   20% MB -
                               Enzyme     Enzyme

Initial Weight (g)   121       120        121
Final Weight (kg)    2.33      2.34       2.32
Weight gain (kg)     2.21b     2.22ab     2.20c
Feed Intake (kg)     5.25d     5.35c      4.92e
FCR                  2.38      2.41       2.24

Parameter            40% MB +  40% MB +
                     Enzyme    Enzyme     SEM

Initial Weight (g)   119       120
Final Weight (kg)    2.37      2.31       20.6
Weight gain (kg)     2.25a     2.18bc     13.4
Feed Intake (kg)     5.83a     5.45b      25.2
FCR                  2.59      2.49       0.02

abc: means along the same row with different
superscripts are significantly different (p < 0.05).

Table 4: Apparent nutrient digestibility in broilers
fed graded levels of corn bran-based diets with or
without Polyzyme.

                             20%      20%
Parameter       Control    MB +     MB -
                          Enzyme   Enzyme

Dry matter        82.1     79.3     79.2
Crude protein     69.9     71.7     70.8
Crude fiber       48.1     54.1     48.2
Ether extract     60.7     59.8     55.5
Ash               72.6     72.2     71.4

                    40%      40%
Parameter         MB +     MB -
                Enzyme    Enzyme     SEM

Dry matter        74.2     73.2     4.74
Crude protein     68.7     64.1     3.63
Crude fiber       50.5     46.5     3.59
Ether extract     55.0     55.2     3.68
Ash               72.2     71.6     0.61
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Bagheri, Hossein; Manafi, Milad; Yazdani, Mohammad
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2011
Words:2854
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