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Effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on N, P and K content and uptake of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) under middle Gujarat conditions.

Isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk) has been used in medicines sice ancient times, but it has only been cultivated as a medicinal plant in recent decades (Choudhary et.al.2014). India with its varied agro-climatic conditions and topography has a large number of medicinal plant species. The herbal wealth constitutes about 5000 species of known medicinal and aromatic plants which are used in the various systems of Indian medicines viz., Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, since time immemorial (Marketa, 2002). Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) is one of the most important medicinal plant with the foremost agricultural and commercial values in India.

In the India, Isabgol occupies 2.93 lack hector area and contribute about 36% of total isabgol production of the world (Anonymous, 2007) and is grown in the state of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Blonde psyllium is an important medicinal crop of Gujarat. Due to low cost of production and higher return from the crop. Gujarat commands near monopoly in the production and export of isabgol seed and seed husk to the world market (More et. al., 2014).

Isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk.) is an annual herb of about 30-45 cm height with usually four to five tillers arising from the main stem. It has tap root system as in normal dicots. The most important part of isabgol is the mucilage, which is a polysaccharide coating on the seed. The separated husk is popular as "Sat Isabgol" (fetch price' 280 [kg.sup.-1]) in the Indian market. The husk from the seed is separated by physical process. It works as an anti-diarrhoea drug. It is also used for treating constipation and intestinal disorders. The dehusked seed is around 69 % by weight of total seed and is known to be rich in the starch and fatty acids (Atal et al., 1964). Refined husk is used in the food industry for manufacturing sausages, ice creams and sauces. It is also used in dyeing, calico printing, setting lotions and in cosmetics. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium shortly are the three primary elements of fertilizer. Deficiency of nitrogen has very marked effect on plant growth. Insufficient nitrogen may reduce the yield drastically and also deteriorates the quality of the produce. Phosphorus play beneficial role in the root development, nodulation and stimulation of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Plant require relatively large amount of potassium and often can use more than the soil can supply. Potassium is the third most likely nutrient element to limit plant. Potash plays a critical role in the regulation of plant physiological functions: It strengthens the cell walls, aids in water retention, improves disease resistance and boost nitrogen and phosphate absorption. Enhancing these functions results in improved plant quality and increased yields.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A field experiment was conducted at College Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand to find out the "Response of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on yield and quality of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) under middle Gujarat conditions" during rabi season of 2013-14. The experiment consist of eighteen treatment combination comprise of three nitrogen levels (15, 30 and 45 kg N [ha.sup.-1]), three phosphorus levels (0, 15 and 30 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) and two potassium levels (0 and 30 kg [K.sub.2]O [ha.sup.-1]). The field experiment was laid out in RBD (Factorial) with four replications.

The soil of experimental site was loamy sand in texture having good drainage capacity with pH 7.15. It was low in available nitrogen (242.50 kg [ha.sup.-1]), medium in available phosphorus (32.56 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and higher in available potash (284.20 kg [ha.sup.-1]). Nitrogen was given as per treatment in the form of urea. The full dose of phosphorus and potassium were applied in the form of SSP and MOP, respectively and half dose of nitrogen applied as a basal and remaining half was applied after one month of sowing as a top dressing. Full dose of P and K were applied at the time of sowing below the seed in furrows. The isabgol crop was sown at a spacing of 30 cm using the seed rate of 4 kg [ha.sup.-1]. The available nitrogen from soil was calculated by alkaline KMn[O.sub.4] method (Chopra and Kanwar, 1976) available phosphorous calculated by Olsen's method (Olsen et.al.,1954) and available potassium calculated by Flame photometric method (Jackson, 1973). Manual thining, weeding and hoeing were done at one month after sowing to provide an ideal environment to the crop. Light irrigation was given immediate after sowing ; however four to five irrigations were given as per requirement of crop. The values of "F" was worked out and compared with the value of table F at 5% level of significance. The values of S. Em [+ or -], C. D. and C. V. % were also calculated [Cochram and Cox (1967)].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of levels of Nitrogen

The results on seed and straw yields of isabgol (Table 1) indicated that the differences due to different nitrogen levels were found significant. An appraisal of data in Table 1 revealed that the seed and straw yields of isabgol displayed on increasing trend with increase in nitrogen levels from 15 to 45 kg N [ha.sup.-1]. Significantly the maximum seed (1243 Kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (6459 Kg [ha.sup.-1]) yields were registered under the treatment [N.sub.3] (45 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]). The increase in seed yield of isabgol under the treatments [N.sub.3] (45 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]) and [N.sub.2] (30 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]) were at the extent of 35.86% and 21.86%, respectively as compared to [N.sub.1] (15 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]). The increase in straw yield of isabgol under the treatments [N.sub.3] (45 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]) and [N.sub.2] (30 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]) were at the extent of 28.64% and 14.72%, respectively as compared to [N.sub.1] (15 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]). Significantly the lowest seed (915 Kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (5021 Kg [ha.sup.-1]) yields were found under the treatment N1 (15 Kg N [ha.sup.-1]). Yield of any crop plant depends on the source sink relationship and is the cumulative function of various growth parameter and yield attributing component of sink. The increase in seed and straw yields of isabgol due to different levels of nitrogen might be nitrogen is an essential constituent of plant tissue and involved in cell devision and cell elongation, its beneficial effect on growth and yield characters of plant. The positive role played by the nutrient on growth and metaboism of plants, which increased the accumulation of matter in plant. Other reason might be due to favourable influence of N on growth and yield attributes viz., number of tillers per plant, effective number of spikes per plant and length of spike which were important growth and yield attributes having significant positive correlation with the seed yield. As the grain yield is a product of yield attributing character, increase in their values resulted in increased seed and straw yields. The results are in conformity with the findings of Kumavat et al. (2002), Yadav et al. (2003), Wankhede et al. (2005) and Mir et al. (2007).

Effect of different nitrogen levels was found significant on the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of seed and straw of isabgol. Application of 45 kg N [ha.sup.-1] ([N.sub.3]) was recorded significantly the highest nitrogen content of seed (1.66%) and straw (1.77%), phosphorus content of seed (1.79%) and straw (1.71%) and potassium content of seed (1.70%) and straw (1.72%).

Data presented in Table-2 indicated that significantly the highest nitrogen uptake of seed (20.75 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (114.60 kg [ha.sup.-1]), phosphorus uptake of seed (22.31 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (110.63 kg [ha.sup.-1]) as well as potassium uptake of seed (21.12 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (111.53 kg [ha.sup.-1]) was noted in treatment [N.sub.3] (45 kg N [ha.sup.-1]).

Effect of levels of phosphorus

In Indian Agriculture, phosphorus is second in importance to nitrogen. Phosphorous is essential for growth and productivity of plants. It plays an important role in plants in many physiological activities such as cell division, photosynthesis and development of good root system and utilization of carbohydrate.

The results on seed and straw yields of isabgol (Table 1) indicated that the differences due to different phosphorus levels were found significant. It was apparently from the results that the seed and straw yields of isabgol displayed on increasing trend with the different phosphorus levels. The significantly maximum seed (1179 Kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (6062 Kg [ha.sup.-1]) yields were registered under the treatment [P.sub.3] (30 Kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]), however it was at par with treatment [P.sub.2] (15 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]). The lower seed (998 kg ha-1) and straw (5427 kg [ha.sup.-1]) yields were observed with treatment [P.sub.1] (control) which was at par with treatment [P.sub.2] (15 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) for straw yield. The increase in seed yield of isabgol under the treatments [P.sub.3] (30 Kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) and [P.sub.2] (15 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) were at the extent of 18.14 % and 9.82%, respectively as compared to [P.sub.1] (control). The increase in straw yield of isabgol under the treatments [P.sub.3] (30 Kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) and [P.sub.2] (15 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) were at the extent of 11.70% and 5.99 %, respectively as compared to [P.sub.1] (control). The increase in seed and straw yields of isabgol due to levels of phosphorus might be due to favourable influence of P on growth and yield attributes viz., number of tillers per plant, effective number of spikes per plant and length of spike. Which were important growth and yield attributes having significant positive correlation with the seed yields. The higher yields of isabgol seed and straw obtained by application of 30 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]. The results are conformity with the findings of Jadav et al. (2000) and Utgikar et al. (2003).

Perusal of data presented in Table-1 indicated that significantly the highest nitrogen content in seed (1.47%), phosphorus content in seed (1.70%) and straw (1.55%) and potassium content in straw (1.60%) was noted in treatment [P.sub.3] (30 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1]) over the rest of phosphorus levels.

Application of 30 kg [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] [ha.sup.-1] (P3) recorded significantly the highest nitrogen uptake of seed (17.75 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (98.89 kg [ha.sup.-1]), phosphorus uptake of seed (20.17 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (95.44 kg [ha.sup.-1]). Significantly higher potassium uptake of seed (19.23 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (97.93 kg [ha.sup.-1]) compared to other phosphorus levels. The highest nutrient uptake obtained by application of 45 kg N [ha.sup.-1] might be due to increase in nutrient content by isabgol crop and the results are conformity with the findings of Mann and Vyas (1999).

Effect of levels of potassium

The appraisal of mean data (Table-1) pertaining to the influence of different potassium levels on the seed and straw yields of isabgol indicated that there existed non-significant difference. However, maximum seed (1128 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and straw (5824 kg [ha.sup.-1]) yields of isabgol recorded at application of potassium at 30 kg [ha.sup.-1]. Response of potassium was found to be non-significant in case of nutrient content and uptake by seed and straw.

REFERENCES

(1.) Anonymous. Indian Economic survey. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Government of India, 2007; New Delhi.

(2.) Atal, C. K., Kapoor, K. K. and Siddique, M. M. Studies on Indian Seed Oils: Part-I, Indian Journal of Pharmacy., 1964; 26 : 163.

(3.) Chopra, S. L. and Kanwar, J. S. Analytical Agricultural Chemistry. Kalyani Publisher, 1967; New Delhi.

(4.) Choudhary T., Sharma S.K. and Yadav, B.K. Influence of FYM and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk). J. of Spices and Aromatic crops., 2014; 23(1): 130-136.

(5.) Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. Experimental Designs, John Willey And Sons. Inc. New York: 1967; 546-568.

(6.) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of Indian Pvt. Ltd., 1973; New Delhi.

(7.) Jadav C. N., Sukhadiya N. M. and Ramani B. B. The effect of sowing Dates, nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of Isabgol (Plantago Ovata Forsk.). GAU Research Journal., 2000; 25 (2) : 84-87.

(8.) Kumawat S. K., Gaur B. L. and Nepali V. Weed dynamics and NPK Uptakes by Blond psyllium (Plantago Ovata Forsk.) as influence by Sowing methods, Nitrogen and Weed management. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 2002; 34 (3 & 4): 254-258.

(9.) Mann, P. S. and Vyas, A. K. Effect of sowing dates and Nitrogen Levels on growth and nutrient uptake by Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.). Annals of Agricultural Research, 1999; 20(4): 517-518.

(10.) Marketa, H. Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis studies in isabgul (Plantago ovata Forsk) for yield and downy mildew resistance. M.Sc (Agri)., 2002; Thesis submitted to Gujarat Agricultural University, S.K. Nagar.

(11.) Mir N. A., Kar S. R., Khan F. U. and Shah J. A. Effect of sowing methods And nitrogen levels on the growth and yield potential of variety Niharika of Isabgol (Plantago Ovata Forsk). Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science, 2006; 29: 54-56.

(12.) V. B. Mor And J. J. Patel, A.N. Chaudhary, M.G. Chaudhari and R.F. Chaudhary (2014). Influence of Different Sources and Levels of Phosphorus and Bio fertilizer (PSB) on Yields, Quality, NPK Content and Economics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk). Trends in Biosciences, 2014; 7(22): 3750-3753.

(13.) Olsen, S.R., Cole, V.C., Watandble, F.S. and Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate., 1954 USDA cir. No. 939.

(14.) Utgikar S, Sadawarte K. T. and Wankhade S G. Growth and yield of isabgol (Plantago ovate, Forsk) as influenced by to Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels. Agricultural Science Digest, 2003; 23(1): 77-78.

(15.) Wankhede S. G., Khode P P, Wanjari S. S, Paturde J. T. and Kale, M. R. Response of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) to Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Agricultural Science Digest, 2005; 25(2): 121-123.

(16.) Yadav, R. D, Keshwa, G. L. and Yadav, S. S. Effect of integrated use of FYM, urea and sulphur on growth and yield of isabgol (Plantago ovate Forsk). Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science, 2003; 25: 668-671.

D.M. Patel *, H.K. Patel, C.K. Desai, S.A. Chauhan and R.B. Prajapati

B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.

(Received: 21 December 2015; accepted: 06 February 2016)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
Table 1. Effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium on yield and nutrients content of Isabgol

Treatment       Yield (kg        Nitrogen      Phosphorus
                [ha.sup.-1])    Content (%)    content(%)

                Seed   Straw   Seed   Straw   Seed   Straw

Nitrogen levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) (N)
[N.sup.1]- 15   915    5021    1.17   1.43    1.49   1.30
[N.sub.2]- 30   1115   5760    1.36   1.55    1.63   1.44
[N.sub.3]- 45   1243   6459    1.66   1.77    1.79   1.71
S. Em. +         31     139    0.02   0.03    0.01   0.02
C.D. (P=0.05)    89     395    0.06   0.08    0.04   0.06
Phosphorus levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) ([P.sub.2][O.sub.5])
[P.sub.1]- 0    998    5427    1.33   1.53    1.59   1.44
[P.sub.2]- 15   1096   5752    1.39   1.61    1.63   1.45
[P.sub.3]- 30   1179   6062    1.47   1.61    1.70   1.55
S. Em. +         31     139    0.02   0.03    0.01   0.02
C.D. (P=0.05)    89     395    0.06    NS     0.05   0.06
Potassium levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) ([K.sub.2]O)
[K.sub.1]- 0    1054   5669    1.37   1.58    1.63   1.46
[K.sub.2]- 30   1128   5824    1.42   1.59    1.64   1.50
S. Em. +         26     113    0.01   0.02    0.01   0.02
C.D. (P=0.05)    NS     NS      NS     NS      NS     NS
Interactions     NS     NS      NS     NS      NS     NS
C.V. %          14.1   11.85   7.36   8.20    5.21   6.99

Treatment         Potassium
                  content(%)

                Seed   Straw

Nitrogen levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) (N)
[N.sup.1]- 15   1.50   1.42
[N.sub.2]- 30   1.60   1.55
[N.sub.3]- 45   1.70   1.72
S. Em. +        0.03   0.02
C.D. (P=0.05)   0.08   0.05
Phosphorus levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) ([P.sub.2][O.sub.5])
[P.sub.1]- 0    1.57   1.51
[P.sub.2]- 15   1.61   1.58
[P.sub.3]- 30   1.62   1.60
S. Em. +        0.03   0.02
C.D. (P=0.05)    NS    0.05
Potassium levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) ([K.sub.2]O)
[K.sub.1]- 0    1.60   1.55
[K.sub.2]- 30   1.60   1.58
S. Em. +        0.02   0.01
C.D. (P=0.05)    NS     NS
Interactions     NS     NS
C.V. %          8.57   5.46

Table 2. Effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium on nutrients uptake of Isabgol

Treatment          Nitrogen           Phosphorus        Potassium
                     uptake            uptake             uptake
                (kg [ha.sup.-1])   (kg [ha.sup.-1])   (kg [ha.sup.-1])

                Seed    Straw      Seed    Straw      Seed    Straw

Nitrogen levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) (N)
[N.sup.1]- 15   10.71   71.85      13.67   65.58      13.71   71.65
[N.sub.2]- 30   15.22   89.92      18.23   83.26      17.85   89.27
[N.sub.3]- 45   20.75   114.60     22.31   110.63     21.12   111.53
S. Em. +        0.52     3.02      0.55     2.72      0.55     2.53
C.D. (P=0.05)   1.49     8.58      1.57     7.73      1.57     7.18
Phosphorus levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) ([P.sub.2][O.sub.5])
[P.sub.1]- 0    13.47   83.92      16.01   78.97      15.79   82.54
[P.sub.2]- 15   15.45   93.57      18.03   85.05      17.66   91.98
[P.sub.3]- 30   17.75   98.89      20.17   95.44      19.23   97.93
S. Em. +        0.52     3.02      0.55     2.72      0.55     2.53
C.D. (P=0.05)   1.49     8.58      1.57     7.73      1.57     7.18
Potassium levels (kg [ha.sup.-1]) ([K.sub.2]O)
[K.sub.1]- 0    14.75   90.60      17.35   84.14      16.94   88.96
[K.sub.2]- 30   16.37   93.65      18.79   88.84      18.18   92.67
S. Em. +        0.74     2.46      0.45     2.22      0.45     2.06
C.D. (P=0.05)    NS       NS        NS       NS        NS       NS
Interactions     NS       NS        NS       NS        NS       NS
C.V. %          16.53   16.05      14.96   15.42      15.46   13.64
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Author:Patel, D.M.; Patel, H.K.; Desai, C.K.; Chauhan, S.A.; Prajapati, R.B.
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Sep 1, 2016
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