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Effect of growth by polyethylene glycol and application of dormancy-breaking treatments on two species of Foniculum vulgare mill.

INTRODUCTION

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an odor, herb and two year-old plant that grows 2 meters. Pimpernel fruit is small, the weight 8 mm and the width 3mm and have an odor smelling and amiable taste [16], The most important features of seed counted specific significant for farmer can be referred to germination and infrastructural [10], As a matter of fact, seed dream is physiology that is faced on agriculture plant or self-growing plant [18], The analyses have showed the huge number of Apiaceae producing more abundant with Endosperm and small fetus [3], The presumption of seed germination is low in many of this family branch and germinations standard is the lowest than the others one. The lake of fetus on to seed is mentioned the most important factors of seed dormancy and producing germination on this group of plants as being defective characteristics and dormancy fetus in seed [17], The obtained results of studies mentioned above [7, 4, 3, 19, 20] shows the sort of different Saubacus species, Dioscora and Cuphba species also shows the different degrees of the physiology dormancy pattern.

The water is one of main acting factor of germination and decreased the available ability of water by reducing of soil osmotic potential. Osmotic potential has a direct effect on water speed-absorption and totally seed speed-germination. The germination and greening can be improved by seed developed-caring contained with the osmotic preparation. The osmotic preparation consisted of the controlled seeds irrigation on osmotic soluble. This irrigation will be able to perform metabolic activities before germination, however the seed in non-suitable for germinating tiny root from chaff.

This method caused to increase speed, percentage of tedium germinating and greening seed or small plant generally after implanting seed especially under the unfavorable condition. The total interaction of this caring is described that during the osmotic preparation of seeds, transferring of stored material, activating and synthesis of several enzymes, synthesis DNA and RNA, producing ATP and improving of cytoplasm membrane is started. After caring performance, fetus speed-growing observed by omitting germination presentences. Some biologically and physiology changes that happens on during the osmotic preparation and duration of its implementation consisted of the synthesis of macro molecules, acting several enzymes, increasing the germination structure and dormancy-breaking.

After caring performance, fetus speed-growing observed by omitting germination presentences. Some biologically and physiology changes that happens on during the osmotic preparation and duration of its implementation consisted of the synthesis of macro molecules, acting several enzymes, increasing the germination structure and dream-breaking. There are the numbers and seed masses as component type and soluble osmotic potential, duration of caring time and temperature for preparing osmotic seeds. Responding seeds to osmotic preparation is somewhat highly relied on soluble osmotic potential. Additionally, caring duration time is considerably significant and reported for some plants. For example, Murrayre ported that the final percentage of seedling emergence of carrotreduced by increasing duration of seeds osmotic preparation. Pepper seeds are followed by PEG (polyethylene glycol) for 6 daysin compared with 4 or 5 days also has more normal plantlets. Sharafi on trial examining different levels of drought (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa) on germination Holy Thistle (Silybum marianum) showed that all measured traits including seedling growth and germination uniformity were influenced by drought stress.

Judy et. al in surveying of seed germination anise(Pimpinellaanisum)under water deficit stresss howed that seed germination, root and shoot length and seed vigor under stress are decreased. Barzegar and Rahmani reported affected drought stress levels (0, -1, -3, -6 and -9 Bar) there was significant difference between the mean percentage and germination speed of hyssop (Hyssopusofficinalis).

The values of these parameters were decreased by increasing intensity stress, therefore. Considering that the green in gherb fennel seed operated dormancy harddue to it is necessary to break dormancy, especially under conditions water shortages was found. However, The aim of this testing is the surveying of seed osmotic preparation effect on germination and seedling growth of the fennel and determining the usable optimized osmotic is necessary for them.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seed Characterization:

The two masses of seed were collected in 2012 in cold zone named Hamedan, and entitledunder as Malayer-Hamedan mass of the test was used on laboratory was divided by loop that weight medium of thousand seeds was 3 g. the seeds after located on considerable Disinfected osmotic potential exposure an then Dormancy breaking treatments implemented on them. Germinator machine are positioned with duration of photo in 8 hour for lightening in temperature 30 centigrade and dark situation near 16 hour on temperature 20 centigrade [8],

Characteristics of Experiment Location:

In order to survey the effect of growing impact of growing up and applying Harmon chemistry and environmental inducers to break dormancy and Induction of germination on two varieties of fennel plant are implemented on laboratory of seed technology in Khorasgan Islamic Azad agriculture University of Isfahan analytically in 2012-2013. Polyethylene glycol levels were consisted of concentration -0.99, -1.35 and -2.33 MPA. Process of apron was operated by polyethylene-glycol 6000 to be the first seeds were washed with distilled water and then dried and then subjected to osmotic solution concentrations -0.99, -1.35 and -2.33 MPA was placed under a constant temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. The methods of gaining osmotic soluble with mentioned concentration based on Agrowal and Dadlany structure is finding osmotic potential table of considered concentration value and paying attention to requirement value are made on testing to obtain soluble. For example for generating of osmotic soluble concentrated on -0.99, -1.35, -2.35 are weighted 25 g, 30 g and 35 g from poly ethylene glycol respectively and solved on water 100 cc and the considered concentration is made as followed above.

Dormancy Breaking treatments:

After perching of seeds on osmotic soluble were implemented during 2 hours with considered concentration of 14 dormancy breaking treatments on seeds as followed below:

1-Gibberellic acid concentration (100 [mm.sup.-1] grams per liter). 2-6-Benzylamino purine concentrations ([10.sup.-5] Molar) 3-Kinetine concentrations ([10.sup.-5] Molar). 4-Composition of Gibberellic acid+6-Benzylamino purine 5-combining Gibberellic acid + Kinetine 6-combined 6-Benzylamino purine + Kinetine 7-combined Gibberellic acid +6-Benzylamino purine + Kinetine 8-concentrated sulfuric acid 90% for 15seconds. 9-potassium nitrate 0.4% 10 distilled wateras a control 11-Aminol forte 0.4 percent(stimulus growth) 12-Kadostium 0.4 percent (growth) 13-phosphoterron 0.4 percent (growth) 14-hummiforte 0.4 percent (growth)

The applying of concentrations for treatments 4, 5, 6 and 7 was corresponding to treatment 1, 2and 3 respectively. Hormones used in the seexperiments were manufactured by SIGMA Company and biological stimulants, including 19 kinds of amino acids. poly peptides with low molecular weight and also is a nutrient material manufactured by Inagrosay Company.

Statistical Population and Sampling:

The counting of germinated seed in order to determine percentage and speed of germination in per 24 hours was implemented by structure ISTA. The basis of germination is listed amount of 2 or 3 mm based on exiting of Radicle (Bahadori et.al, 2007). The surveying of germination is ended during the number of seeds is equal to consequent counting and this time was considered as ending of germination time.

After this period, the following parameters were measured: 1-Germination percentage 2-coleoptile length 3-radicle length 4-germination rate 5-uniformity of germination 6-seed vigor index Germination percentage was measured according to equation of [9]:

G = (n/N) x 100

G = germination percentage, n = amount of germination seeds, N = amount of the seeds in each petri dish, Also, germination rate was measured according to equation of [2]:

RG = 1/MTG

RG = The Rate of germination, MTG = The Mean time of germination.

Uniformity of germination was calculated according to the following equation [11],

uniformity of germination = [1/[[summation](D - [bar.D])/[summation] N]] (4)

D: the number of days in germination primary

[summation]n: the total number of germination in per day

N: number of germinated seeds at day

D: the average of the days in adaption with the first day germination.

Statistical Analyses:

All obtained information was surveyed by using of software MSTATC to decompose. Comparing the average of level factors was implemented at the 5% level based on Duncan's multiple range tests.

The Results:

The effect of poly ethylene glycol on germination:

The result of variance decomposition table shows that the implementation of poly ethylene glycol caused to appear significant different between seed germination (table 1). So that the percentage of seeds germination is increased by reducing the concentration of poly ethylene glycol, it was the comparison of averages to show that treatment of poly ethylene glycol with concentrate -0.99 Mega paschal, has the most contribution in this process with 36.86 and percentage of germination is increased by the boosting procedure on reducing of concentration. There is no significant difference between poly ethylene glycol with concentration -0.99 and -1.35 but there significant different in percentage of germination stem weight and seedling length and seed basis index but there is no significant different between them, (table 2)

Effect of Dormance-Breakind Treatment on Germination:

The results of the analysis of variance table about applying of donnancy break treatments indicates that the treatments of bio-stimulant, the hormones and chemicals has been caused to appear significant differences in attributes related to seed germination such as percentage of germination, shoot length, root length, seedling length, the average time required for germination, speed of germination uniform germination and vigor index (table 1). Mean comparis on indicates that the use of Aminolo forte, Kadustium, GA and Kinetine +6-Benzylamino purine had the greatest effect on Fennel germination (table 2). The investigations show that the interaction effect between applied treatments are appeared that by using of poly ethylene glycol concentrated 0.99 mega paschal with Aminol forte, huimny forte, Kadostim, Kinetine, 6-Benzylamino purine + Kinetine and also water purred can be success on dormancy break and boosted the characters related to germination will be increased on Fennel and its bad effects is less and on the other hand, using of lower concentrations reduces this features or it may be avoided generally (table 3).

The averages of per column at least have a common letter, there is no significant different between together in probable 5 percent based on Dankan's multi-rates tests.

Species:

About usable spices of this study, the results shows that the Malayer spices is significantly caused to Increase the germination percentage, root length, seedling length, the average time required for germination and vigor index is higher than Nahavand (table 2).

The interaction of poly ethylene glycol and dormancy break treatments and Spices.

The interaction of Vareties, poly ethylene glycol and dormancy break treatments on germination percentage and coleoptile length, and Germination rate, uniformity of germination not significant (table 1).

The most percentage of germination in poly ethylene glycol concentrated -1.35 mega paschal with Kinetine treatment is obtained Malayer variety that had significant different between others one exception treatment of poly ethylene glycol concentrated -0.99 mega paschal by treatment of Amino Forte in Malayer variety. The lowest percent of germination is obtained in treatment of poly ethylene glycol concentrated -2.33 mega paschal with sulfuric acid in Nahavand variety that there is no significant different between others one (table 3). The interaction of type, poly ethylene glycol and dormancy break treatment on across the tiny root, germination speed and basis index of seed on probable level of 5 percent was significant (table 1). The highest weight of root is obtained in water pure concentrated -1/35 mega paschal there is significant difference between others one. The lowest of tiny root in sulfuric acid treatment concentrated -1.35 in Nahavand variety that there was significant different between others. The fastest germination in phosnotron treatment concentrated-concentrated -1/35 in Nahavand variety that there was significant different between others. The lowest speed of germination in phosnotron treatment concentrated -2.33 in Nahavand variety that there was significant different between others. The interaction of type, poly ethylene glycol and dormancy break treatment was significant in level probably 5 percent (table 1). The greatest seed basis index was obtained in poly ethylene glycol concentrated 0.99 mega paschal with applying of Aminol forte in Malayer variety has significant different between others exception water pure concentrated -0.99 in Malayer and kinetin treatment concentrated -2.33 in Malayer variety. The lowest seed basis index in sulfuric acid concentrated 2/33 in Nahavand variety that there was significant different between others (table 3).

The averages of per column at least have a common letter, there is no significant different between each other in probable 5 percent based on Dankan's multi-rates tests.

Decision:

The Effect of Poly Ethylene Glycol on Fennel Germination:

The surveying obtained datum of this research shows that germination index is decreased significantly by increasing of osmotic soluble concentration from -1.33 to -2.35 that can be expressed that the seeds for starting to germinate are mixed with water enough during treatment by poly ethylene glycol or by salty solutions but in this situation, the presence of primary root is inhibited by the osmotic potential of solution [14].

Also poly ethylene glycol caused to change in seed water and created water stress when poly ethylene is brought the water is fast absorbed. It can be expressed that the water is main requirement for germinating that osmotic pre-treatment of seeds caused to be under water potential by poly ethylene glycol with low concentration. These conditions caused to be limited seed irrigation that this irrigation is not enough to prepare metabolic actions of tiny stem weight, tiny plant weight but for other metabolic actions, pre-germination has been enough. By the other way, the poly ethylene glycol solutions have higher viscosity, can implement such as impediment for gases transferring. During osmotic pre-treatment of seeds are covered by poly ethylene glycol and gases transferring will be effected and increased non-aerobic metabolism that is explanatory to reduce accessible oxygen in seeds what this issue will be effected on speed and percentage of germination and other characteristics relation to germination. When the water potential is lower than crisis line, the seed is faced to non-water tension [6].

Seed available ability to water is reduced by decreasing of osmotic potential (solution material) and matric potential (suction) [12], Reducing the percent and speed of germination and reducing teeny root weight and tiny stem in low potential is caused to being salty and drought in variation of tests has been shown [5,6,12] Kochaki also by surveying effect of salty and drought intensive (based on poly ethylene glycol) on pasture species showed that maximum of germination, Koleopetil weight, root weight even obtained evidence treatment and decreased by amount of thischaracteristics by reducing water potential in salty and drought treatment.

This study shows us that more sturdy-seeds have better germination index than the variety of Nahavand more teeny-seeds. Kochaki et al., [12] also the effect of water potassium and the seed varieties and size have reported as the percentage and speed of germination and described that the average of this characteristics is lower in small seed and the germination of this seeds will be easier than bigger seeds in the non-water (lack of water) condition related with mentioned above.

As a matter of fact, to provide minimum requirement moisture for beginning the process of germination in macro seeds is main factor to reduce germination in such seeds. In this reason, the variety of Malayer production could be higher constant than the variations of osmotic potential. Kiani et al., [13] also have expressed that different types reaction can be related to different factors such as reducing of water absorption in sensitive typical highly. The seed measurement also is effective to determine typical endurance is influence to creation of intensity.

Also about the analyzing obtained datum of dormancy break treatments effect can be described that the applying of Amino Forte, Kadostum, GA and benzoyl Adenine + kinetine have had the most effective on fennel germination and also to survey interaction between apphed treatments appears that by using of poly ethylene glycol concentrated -0.99 mega paschal in relation with Aminol Forte, hummy Forte, Kadostum, kinetin, benzyl Adenine + kinetin and also water pure in Malayer type can break effectively dormancy and can be boosted the characteristics related to germination on fennel and reduce the negative effects and in other way, the features are increased by using of lower concentrations or be possible to stop entirely it. Probably this interaction followed this reason that poly ethylene glycol of membrane will be water resistance, thus first germination step is happened by less speed that is water absorption and be inflated, then with destroying of inhibitor effect by the treatment of Amino acid and intra hormone arrived to its active position and caused to grow fetus or provided by the decomposition of stored membranes generate the condition of growing fetus and resulted to provide germination.

The General Result:

In test of per-osmotic treatment by poly ethylene glycol also related to poly ethylene glycol has significant effect on germination percentage, stem weight, Seedlings and index of seed basis. All surveying features have been effected exception of stem weight and speed of germination. All surveyed characteristics have been effected dormancy break treatments exception of consequent germination. The most percentage of germination was obtained by poly ethylene glycol with concentration -0.99 and the most weight stem growing stem, root length andseedling length by treatment with polyethylene glycol concentration -1.35. The figure of Malayer was specified the highest percentage of germination, coleoptile length, radicle length and seedling length, the rate germination and index of seed basis. According to the results obtained with the use of polyethylene glycol with a concentration of -1.35 MPA treatmentof kinetine, GA +Kinetine and aminol forte is appropriate for breaking of seed dormancy in Malayer listed number.

Appreciation:

This research is a part of Thesis in master of Mr. Sayed Amir Reza Tahaei that was accomplished on The College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan also appreciated to guide master, Mr. Ali soleymani and Consultant of research.

REFERENCES

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ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 April 2014

Received in revised form 22 May 2014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

(1) Saved Amirreza Tahaei and (2) Ali Soleymani

(1) Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

(2) Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Corresponding Author: Ali Soleymani, Associat Professor at agronomy, (Crop physiologist), Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
Table 1: The variance decomposition of giving cold effect and
pre-treatment of hormone on the quality and quantity of features
in germination on fennel seeds

Reference of change     The average of cubes

                        Free     The rate of   The tiny    The rootlet
                        degree   germination   stem        weight
                                               weight

Poly ethylene glycol    2        1383/857 *    14/525 *    1/786
First error             9        217/952       2/175       1/247
Dormancy break          13       1930/480 **   35/377 **   28/259 **
  treatments
Dormancy break          26       280/985 **    4/933 **    3/728 **
  treatments + poly
  ethylene glycol
Type                    1        54621/00 **   6/083       8/348 **
Type + poly             2        1713/000 **   3/192       1/778
  ethylene glycol
Type + Dormancy         13       470/846 **    2/881       2/552 **
  break treatments
The type +              26       160/077       2/679       1/408 *
  Dormancy break
  treatments + poly
  ethylene glycol
Second error            243      143/286       2/080       0/183

Reference of change     The average of cubes

                        Speed of      The tedium    The index
                        germination   of            of seed
                                      germination   structure

Poly ethylene glycol    0/000         0/244         25/766 **
First error             0/002         0/0115        2/218
Dormancy break          0/010 **      0/213         40/631 **
  treatments
Dormancy break          0/001         0/111         5/394 **
  treatments + poly
  ethylene glycol
Type                    0/001         1/425 **      430/735 **
Type + poly             0/003         0/211         22/557 **
  ethylene glycol
Type + Dormancy         0/002         0/212         8/037 **
  break treatments
The type +              0/001         /.            3/121 *
  Dormancy break
  treatments + poly
  ethylene glycol
Second error            0/001         0/142         1/748

** being significant in probable level respectively

Table 2: The average comparison of poly ethylene glycol and
dormancy break treatments on characteristics of germination
quality and quantity in seeds fennel

Reference of           The rate of   The tiny stem   The rootlet
change                 germination      weight         weight

Poly ethylene glycol

-0/99                    36.86 a        4.556 a        3.224 a
-1/35                    36.11 a        4.681 a        3.243 a
-2/33                    30.43 b        4.004 b        3.016 a

Type

Nahavand                 21/71b         4/279a         3/003b
Malayer                  47/21a         4/548a         3/319a

Dormancy break treatments

kinetin                   39 be         4.6 be         3.45 c
jib relic acid            26 ef        4.088 bed       2.73 d
benzoyl adenine         33.67 cd        3.341 d       1.957 ef
Fosnotron               33.33 ede      3.851 cd        3.463 c
Hummy Forte             40.17 be       4.572 be        4.151b
Aminol Forte             49.33 a        6.017 a        4.831 a
Kadostium                 43a b         5.765 a        4.227 b
Nitrate                  37.5 be        4.57 be        2.701 d
  potassium
jib relic acid +         24.33 f        3.549 d        2.158 e
  benzoyl
  Adenine
jib relic acid +         33 ede         4.816 b       3.148 cd
  kinetin
benzoyl adenine          39.5 be       4.758 be        2.92 cd
  +kinetin
benzoyl adenine         27.33 def      4.089 bed       2.073 e
  + jib relic acid +
  kinetin
Water pure               41.5 b         6.278 a        4.972 a
Sulfuric acid            14.83 g        1.498 e        1.472 f

Reference of            Speed of     The tedium of    The index of
change                 germination    germination    seed structure

Poly ethylene glycol

-0/99                   0.1334 a       0.1377 a         3.121 a
-1/35                   0.1338 a        0.14% a         3.281 a
-2/33                   0.1316 a       0.06348 a        2.382 b

Type

Nahavand                0.1342 a        0.182 a         1.796 b
Malayer                  0.1317a       0.05179 b         4.06 a

Dormancy break treatments

kinetin                 0.1321 be      0.08458 b        3.398 cd
jib relic acid           0.11 d        0.06542 b        1.992 fg
benzoyl adenine         0.1458 be      0.2283 ab        1.805 fg
Fosnotron                0.165 a        0.075 b         2.426 ef
Hummy Forte             0.1337 be      0.06667 b        3.645 c
Aminol Forte            0.1454 be      0.0525 b         5.379 a
Kadostium               0.1271 cd      0.06792 b        4.412 b
Nitrate                 0.1329 be      0.0725 b         2.98 ede
  potassium
jib relic acid +        0.1262 cd      0.09125 b        1.535 gh
  benzoyl
  Adenine
jib relic acid +        0.1304 c       0.1596 b         2.805 de
  kinetin
benzoyl adenine         0.1517 ab      0.07417 b        3.02 ede
  +kinetin
benzoyl adenine         0.1425 be      0.1233 b         1.797 fg
  + jib relic acid +
  kinetin
Water pure              0.1388 be       0.075 b         4.825 ab
Sulfuric acid           0.07958 e      0.4004 a         0.9704 h

Table 3: The summarizing of the interaction table of poly ethylene
and type and dormancy break treatments on features of germination
quality and quantity table 3.

Reference of change              The rate of   The tiny    The rootlet
                                 germination     stem        weight
                                                weight

-0/99, Nahavand, Aminol Forte       35h-r      6.595 a-d    4.818a-j
-0/99, Malayer, Aminol Forte        74 a       6.345 a-e     5.06a-g
-0/99, Nahavand, water pure        25 n-w      6.475 a-d    5.577abc
-0/99, Malayer, water pure         61 a-e        7.71a      5.325a-e
,-1/35 Nahavand kinetin            24 n-x      5.69 a-i     3.525g-x
-1/35 Malayer kinetin               75 a       6.155 a-g     4.37a-n
,-1/35 Nahavand water pure          30k-v      5.787a-i      4.72a-k
-1/35 Malayer water pure           61 a-e       6.43a-d      5.705a
,-1/35 Nahavand sulfuric acid       4 wx        0.2 st         0.1
-1/35 Malayer sulfuric acid        24 n-x      1.212 rst      1.563
-2/33 Nahavand sulfuric acid         3 x        0.075 t       0.375
-2/33 Malayer sulfuric acid         VwxlO      l/337q-t      0/8675

Reference of change               Speed of     The tedium    The index
                                 germination       of         of seed
                                               germination   structure

-0/99, Nahavand, Aminol Forte     0.135b-g       0.0575b     3.997f-m
-0/99, Malayer, Aminol Forte      0.135b-g       0.0525b      8.465a
-0/99, Nahavand, water pure       0.145b-g       0.1325b     3.057i-s
-0/99, Malayer, water pure        0.135b-g       0.0425b      7.95ab
,-1/35 Nahavand kinetin            0.13b-g        0.12b      2.175k-x
-1/35 Malayer kinetin             0.1175c-g      0.0275b      7.85ab
,-1/35 Nahavand water pure        0.135b-g       0.0675b     3.472g-q
-1/35 Malayer water pure          0.1325b-g       0.04b      7.412abc
,-1/35 Nahavand sulfuric acid      0.06hi        1.015a       0.0225x
-1/35 Malayer sulfuric acid       0.0925fgh      0.0375b     1.278o-x
-2/33 Nahavand sulfuric acid       0.0225i       0.005b       0.055x
-2/33 Malayer sulfuric acid        0.09gh        0.0325b      0.3vwx
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Author:Tahaei, Saved Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jul 23, 2014
Words:4885
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