Effect of phlebodium decumanum on the immune response induced by training in sedentary university students.
Immune system is a complex network in which different kind of cells and molecules work together to protect our body. Its function is directed to specifically recognizing molecules or antigens for developing an effective response against inflammation or infection attacks. Immune system activity represents an essential defense against infections and cancer. Successful response depends on specific cells activation (lymphocytes and accessory cells) and antibodies production. Nevertheless, an inadequate reaction may induce negative effects in the host, determining inflammation and tissue damage (Ciliberti et al., 2009).
Immune system cells function is regulated by the action of specific molecules called cytokines, mainly lymphokines and monokines. Cytokines are secreted by lymphocytes and monocites to control the proliferation and differentiation of immune system cells (Sigal and Ron, 1994), and from the structural point of view, they are soluble low molecular weight proteins, peptides and/or glycoproteins that participate and mediate the control and communication between cells involved in the immune response. There are almost fifty different types of cytokines that have been classified according with their physiological activity: pro-inflammatory, antiviral, immune-stimulating, hematopoyetic, anti-inflammatory or immunoregulating activity (Nieman, 1997).
Inflammation is one the most evident effects provoked when performing physical exercise. Its extent depends on the variables describing exercise like, duration, intensity, frequency, etc. (Ploeger et al., 2009). Many studies reported that performing moderate physical exercise might be beneficial for stimulating immune system efficiency (Klentrou et al., 2002). On the contrary, stress generated by intense or long duration training may deteriorate its function (Cordova et al., 2010), provoking an immune dysfunction effect.
The understanding of immune system alterations, resulting from prolonged physical exercise, is the first step to design preventive or therapeutic strategies against functional problems associated with sports activities. Immune system modulation results in beneficial effects in sport performance (Cordova and Alvarez-Mon, 1999a; 1999b).
Currently, there are some drugs and nutritional complements, like acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin[R]) or glicofosfopeptical (Inmunoferon[R]), that show an immunomodulatory activity. The latter one, has shown a strong anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in pro-inflammatory cytokines inhibition (i.e.TNFa). Moreover, it may reduce proteins serum levels associated with muscle damage (Villarrubia et al., 1997). Similarly, Ibuprofen[R] has been used as immunomodulator therapy for preventing muscle damage during intense physical exercise (Hasson et al., 1993).
Phlebodium decumanum is a Polypodiaceae growing in some specific areas of Central America. The variety used in this study was grown in the pure, organically processed monoculture located in the vicinity of the Yojoa Lake (Northern Honduras). Different compositions comprising a purified and standardized water-soluble fraction obtained from the leaves of phlebodium decumanum (EXPLY) have shown their immunomodulating effect, specifically directed to the release of TNF by macrophages in response to various stimuli. They seem to have a buffer action on the levels of TNF, playing a role in the regulation of the homeostasis of pro-inflamatory cytokines (Punzon et al 2003). Both nutritional supplement (functional food) and energetic drink status have been granted to different compositions containing EXPLY. Moreover, different patent applications on the use of phlebodium decumanum in the correction of the over-training syndrome have been filed (P-9900133[R]).
The immunomodulation activity of Phlebodium Decumanum has been evaluated in different in vitro (Gridling et al., 2009; Punzon et al., 2003) as well as in vivo investigations (Tuominen et al., 1991, Vasange et al., 1994; 1997).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulating effect of phlebodium decumanum on immune responses resulting from intense physical exercise, and its hypothetical benefits on physical performance in sedentary adults.
The specific purposes of this study were the assessment of:
1. The adaptative changes in basal immunological parameters in response to aerobic training.
2. The effects of Phlebodium decumanum both on said changes and on those induced by high intensity, anaerobic exercise.
Four types of cytokines have been evaluated in this study. Two of them are usually considered as proinflammatory cytokines: Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFa) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). On the other hand, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2) as anti-inflammatory molecules.
Fifty students belonging to the Cardenal Spinola (University of Seville, Spain) were selected for the study. All individuals gave written informed consent to be included in the study, which was performed in accordance with the guidelines proposed in the Declaration of Helsinki. Students were randomly divided into two groups: Experimental (25 GPD) and Placebo (25 GP) in order to perform a double-blind multigroup trial.
Subjects were equally distributed in the two groups according to their maximum oxygen consumption (V[O.sub.2]max) that was measured with a protocol based on maximal treadmill graded exercise test (Runrace D-140, Technogym, Italy) and a gas analyzer (Oxicon Delta, Jaeger, Germany): the latter is based on an infrared and a paramagnetic system that were used for measuring C[O.sub.2] and [O.sub.2] levels, respectively. According to the results achieved in the test, subjects were distributed in the two groups (n = 25), although the study was finally carried out with 31 subjects distributes as follows: 18 subjects in the GPD group (mean age: 22.1 years (1.81); mean weight: 74.21 (8.74)); 13 subjects in the GP group (mean age: 22.5 years (1.63); mean weight: 78.0 (12.5)).
All the subjects included in the study were used to play tennis sporadically and did not participate in any other investigation. None of them belonged to an official tennis federation nor participated in any official competition.
400 mgr capsules containing 250 mgr of frond hidrosoluble extract and 150 mgr of polverized rhizome of phlebodium decumanum (patent no. P-9900133) were given to the subjects belonging to the Experimental group (2 capsules-3 times/day). Subject belonging to the Placebo group were treated with 400 mgr capsules containing brewer's yeast (2 capsules - 3 times/day). The nutritional supplements were distributed by the Helsint S.A.L. (Madrid, Spain) and the treatment was performed during 4 weeks.
Nor the subjects neither the operator knew which type of medicament was taking during the test. All subjects were also included in a training protocol during 4 weeks (3 times/week). Each session was divided into three parts:
1: Tennis strokes in a tennis court. Working in pairs, each subject executed 500 strokes as follows:
125 parallel forehand; 125 cross forehand; 125 parallel backhand and 125 cross backhand strokes.
2: Dynamic force training. It consisted on training three muscles groups:
* Pectoral muscles: Bench press;
* Dorsal muscles: Lat pull-down behind neck;
* Deltoids muscles: shoulder dumdbell press. Each series was performed with an intensity of 55%-60% (between 15 and 20 maximum repetitions) (Brzycki, 1993). Three series of each exercise were performed during the first two weeks increasing up to four series during the last two weeks of training with a recovery time of 2 minutes.
3: Resistance training. It was performed through an interval training protocol performing a round way race over an eight meters distance at maximum intensity, thus running a total of 160 meters.
The recovery was decided according to the heart frequency measured with a heart rate monitor (Polar[R] Vantage NV, Polar Electro OY, Finland) when it reached a value of 125-130 bpm. This training program had a duration of 20 minutes during the first two weeks, 25 minutes during the third and forth weeks and 30 minutes during the first and last sessions.
Blood levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF[alpha]), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and Soluble TNF II receptor (TNF-IIrs) have been measured before and after completing the training program together with the physical performance using specific tests.
Blood samples were collected in glass tubes containing 35 micromol dipotassium-EDTA that were centrifuged during 30 minutes (3758 rpm) at 4[degrees]C. The blood serum obtained was separated in two Eppendorf tubes labeled with a personal code and stored at -80[degrees]C.
The analysis was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA)
Tennis physical and technical performances were also evaluated in a tennis court through a tennis ball machine (KALENDA[R], SPAIN) according to the procedure previously described by Van Dam and Pruimboom (Dam and Pruimboom, 1992).
Maximal dynamic force has been also evaluated through a sub-maximal test and according to a mathematical formula previously described by Brzycki (1993) that expresses this value starting from the sub-maximal weight value (i.e. 10 RM or 12 RM).
The number of repetitions realized by the subjects during the first and the last training days has been also taken into account.
The same operator controlled all the subjects included in the study as well as the training sessions that were performed daily under the same conditions with no differences between groups.
Values recorded for each variable before and after completing the study were checked for normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk) comparing them within the group and between groups. Normally distributed data were analyzed with t-Student test (p< 0.05). No normally distributed data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). The statistical analysis was handled with SPSS 11.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Mean (SD) values of the variables evaluated in the study have been summarized in Tables 1 and 2.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels
Pretest and post-test mean IL-6 values recorded in the tested groups have been summarized in Figure 1. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of IL-6 was observed in the PD group (p < 0.039). On the contrary, a slight improvement in the IL-6 plasma levels has been recorded in the placebo Group, although it was not significant (p = 0.53).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Pretest and post-test mean TNF-a values recorded in the tested groups have been summarized in Figure 2. A reduction in the plasma levels was observed in the PD (p < 0.05) and P group (p < 0.06) after performing physical exercise.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Anti-inflammatory cytokines levels
A comparison between the IL-1 plasma levels within the experimental groups has been reported in Figure 3. IL-1 levels improved significantly in the PD Group (p < 0.026), while a reduction occurred in the P Group, although not statistically significant (p = 0.146).
A comparison between the TNF-IIrs plasma levels within the experimental groups has been summarized in Figure 4. TNF-IIrs plasma levels improved significantly in the PD group (p < 0.04), while the P Group attained a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.036).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Moreover, an evaluation of the starting values of the tested variables was performed in the study, to assess the homogeneity between the two experimental groups. No significant differences have been recorded for IL-6, TNF-alpha, y TNR-IIrs (Mann Whitney U test: p = 0.38, p = 0.6 y p = 0.3, respectively). Higher levels of IL-1ra have been detected in the pre-test P group (p < 0.025). Change levels expressed in percentage have been compared in order to evaluate the existence of differences between the experimental groups recorded after training. Changes in cytokine levels between pre-test and post-test experimental Groups (expressed as percentages) have been summarized in Figure 5. Significant differences within groups have been recorded for all the cytokine evaluated in the study, except for TNF[alpha]. This evaluation was performed using Mann Whitney U test for IL-6 (p < 0.02), IL1-ra (p < 0.03) and TNFrsII (p < 0.003) while t Student test was applied for TNF[alpha] (p = 0.36).
Changes in cytokines levels during the inflammatory response induced by intense physical exercise differ from that observed during infection (Ostrowski et al., 1999; Pedersen and Toft, 2000; Petersen and Pedersen, 2005; Suzuki et al., 2002).
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
In the latter, cytokines plasma levels are used to be as follows: TNF[alpha], IL-1, IL-6, IL1ra, sTNF-IIR (Agha Alinejad and Molanouri Shamsi, 2010; Moldoveanu et al., 2001; Pedersen and Toft, 2000).
During physical training IL-6 plasma levels considerably improve with a subsequent reduction in the post-training period (Pedersen et al., 2003; 2004).
Higher TNF[alpha] and IL-6 levels have been recorded immediately after completing the training program, while IL1ra and sTNF-IIR higher percentages were accomplished after one-hour recovery (Ostrowski et al., 1999; 2001; Petersen and Pedersen, 2005; 2006, Ruth et al., 1996; Tilg et al., 1997).
IL-6 is considered the main mediator of the acute response and it is activated in case of stressing situations, like physical training. IL-6 regulates TNF[alpha] levels, through a mechanism that lowers its production. So TNF[alpha] plasma levels may not improve during training and even diminish, as reported by previous investigations (Agha Alinejad and Molanouri Shamsi, 2010; Croft et al., 2009; Gray et al., 2008; Moldoveanu et al., 2001; Nielsen and Pedersen, 2007; Pedersen et al., 2004; Petersen and Pedersen, 2006; Steensberg, 2003; Suzuki et al., 2002)
The results of this study showed that IL-6 plasma levels improved 48 hours after training in the Placebo group, although not significantly. Many studies reported that the improvement of this cytokine depends on the magnitude of the physical effort. Although the improvement of IL-6 is evident, these levels are temporary and tend to lower after finalizing the physical training. (Bruunsgaard et al., 1997; Croft et al., 2009; Drenth et al., 1995; Gray et al., 2008; Moldoveanu et al., 2000; Ostrowski et al., 1998; Pedersen et al., 2004; Petersen and Pedersen, 2006). However, in this study the measurements were performed 48 hours after finalizing the last training session. On the contrary, IL-6 plasma levels significantly lowered in the PD Groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the percentage of IL-6 levels between the two groups before and after the training program (p < 0.02).
Previous investigations reported that TNF[alpha] plasma levels improve after an extreme endurance training (Drenth et al., 1995; Moldoveanu et al., 2000; Ostrowski et al., 1999). Comparing pre- and post-training data, this study highlighted a significant reduction of these levels in both groups (p < 0.05) with no significant differences between them (p = 0.35). Discrepancies may be due to the fact that in this study the analysis were preformed 48 hours after completing the last training session, while in other studies the improvement is registered immediately after completing the training session or after few hours.
The results are in agreement with previous investigations that reported a significant reduction or even no changes in TNF[alpha] levels after physical training (Gokhale et al., 2007; Suzuki et al., 2002). According to Moldoveanu et al. (2000; 2001) TNFa regulation induced by physical exercise depends on the intensity and on the duration of the physical stimulus.
Once the latter phase was completed, high TNF[alpha] plasma levels were maintained only for a short period of time, thus making difficult its accurate measurement after physical training. Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and TNF-IIrs had a similar behavior. IL-1ra inhibits the activity of IL-1, lowering its potential adverse effects (Cordova and Alvarez-Mon, 1999b; Cordova and AlvarezMon, 1999a; Ruth et al., 1996).
Several studies reported an improvement of anti-inflammatory cytokines, like IL-1ra, due to physical training (Nieman, 1997; Nieman et al., 2006; Suzuki et al., 2000). Although physical training determines an improvement in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, this response is balanced thanks to the production of cytokines with an inhibitory effect over the inflammatory ones (IL1ra and TNF-IIrs) (Ostrowski et al., 1999). It may be speculated that anti-inflammatory cytokines reduce the amount and duration of the inflammatory response due to physical exercise.
In this study, both IL-1ra and TNF-IIrs plasma levels were reduced in the GP group after training. This reduction was statistically significant only for TNF-IIrs (p < 0.05), while no significant differences have been recorded between IL-1ra pre- and post-training levels (p = 0.14). In the PD Group plasma levels of both IL-1ra and TNF-IIrs improved significantly after training (p < 0.05). The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two tested groups for both the tested parameters (IL-1ra: p < 0.03 and TNF-IIrs: p < 0.003, respectively). These results are in agreement with previous investigations that highlighted the influence exerted by IL-6 on IL-1ra, IL-10 (Emmanuel and Lie, 1996; Ronsen et al., 2002; Ruth et al., 1996; Steensberg, 2003) and TNF-IIrs production (Cordova Martinez et al., 2006; Drenth et al., 1998; Tilg et al., 1997).
The results of this study show that immune response indicators levels may be affected by practicing sport or physical activity of medium-high intensity. Phlebodium decumanum demonstrated a beneficial effect in this study, inducing a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and a higher concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Their protective and modulating effect on the immune response has been highlighted.
* Practicing sport or physical activity of medium-high intensity three times a week during 4 weeks induces changes in immune response indicators levels;
* The assumption of phlebodium decumanum induced a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and a higher concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
* Anti-inflammatory cytokines have a protective and modulating effect on the immune response.
We are grateful to the Helsint S.A.L. for its financial support for this study.
Received: 06 January 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published (online): 01 June 2011
Agha Alinejad, H. and Molanouri Shamsi, M. (2010) Exercise induced release of cytokines from skeletal muscle: Emphasis on IL-6. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 12, 181-190.
Bruunsgaard, H., Galbo, H., Halkjaer-Kristensen, J., Johansen, T.L., Maclean, D.A. and Pedersen, B.K. (1997) Exercise-induced increase in serum inferleukin-6 in humans is related to muscle damage. Journal of Physiology 499, 833-841.
Brzycki, M. (1993) Strength testing. Predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 64, 88-90.
Ciliberti, E., Carambia, L., Cavallin, S., Cerda, O.L., Poderoso, J.J. and Rabinovich, G.A. (2009) Tolerance and autoimmunity. Novel therapeutic approaches. Conceptos emergentes de tolerancia y autoinmunidad: Nuevos enfoques terapeuticos 69, 460-465. (In Spanish)
Cordova, A. and Alvarez-Mon, M. (1999a) Immune system (I): General concepts, adaptation to physical exercise and clinical implications (El sistema inmune (I): Conceptos generales, adaptacion al ejercicio fisico e implicaciones clinicas). Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 69, 47-54. (In Spanish)
Cordova, A. and Alvarez-Mon, M. (1999b) Immune system (II): Effect of immunomodulators in recovery of sportsmen (El sistema inmune (II): Importancia de los inmunomoduladores en la recuperacion del deportista). Archivos de Medicina del Deporte 70, 155-165. (In Spanish)
Cordova, A., Sureda, A., Tur, J.A. and Pons, A. (2010) Immune response to exercise in elite sportsmen during the competitive season. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry 66, 1-6.
Cordova Martinez, A., Monserrat, J., Villa, G., Reyes, E. and Soto, M.A.M. (2006) Effects of AM3 (InmunoferonA[R]) on increased serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor receptors I and II in cyclists. Journal of Sports Sciences 24, 565-573.
Croft, L., Bartlett, J.D., Maclaren, D.P.M., Reilly, T., Evans, L., Mattey, D.L., Nixon, N.B., Drust, B. and Morton, J.P. (2009) High intensity interval training attenuates the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6 in response to acute exercise. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 34, 1098-1107.
Dam, B.V. and Pruimboom, L. (1992) Un nuevo test en tenis. Revista de Entrenamiento Deportivo 6, 29-33. (In Spanish).
Drenth, J.P.H., Krebbers, R.J.M., Bijzet, J. and Van Der Meer, J.W.M. (1998) Increased circulating cytokine receptors and ex vivo interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-beta production but decreased tumour necrosis factor-alpha production after a 5km run. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 28, 866872.
Drenth, J.P.H., Van Uum, S.H.M., Van Deuren, M., Pesman, G.J., Van Der Ven- Jongekrijg, J. and Van Der Meer, J.W.M. (1995) Endurance run increases circulating IL-6 and IL-1ra but down-regulates ex vivo TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production. Journal of Applied Physiology 79, 1497-1503.
Emmanuel, G. and Lie, T. (1996) Increased plasma levels of Interleukin1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) following short maximal exercise. Chest 110, 63S
Gokhale, R., Chandrashekara, S. and Vasanthakumar, K.C. (2007) Cytokine response to strenuous exercise in athletes and non-athletes-an adaptive response. Cytokine 40, 123-127.
Gray, S.R., Robinson, M. and Nimmo, M.A. (2008) Response of plasma IL-6 and its soluble receptors during submaximal exercise to fatigue in sedentary middle-aged men. Cell Stress and Chaper ones 13, 247-251.
Gridling, M., Stark, N., Madlener, S., Lackber, A., Popescu, R., Benedek, B., Diaz, R., Tut, F.M., Nha Vo, T.P., Huber, D., Gollinger, M., Saiko, P., Azmen, A., Mosgoeller, W., De Martin, R., Eytner, R., Wagner, K.H., Grusch, M., Fritzer-Szekeres, M., Szekeres, T., Kopp, B., Frisch, R. and Krupitza, G. (2009) In vitro anti-cancer activity of two ethno-pharmacological healing plants from Guatemala Pluchea odorata and Phlebodium decumanum. International Journal of Oncology 34, 1117-1128.
Hasson, S.M., Daniels, J.C., Divine, J.G., Niebuhr, B.R., Richmond, S., Stein, P.G. and Williams, J.H. (1993) Effect of ibuprofen use on muscle soreness, damage, and performance: A preliminary investigation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 9-17.
Klentrou, P., Cieslak, T., Macneil, M., Vintinner, A. and Plyley, M. (2002) Effect of moderate exercise on salivary immunoglobulin A and infection risk in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 87, 153-158.
Moldoveanu, A.I., Shephard, R.J. and Shek, P.N. (2000) Exercise elevates plasma levels but not gene expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in blood mononuclear cells. Journal of Applied Physiology 89, 1499-1504.
Moldoveanu, A.I., Shephard, R.J. and Shek, P.N. (2001) The cytokine response to physical activity and training. Sports Medicine 31, 115-144.
Nielsen, A.R. and Pedersen, B.K. (2007) The biological roles of exercise-induced cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 32, 833-839.
Nieman, D.C. (1997) Immune response to heavy exertion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 1385-1394.
Nieman, D.C., Henson, D.A., Davis, J.M., Dumke, C.L., Utter, A.C., Murphy, E.A., Pearce, S., Gojanovich, G., Mcanulty, S.R. and Mcanulty, L.S. (2006) Blood leukocyte mRNA expression for IL-10, IL-1Ra, and IL-8, but not IL-6, increases after exercise. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 26, 668-674.
Ostrowski, K., Rohde, T., Asp, S., Schjerling, P. and Pedersen, B.K. (1999) Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology 515, 287-291.
Ostrowski, K., Rohde, T., Asp, S., Schjerling, P. and Pedersen, B.K. (2001) Chemokines are elevated in plasma after strenuous exercise in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 84, 244-245.
Ostrowski, K., Rohde, T., Zacho, M., Asp, S. and Pedersen, B.K. (1998) Evidence that interleukin-6 is produced in human skeletal muscle during prolonged running. Journal of Physiology 508, 949-953.
Pedersen, B.K., Steensberg, A., Fischer, C., Keller, C., Keller, P., Plomgaard, P., Febbraio, M. and Saltin, B. (2003) Searching for the exercise factor: Is IL-6 a candidate? Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 24, 113-119.
Pedersen, B.K., Steensberg, A., Fischer, C., Keller, C., Keller, P., Plomgaard, P., Wolsk-Petersen, E. and Febbraio, M. (2004) The metabolic role of IL-6 produced during exercise: Is IL-6 an exercise factor? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63, 263-267.
Pedersen, B.K. and Toft, A.D. (2000) Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines. British Journal of Sports Medicine 34, 24651.
Petersen, A.M.W. and Pedersen, B.K. (2005) The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 98, 1154-1162.
Petersen, A.M.W. and Pedersen, B.K. (2006) The role of IL-6 in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 57, 43-51.
Ploeger, H.E., Takken, T., De Greef, M.H. and Timmons, B.W. (2009) The effects of acute and chronic exercise on inflammatory markers in children and adults with a chronic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Exercise Immunology Review 15, 641.
Punzon, C., Alcaide, A. and Fresno, M. (2003) In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Phlebodium decumanum. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor and soluble TNF receptors. International Immunopharmacology 3, 1293-1299.
Ronsen, O., Lea, T., Bahr, R. and Pedersen, B.K. (2002) Enhanced plasma IL-6 and IL-1ra responses to repeated vs. single bouts of prolonged cycling in elite athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 92, 2547-2553.
Ruth, J.H., Bienkowski, M., Warmington, K.S., Lincoln, P.M., Kunkel, S.L. and Chensue, S.W. (1996) IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) expression, function, and cytokine-mediated regulation during mycobacterial and schistosomal antigen-elicited granuloma formation. Journal of Immunology 156, 2503-2509.
Sigal, L. and Ron, Y. (1994) Immunology and inflammation. Basic mechanisms and clinical consequences, New York, McGraw Hill.
Steensberg, A. (2003) The role of IL-6 in exercise-induced immune changes and metabolism. Exercise Immunology Review 9, 40-47.
Suzuki, K., Nakaji, S., Yamada, M., Totsuka, M., Sato, K. and Sugawara, K. (2002) Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics. Exercise Immunology Review 8, 648.
Suzuki, K., Yamada, M., Kurakake, S., Okamura, N., Yamaya, K., Liu, Q., Kudoh, S., Kowatari, K., Nakaji, S. and Sugawara, K. (2000) Circulating sytokines and hormones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after endurance exercise in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 81, 281-287.
Tilg, H., Dinarello, C.A. and Mier, J.W. (1997) IL-6 and APPs: Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators. Immunology Today 18, 428-432.
Tuominen, M., Bohlin, L. and Rolfsen, W. (1991) Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of the fern Polypodium decumanum. Planta Medica 58, 306-310.
Vasange, M., Rolfsen, W. and Bohlin, L. (1997) A sulphonoglycolipid from the fern Polypodium decumanum and its effect on the platelet activating-factor receptor in human neutrophils. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 49, 562-566.
Vasange, M., Tuominen, M., Perera-Ivarsson, P., Shen, J., Bohlin, L. and Rolfsen, W. (1994) The fern Polypodium decumanum, used in the treatment of psoriasis, and its fatty acid constituents as inhibitors of leukotriene B4 formation. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 50, 279-284.
Villarrubia, V.G., Moreno Koch, M.C., Calvo, C., Gonzalez, S. and Alvarez-Mon, M. (1997) The immunosenescent phenotype in mice and humans can be defined by alterations in the natural immunity reversal by immunomodulation with oral AM3. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 19, 53-74.
Jose Antonio GONZALEZ JURADO
Professor. Faculty of Sports Sciences. Pablo de Olavide University of Seville, Spain.
Physical activity and health; sport performance.
Francisco PRADAS de la FUENTE
Professor . Faculty of Humans Sciences and Education. University of Zaragoz a, Spain.
Physical activity and health; sport performance; Racket sports.
Jose A. Gonzalez-Jurado (1) [mail], Francisco Pradas (2), Edgardo S. Molina (3) and Carlos de Teresa (4)
(1) Faculty of Sport, University of Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain, (2) Faculty of Human Sciences and Education, University of Zaragoza, Spain, (3) Faculty of Arts and Physical Education, Metropolitan University of Sciences Education, Department of Physical Education, Santiago, Chile, (4) Andaluzian Sport Medicine Centre, San Juan de Dios Universitary Hospital, Granada, Spain
[mail] Jose Antonio Gonzalez Jurado
Facultad del Deporte. Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla. Dpto. Deporte e Informatica. Carretera de Utrera km 1.41013 Sevilla, Spain
Edgardo Molina SOTOMAYOR
Academic Faculty of Arts, Physical Education and Kinesiology. Graduate Studies Coordinator, Metropolitan University of Educational Sciences, Chile.
Oxidative and immune response, aging, exercise prescription, health and physical activity.
Carlos de Teresa GALVAN
Andaluzian Sport Medicine Centre. San Juan de Dios Universitary Hospital, Spain.
Oxidative stress; immunology and exercise; physical activity and health; sport performance.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics of performance parameters recorded in the tested groups. PLACEBO GROUP Mean N SD Pectorals-pre-test 43.88 13 14.41 Pectorals-post-test 45.11 13 12.47 Pectorals (%) 4.94 13 17.06 Dorsal-pre-test 48.54 13 13.03 Dorsal-post-test 51.82 13 13.37 Dorsal (%) 7.59 13 9.52 Deltoids-pre-test 21.06 13 4.65 Deltoids-post-test 24.58 13 9.03 Deltoids (%) 16.30 13 29.82 Interval-training pre-test 7.69 13 2.36 Interval-training post-test 9.62 13 2.10 Interval (%) 30.29 13 28.3 Tennis pre-test 72.17 12 39.23 Tennis post-test 109.67 12 55.15 Tennis (%) 58.09 12 33.13 PHLEBODIUM DECUMANUM GROUP Mean N S.D. Pectorals-pre-test 39.58 15 11.42 Pectorals-post-test 47.02 15 10.08 Pectorals (%) 24.31 15 25.83 Dorsal-pre-test 47.11 16 13.57 Dorsal-post-test 56.43 16 14.36 Dorsal (%) 22.35 16 19.11 Deltoids-pre-test 18.87 18 6.54 Deltoids-post-test 26.80 18 7.20 Deltoids (%) 50.82 18 40.06 Interval-training pre-test 7.83 18 2.07 Interval-training post-test 11.83 18 1.86 Interval (%) 59.04 18 42.01 Tennis pre-test 59.24 17 27.51 Tennis post-test 112.35 17 45.37 Tennis (%) 101.47 17 54.88 Table 2. Descriptive statistics of cytokines levels recorded in the tested groups (pg/ml). PLACEBO GROUP Mean N SD IL-6 pre-test 2.90383 13 2.88930 IL-6 post-test 3.52158 13 3.44677 IL-6 (%) 64.59250 13 134.54459 TNF pre-test 11.85000 13 15.58920 TNF post-test 1.64877 13 3.86255 TNF (%) -47.78154 13 56.64041 IL1-ra pre-test 214.45009 13 65.42412 IL1-ra post-test 194.50643 13 49.23782 IL1-ra (%) -5.62538 13 20.41236 sTNF-RII pre-test .31623 13 .24350 sTNF-RII post-test .26723 13 .22726 sTNF-RII (%) -18.59462 13 24.74515 Tennis pre-test 72.17 12 39.23 Tennis post-test 109.67 12 55.15 Tennis (%) 58.09 12 33.13 PHLEBODIUM DECUMANUM GROUP Mean N S.D. IL-6 pre-test 3.43582 18 3.32601 IL-6 post-test 2.32118 18 2.37864 IL-6 (%) -17.88824 18 68.43066 TNF pre-test 16.28305 18 24.50650 TNF post-test 7.51721 18 14.15368 TNF (%) -20.54111 18 106.28531 IL1-ra pre-test 153.33815 18 72.41709 IL1-ra post-test 189.83245 18 102.49012 IL1-ra (%) 29.61529 18 47.80039 sTNF-RII pre-test .19694 18 .10147 sTNF-RII post-test .21012 18 .11515 sTNF-RII (%) 6.94706 18 18.15820 Tennis pre-test 59.24 17 27.51 Tennis post-test 112.35 17 45.37 Tennis (%) 101.47 17 54.88 Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-ra), Soluble TNF receptor II (sTNF-RII)
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Research article|
|Author:||Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose A.; Pradas, Francisco; Molina, Edgardo S.; de Teresa, Carlos|
|Publication:||Journal of Sports Science and Medicine|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2011|
|Previous Article:||Seasonal differences in physical activity and sedentary patterns: the relevance of the PA context.|
|Next Article:||Selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle during low-intensity and fatiguing tasks.|