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Effect of eight weeks of aerobic training on glucose and lipid profile of the young women employees of oil company in Ahwaz.

INTRODUCTION

According to the reports of researchers in the recent decades, cardiovascular diseases are increasing. Braith (2006) expresses that today, cardiovascular diseases are known as one of the most basic factors of death in the world and in this regard, desirable results of endurance trainings have been shown in many researches in the field of reduction of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. American forum of cardiovascular in the year 2004 announced that various mechanisms and factors are involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The most important ones are changes in inflammatory and coagulation factors, dyslipidemia, smoking, high blood pressure, psychological stress, insulin resistance, increased waist-to-hip ratio. Also, this forum states that body activity and training can modify these factors that can cause some risks, in such way that even some of the researches have shown that they consider physical inactivity to be associated with increase of the levels of inflammatory markers, independent of obesity. Physical activity can probably reduce the death of those people who are at risk by decreasing the inflammatory, coagulation and obesity markers. Increasing cardiovascular diseases and premature death, is one of the most important results of the sedentary life in developed countries. One of the most important cardiovascular diseases is vasoconstriction [3].

Cardiovascular disease is one of the basic factors of death throughout the world. The researches show that inactive lifestyle with high-fat and high-calorie diets might lead to the occurrence and intension of cardiovascular diseases by changing the conditions of metabolism and lipid profiles especially peripheral blood lipoproteins [11]. In addition, the reviews show that for reducing one mg/dl of the existing cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein in plasma, the rate of death caused by atherosclerotic heart disease reduces about 2% [2]. By the way, changing the inactive lifestyle, medical treatments and using natural food additives are among the solutions that have been reviewed either separately or sometimes interacting with each other in order to control hypercalcaemia and its side effects [11].

Although the results of most previous studies indicate that doing exercises especially moderate activities are crucially important in controlling cardiovascular and hypercalcaemia diseases, inactive lifestyle and obesity has been recognized as one of the top 10 problems of health by World Health Organization. This type of lifestyle is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases which leads to the occurrence of disorders such as increased blood lipids, high blood pressure and obesity. Obesity and being over-weight, is a multiple-factor phenomenon which has genetic and environmental (lifestyle) roots. In fact in developed countries, lack of proper body exercise and improper diet are considered as the causes of obesity and cardiovascular diseases [2].

Recently, it has been understood that the adipose tissues which release proteins with viability called adipocytokines, might adjust metabolism, glucose, lipid and vascular function. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that is exceptionally produced in lipid cells. This protein has anti-diabetic, anti -atherosclerotic and anti- inflammatory features. Nonetheless, without being similar to other adipocytokines, the level of serum adiponectin in fat, diabetic people and those with heart disease [5].

Movement and sports activities lead to the reduction of glucose concentration and improvement of blood lipids by increasing the overall sugar consumption of the body by muscle cells and also by making the metabolism of the lipids more active. Thus, diabetic patients can use sports exercises in order to control the glucose of their blood, lipid profile and blood pressure better. Various kinds of sports exercises including aerobic, resistance and tensile exercises can be prescribed for them. But among them, the aerobic exercises are considered as the necessary component in treating patients with diabetes type II. In such way that, American Diabetes Association in 2002 has recommended aerobic exercises with the intensity of 50 to 80 percent of the maximum of the aerobic capacity three to four times a week and for 30 to 60 minutes [5]. Given these evidences, the results of this research might have some valuable advantages in completing the information in process in those employees who are exposed to the industrial pollutions of the oil company. Kordi and Rabbani [4] did a research that encourages all the diabetic people to do the best sports functions. In order to prevent the creation of sports' side effects, the diabetic athletes might regulate the rate of their food and the dose of the insulin. Based on the sports specifications and level of glucose of diabetic patients before exercise, diabetic athletes shall use some carbohydrate before, during and also after the activities. If the exercise lasts more than 30 minutes, the insulin shall reduce to the rate of 14 to 50 percent. Each athlete shall find his/her own method in managing food and moderating insulin and their combination with sports. Also the results of the research of Sattarifard et al [7] showed that resistance exercise has respectively caused significant reduction and increase of the rate of activated thromboplastin and fibrinogen in various stages of the research and also in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, the reduction of total cholesterol in various stages of the research is not significant. In addition, the rates of very low-density lipoprotein are only significant in the post test stage compared to the base stage. Nonetheless, the difference between the groups of the rates of all of the blood lipids which are considered in this research and their ratios are significant in 6 and 12 weeks of exercise. The results of the research of Akbari et al [1] also showed that triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein significantly reduced after eight weeks of exercise. But high-density lipoprotein did not increase significantly. In the control group, none of the above variables showed a significant change. Yektadar et al [10] measured the levels of high-density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, apoprotein type A, apoprotein type B, the ratio of apoprotein type A to the apoprotein type B, before and after exercise. These researchers generally concluded that various sports exercises in healthy middle aged people can have useful impacts on some of the damaging cardiovascular indexes. But it seems that doing a combined resistance endurance exercises is more effective on the damaging cardiovascular factors than doing only resistance or endurance exercises. Sondergaad et al [8] have also stated in their researches that very low density cholesterol and triglyceride haven't changed at the time of exercising and returning to the preliminary mode; whereas the concentrations of those other than these two have significantly reduced. The rate of decomposition of very low density cholesterol and triglyceride shows a significant reduction at the time of exercising and at the time of returning to the preliminary mode, it remains stopped. The total rate of oxidation of very low density cholesterol and triglyceride was not affected by the exercise at all. And Nayebifard et al [5] stated in their research that like triglyceride, no significant change was seen in the rate of the total cholesterol of the serum.

Tolfrey et al [9], in their research, believe that the fact that the natural levels of lipoproteins stay the same is due to the daily body activities in adults and children. In their research which was done on kids and teenagers, the impact of active life on the high density and low density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, triglyceride and also the ratio of these factors to one another were seen to the desirable extent and the effects of aerobic exercises on the damaging cardiovascular factors wasn't significant and Rahman Nejad et al [6], in a research, reviewed the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise on the response of the lipoproteins of the plasma of the blood of diabetic men. In this research, 25 diabetic patients with the age range of 18 to 28 years were randomly divided into two empirical (15 persons) and control (10 persons) groups. The empirical group was put under the aerobic exercises for 9 weeks and in each week three 30 to 60minute sessions. According to the obtained results, a significant reduction was achieved in the total cholesterol and a wonderful increase in the cardiovascular anti-damaging high density lipoprotein and also glycosylated blood glucose.

By considering the effects that aerobic exercises and long-term activities, such as hiking and slow running, have on the level of human's blood sugar and lipids, and the importance of these factors on the level of physical and mental health of the employees, in this study it has been attempted to review the impact of an eight-week period of aerobic exercises in the form of hiking and with the 50 to 60 percent of maximum heart rate on the glucose and lipid profile of the young women working in Ahvaz's oil company.

Research method:

Given the purpose which is reviewing the impact of an eight-week period of aerobic exercises on the glucose and lipid profile of the young women working, the type of research is empirical and the method in this research is based on the comparative researches and therefore, the pre-test and post-test have been done in all of the variables of the research (very low density cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, total cholesterol, high-density, high-density, low-density cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar) and then, the two control and empirical groups have been compared to one another. The statistical population of this research includes all of the women working in Ahvaz's oil company in the current year which is composed of 30 young women employees and all of them have participated in the research as testee. Thus, the sampling method has been purposive in this research and all of the working women have participate in this study voluntarily and with their own interest.

The subjects of the test have been randomly divided into two 15-person empirical and control groups. Each group, before the start of the exercise period, by filling out the testimonial and participating in the hematology test which is done in the early morning, fill out the health questionnaire, body and personal specifications such as height, weight by using height measuring instruments and digital scale and then the empirical group have done a period of body activities for eight weeks and three 30 to 60-minute session each week including 15 minutes of warming including: tensile exercises and stretching, 30 minutes of walking with 50 to 60 percent of maximum heart rate (220 - age to year = maximum heart rate in minute x 50 to 60 percent) and 15 minutes of cooling or returning to the preliminary mode. In this period, the control group didn't participate in any kind of specific exercise program. After 8 weeks, the hematology tests and body and aerobic tests were done and for determining the body mass index, the division of the weight (in kilogram) on the square of height in meter was used and before and they were done after the exercise period.

The measuring tools of the research in this research were digital scale, blood sampling devices (syringes and sterile needles, test tubes, medical cotton, alcohol and glue), height measuring and manometer and stethoscope. In this research, in order to test the research hypotheses, the dyadic comparison test was used in order to determined the rate of effectiveness of exercises and independent t test for determining the difference between the groups of the research in dependent variables (very low density cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, total cholesterol, high-density, high-density, low-density cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar) in the pre-test and post-test. The significance of the data has been reviewed at the level of (p<0.05) and by using the SPSS16 software.

Findings:

The purpose of this research is reviewing the effect of an eight-week aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of the women working in Ahvaz's oil company. The required data, which has been obtained after the field tests and blood sampling in laboratory, was described and after doing the one Sample Kolmogorov Smirnov test, the test of the 7 hypotheses of the research was analyzed by the dyadic comparison tables and independent t test. The significance of the data has been considered at the error level of 5% alpha (p<0.05).

General and physiological features of the working women of the empirical group included the average age of 28.00 [+ or -] 1.66 years, weight 72.93 [+ or -] 12.46kg, height 158.87 [+ or -] 6.84cm and body mass index 29.11 [+ or -] 5.26 kg/[m.sup.2] and also for the control group it was the average age of 28.33 [+ or -] 2.69 years, weight 81.33 [+ or -] 13.29kg, height 170.20 [+ or -] 8.01cm and body mass index 28.69 [+ or -] 3.78kg/[m.sup.2] who were mentally and physically healthy.

As it is specified in table (1), the number of the mean of the post-test of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein and the concentration of triglyceride is more than the number of the mean of the pre-test.

According to the results of the dyadic comparison test, the eight-week aerobic exercises has had a positive and significant impact on the rate of total cholesterol, blood sugar, low density lipoprotein and the ratio of high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein and it hadn't have a significant effect on the concentration of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein (table no. 2).

By considering the significance level (p<0.05), it means that despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of difference between empirical and control groups in the rate of blood sugar, very low density lipoprotein, total, high density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein, triglyceride and concentration of total cholesterol, after doing the exercises by empirical group, we can conclude that aerobic exercises haven't had a significant effect on the rate of blood pressure, very low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein, triglyceride and concentration of total cholesterol of the working women. But due to the existing difference between empirical and control groups in the rate of low density lipoprotein, after the empirical group did the exercises, we can conclude that aerobic exercises have significantly affected the rate of low density lipoprotein of the working women (table no. 3)

Discussion and review:

The purpose of the present research is to review the impact of an eight-week period of aerobic exercises on the glucose and lipid profile of the young working women. According to the results of dyadic comparison tests, the eight-week aerobic exercises has had a positive and significant impact on the rate of total cholesterol, blood sugar, low density lipoprotein and the ratio of high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein and it hadn't have a significant effect on the concentration of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; but by comparing the empirical and control groups through independent t test, after the empirical group did the exercises, except for low density cholesterol, no significant difference was seen in any of the research variables among these two groups.

Majde and Krueger (2005) state that each population often shows some specific properties and distinguishing differences in the blood composition but the mutual properties between the concentrated nations and ethnics in a land (inheritance and environment) is very more than the differences. Thus, the done studies in other places in the world can be considered as an attributable reference by considering the fact that the tests are standard.

The findings of this research show that despite the despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises hasn't had a significant impact on the rate of the blood pressure of the working women. Among the causes that could lead to this conclusion, we can refer to the fact that the members of the two groups were both healthy and young, because the healthy women who work are usually considered as the healthy and active people of a society. Therefore, we can use this type of exercises to reduce the blood sugar even in active and healthy women. The result of this research is in compliance with the findings of Rahman Nejad et al [6] which were seen after 9 weeks of aerobic exercise. Despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises hasn't had a significant impact on the rate of the very low density lipoprotein of the working women. This result that body exercise does not have a significant impact on the rate of very low density lipoprotein is compatible with the research of Sondergaad et al [8]. And also, despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises has had a significant impact on the rate of the low density lipoprotein of the working women. This result is in compliance with the findings of Yektayar et al [10]. They measured the levels of high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride and total cholesterol before and after the exercise. Overall these researchers concluded that various sports exercises can have useful impacts on some of the damaging cardiovascular indexes in healthy middle aged people. And despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises hasn't had a significant impact on the rate of the high density lipoprotein of the working women. This result is compatible with the findings of Akbari et al [1]. The results of their studies showed that triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein significantly reduced after eight weeks of exercise.

And in other findings, it was shown that despite the significance difference which has been seen among pretest and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises hasn't had a significant impact on the ratio of the high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein of the working women. Relative increase of high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein on the effect of aerobic exercises can be due to the more reduction of low density lipoprotein compared to high density lipoprotein which was clearly seen in this research, but when the results of the post-test of the empirical group with the control one, no significant difference was seen. Tokfrey et al [9] believe that the fact that the natural levels of lipoproteins stay the same is due to the daily body activities in adults and children. Despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises hasn't had a significant impact on the concentration of triglyceride of the working women. These results are compatible with the findings of Sondergaad et al [8]. They haven't seen a significant change in the rate of triglyceride of the serum at the time of exercising and returning to the preliminary mode. Triglyceride of the serum and low density lipoprotein don't play a considerable part in providing the consumed energy of the exercise and perhaps they might only be effective in providing the base energy at the time of resting. And in the final finding, despite the significance difference which has been seen among pre-test and post-test, due to the lack of significant difference between empirical and control groups in this variable after the empirical group did the exercises, it was concluded that aerobic exercises hasn't had a significant impact on the concentration of cholesterol of the working women. In the research of Nayebifard et al [5], like triglyceride, a significant change was not seen in the rate of total cholesterol either.

Although the results of the researches are different from one another, most of the researchers believe that long-term sports exercise leads to the reduction of the rate of blood lipids and probability of the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As it can be seen in the results of the present research and similar researches, the obtained differences in the results of the researches can be due to some factors such as age and gender of the participants, type of job and their daily activities, the number of the test subjects, type of exercises and their qualitative and quantitative management such as intensity and length of their doing, region and climatic condition of the research, various statistical methods used for analyzing the data and food and mental and psychological moods of the subjects. A sample of the difference in the results of this research has been associated with the methods of statistical analysis. Although the rate of positive effectiveness in most of the research variables was obtained by using the dyadic comparison test (dependent t), but after comparing the control and empirical groups in the post-test, except for low density lipoprotein, none of the other variables have shown a significant difference.

REFERENCES

[1] Akbari, M., M. Askari, Sh. Ahanjan, M. Akbari and V. Tadibi, 2007. "The effect of an eight-week program of aerobic exercise on decrease of the blood lipid of working men with high blood pressure", Journal of Medical Council of Islamic Republic of Iran, 25(2): 126-131.

[2] Azerbaijani, M. and B. Abedi, 2012. "Comparison of aerobic, resistance and combined exercises on the adiponectin lipid profile in inactive men", Periodical of Knowledge and Health, University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shahrood, period 7, Number 1

[3] Ghasemof, A., E. Khoshnam, N. Nikseresht, 2014. "The effect of 8 weeks of aerobic training on serum lipoproteins in non-athletic girls", European Journal of Experimental Biology, 4(1): 358-360.

[4] Kordi, R., A. Rabbani, 2007. "Exercise and Diabetes Type 1 Recommendations, Safety". Iran J Ped, 17(1): 52-62.

[5] Nayebifard, Sh., M. Afzalpoor, M. Saghebjoo and M. Hedayati, 2011. "Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on the soluble intercellular adhesion molecules and lipid profile serum of overweight women", Journal of sports and movement--biological sciences, second year, (4): 77-87.

[6] Rahman Nejad, H., F. Nazem and R. Sabetiyan, 2002. "Reviewing the effect of aerobic exercise under the specific maximum, on response of the efficiency of an oxygen transfer device, for young men with type I diabetes", "Daneshvar", Special Medical Articles, 10(41): 5-10.

[7] Sattari Fard, S., A. Gaeeni and S. Choubineh, 2011. "The effect of exercise in cold, warm, and normal temperature conditions on the number of leukocytes and platelets in the blood of athletes", "Armaghan-e Danesh", Scientific--Research Journal of the University of Medical Science of Yasouj, period 16, number 5, December and February of 2011. (Consecutive number 65)

[8] Sondergaard, E., I. Rahbek, L.P. Sorensen, J.S. Christiansen, L.C. Gormsen, M.D. Jensen, S. Nielsen, 2011. Effects of exercise on VLDL-triglyceride oxidation and turnover. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011, 300(5): E939-44. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00031.2011. Epub 2011 Mar 8

[9] Tolfrey, K., A.M. Jones, IG. Campbell, 2000. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on the Lipid-Lipoprotein Profile of Children and Adolescents. Sports Med, 29(2): 99-112.

[10] Yekta Yar, M., M. Sardar, K. Ahmadi Deharshid and M. Khoda Morad Pour, 2011. "Comparison of the effects of resistance, endurance, and combined exercise on the lipid profile of middle-aged untrained men", Scientific Journal of the University of Medical Science of Kordestan, 16(4): 26-36.

[11] Zekri, R., A. Jafari and Gh. Dehghan, 2012. "Simultaneous effects of a bout of aerobic exercise and a short term supplementation of garlic on lipid profile of non-athletes men", journal of the University of Medical Sciences of Shahr'e Kord, 4(15): 34-41.

Maryam Moozarm Alahyar, Seyed Ehsan Amirhosseini, Morteza Naghibi

Department of physical education, yasooj branch, Islamic Azad University, yasooj, Iran

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 18 October 2014

Received in revised form 31 December 2014

Accepted 18 January 2015

Available online 1 March 2015

Corresponding Author: Maryam Moozarm Alahyar, Department of physical education, Yasooj branch, Islamic Azad University, yasooj, Iran.
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of the pre-test and
post-test of the variables of the research in the
empirical group.

Descriptive statistic            Pre-test            Post-test
of the variables

                                 Mean    Standard    Mean    Standard
                                         deviation           deviation

Blood pressure                   94.67     13.74     87.07     9.45
Very low density lipoprotein     23.12     9.29      22.26     11.04
Low density lipoprotein          1.62      22.73     1.03      24.69
High density lipoprotein         50.60     7.72      52.60     8.19
The ratio of high density        0.46      0.14      0.53      0.13
lipoprotein to low density
lipoprotein
Concentration of triglyceride    1.05      42.50     1.09      56.97
Concentration of                 1.83      34.81     1.69      32.79
  total cholesterol

Table 2: Dyadic comparison of the pre-test and
post-test of the research variables.

Dyadic comparison     Dyadic differences
(pre-test--
post-test)

                      Mean    Standard    Standard   Significance
                              deviation    error       (p<0.05)

                                                       minimum

Blood pressure        7.60      11.65       3.01         1.15
Very low density      0.86      6.10        1.58        -2.52
  lipoprotein
Low density           1.29      4.74       18.37         2.78
  lipoprotein
High density          2.00      7.81        2.02        -6.32
  lipoprotein
The ratio of high     0.08      0.07        0.01        -0.11
  density
  lipoprotein to
  low density
  lipoprotein
Concentration of      -3.69     53.76      13.88        -33.46
  triglyceride
Concentration of      1.42      22.53       5.82         1.75
  total cholesterol

Dyadic comparison                      t     Degree    Significance
(pre-test--                                    of         level
post-test)                                   freedom

                      Significance
                        (p<0.05)

                        Maximum

Blood pressure           14.05       2.53      14          0.02
Very low density          4.24       0.55      14          0.59
  lipoprotein
Low density              23.13       2.73      14          0.01
  lipoprotein
High density              2.53       -0.99     14          0.33
  lipoprotein
The ratio of high        -0.03       -3.99     14         0.001
  density
  lipoprotein to
  low density
  lipoprotein
Concentration of         26.08       -0.26     14          0.79
  triglyceride
Concentration of         26.70       2.44      14          0.02
  total cholesterol

Table 3: The results of independent t test for
comparing the variables among the groups.

Variables        T     Rate of     Bilinear
                       freedom   significance

Very           -1.62     28          0.11
low-density
Cholesterol

Low-density    -1.99     28          0.05
Cholesterol

High-density   -0.38     28          0.70
Cholesterol

High-          1.88      28          0.07
density/
Low density
Cholesterol

Total          -0.79     28          0.44
cholesterol

Triglyceride   -1.69     28          0.10

Blood sugar    -1.17     28          0.25

Variables       Average     Standard
                   of       deviation
               difference

Very             -8.23        5.09
low-density
Cholesterol

Low-density      -24.75       12.44
Cholesterol

High-density     -2.20        5.77
Cholesterol

High-            -0.09        0.05
density/
Low density
Cholesterol

Total            -9.13        11.58
cholesterol

Triglyceride     -43.33       25.70

Blood sugar      -10.13       8.62
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Author:Alahyar, Maryam Moozarm; Amirhosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Naghibi, Morteza
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Mar 1, 2015
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