Printer Friendly

Effect of dietary fiber level on the performance and carcass traits of Mong Cai, F1 crossbred (Mong CaixYorkshire) and LandracexYorkshire Pigs.

ABSTRACT : The effects of feeding diets containing 20% (L) or 30% (H) neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (DM basis) on performance and carcass traits were studied in three breeds of pig, including pure Mong Cai (MC), crossbred LandracexYorkshire (LY) and crossbred MCxYorkshire (F1). The experiment had a factorial design with two factors, breed and diet. Eighteen piglets of each breed (60 [+ or -] 3 days) were randomly allocated to three treatments: L-L, low fiber diet in both growing and finishing periods; L-H, low and high fiber diet in the growing and finishing period, respectively; and H-H, high fiber diet in both periods. The diets were iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous within feeding period. The main fibrous ingredients of the diets were rice bran and cassava residue. There were no effects of fiber level on daily dry matter feed intake (DMI), expressed as g/kg metabolic body weight ([BW.sup.0.75]), in both feeding periods (p>0.05). DMI was highest for MC, followed by F1 and LY (p<0.001). Average daily gain (ADG) in L-L and L-H was higher than in H-H in the growing period (p<0.001) and overall (p<0.05), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in H-H than in L-L and L-H in the growing period (p<0.05) and overall, but no significant differences between treatments were found in the finishing period. In both periods, LandracexYorkshire had the highest ADG and the lowest FCR, followed by F1 and Mong Cai (p<0.001). There were no interactions between breed and diet for performance and carcass traits. Carcass and dressing percentage was lower for L-H and H-H than for L-L (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among treatments in back fat thickness and lean meat percentage, or in crude protein and ether extract contents of lean meat. Carcass, dressing and lean meat percentage was highest for LY, lowest for MC and intermediate for F1 (p<0.001). It can be concluded that feeding a high fiber diet in the growing period reduced pig performance, but there was no effect in the finishing period. Pure Mong Cai pigs are not particularly suitable for meat purposes, although the F1 cross with Large White had reasonably good growth performance and carcass quality. (Key Words : Carcass Traits, Fiber, Growth Performance, Mong Cai Pigs)


Between 2000 and 2004, the pig population in Vietnam increased by 7.4% annually (FAO, 2004). It is estimated that around 80% of the total pig population of 26 million is found in rural areas and most are raised in small-scale, semi-intensive and extensive systems (Lapar et al., 2003). It is important with respect to the economic efficiency and sustainability of these smallholder systems to utilize locally available feeds, such as rice bran, cassava residue, and sweet potato vines (Rodriguez and Preston, 1997), which are cheap, but usually contain high levels of dietary fiber.

Feeding fibrous diets results in a number of advantages, such as improved well-being of animals, improvement of gut transit time and reduction of stomach ulcers (Low, 1993). However, when included in monogastric diets their high fiber content results in decreased diet digestibility (Nongyao et al., 1991; Wang et al., 2006) and dilution of dietary nutrients (Schulze et al., 1994; Noblet and Le Goff, 2001).

Several reports have indicated that indigenous pig breeds can utilize fiber better than exotic breeds (Fevrier et al., 1992; Kanengoni et al., 2002; Ndindana et al., 2002), especially with diets that are very high in fiber. However, Ly et al. (1998) were unable to detect any difference in the ability of indigenous Cuban pigs to digest very high fiber diets compared with an improved breed, and Morales et al. (2002) found that indigenous Iberian pigs had lower digestibility of carbohydrates compared with Landrace pigs when fed the same diet. In Vietnam, the indigenous Mong Cai breed is considered to be very tolerant of poor quality diets (Rodriguez and Preston, 1996) and able to digest the fibrous components better than improved breeds (Borin et al., 2005). However, there is little information available concerning the ability of indigenous growing pigs and their crosses of different ages to utilise extremely high fiber diets. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass quality of three breeds of pig (local, exotic and F1 crosses between them) when fed diets with low and high fiber contents in the growing and finishing periods.


The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hanoi, between October 2004 and January 2005. The mean daily temperature ranged from 25[degrees]C in October to 16[degrees]C in January.

Animals and housing

A total of 54 piglets of three breeds : Mong Cai, LandracexYorkshire and F1 crosses between Mong Cai and Yorkshire at an age of 60 [+ or -] 3 days was used in the study. The mean initial live body weight was 11.0, 14.0 and 21.0 kg for Mong Cai, F1 and LandracexYorkshire, respectively. For each breed, 9 castrated males and 9 females were randomly allocated to the three treatments, and were housed in individual 1.5x0.5 m pens, each with a feeder and an automatic nipple drinker. Within breed, the pigs were selected from three litters from the same farm. All pigs were allowed a 7 day period for adaptation and were vaccinated against pasteurellosis and hog cholera before data collection started.

Experimental design and dietary treatments

The study was conducted according to a completely randomized design with two factors (three breeds and three dietary treatments), and data were collected in the growing (60-120 days) and finishing (120-170 days) periods. The treatments were: L-L, a low fiber diet fed in both growing and finishing periods; L-H, low and high fiber diets fed in the growing and finishing period, respectively; and H-H, a high fiber diet in both periods. The chemical composition of the main feed ingredients (maize meal, soybean meal, fish meal, cassava residue meal and rice bran) is shown in Table 1. The diets were iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous within feeding period, and the proportions of the main fiber sources, cassava residue and rice bran, were adjusted to give concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of 20 or 30% (of DM) in the low and high fiber diets, respectively (Table 2).

Before the experiment started, samples of the main feed ingredients were taken for analysis of chemical composition. Metabolisable energy (ME) and amino acid values of the feed ingredients were obtained from "Chemical Composition of Animal Feeds in Vietnam" (Chinh et al., 2001). The diets were mixed and pelleted (4-5 mm) every two weeks and stored in airtight plastic bags before feeding.

Feeding and data collection

Pigs in all treatments were fed ad libitum throughout the study. Each morning, the offered and refused feed was weighed and recorded. The pigs were weighed in the morning after fasting for 12 h at the beginning and at the end of each experimental period. At the end of the experiment, four representative pigs of each breed in each treatment (2 males and 2 females) were slaughtered for measurement of carcass traits, and samples were taken for analysis of the chemical composition of the loin lean meat. The pigs were killed by exsanguination after 12 h of feed withdrawal. The hot carcass weight was the weight after slaughter, but excluding blood, hair, visceral organs and gastrointestinal tract. Dressed weight was the hot carcass weight minus head, lower legs, tail and leaf fat. Lean meat was separated from visible fat, skin and bone of the dressed carcass, and the loin lean was sampled for analysis of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE). Back fat thickness was measured at the 10th rib.

Chemical analysis

All feed samples were analysed for DM, CP, crude fiber (CF), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) by standard methods (AOAC, 1990). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was analysed by the method of Goering and Van Soest (1991). Loin lean meat samples were analysed for CP and EE.

Statistical analysis

The data were analysed using ANOVA in MINTAB software version 13.0. Breed, treatment, sex and breed by treatment interactions were considered as main effects. However, as breed by treatment interactions were non-significant they were removed from the model. Effects of sex were not significant and are not shown in the tables, except with respect to some carcass parameters, which are shown in Table 5.


Feed intake

The effects of diet and breed on feed and nutrient intake are shown in Table 3. In the growing period, the pigs in treatments L-L and L-H were fed the same low fiber diet, and the pigs in treatment H-H were given the high fiber diet, but as calculated metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) concentrations in the two diets were identical there were no differences in DM, CP and ME intakes among treatments (p>0.05). Also, in the finishing period and overall, there were no differences in DM and nutrient intakes among treatments (p>0.05). Overall, the pigs in treatment H-H had the highest NDF intake, followed by LH and L-L (p<0.001). The effect of dietary fiber concentration on feed intake is very variable and related to such factors as the age of the pig, botanical origin of the fibre, processing method and chemical composition of the diet (Low, 1993). However, if growing pigs are fed adlibitum, dietary energy concentration is the main factor controlling feed intake (Chiba et al., 1991), and differences in fiber content should not affect DM intake provided that the feed bulk and palatability are acceptable (Coffey et al., 1982). This was confirmed in the present study, where the diets were iso-energetic, palatable and the bulk volume of the H feed was only 1.1 times that of the L feed, which was obviously not enough to limit DM intake. For example Ndindana et al. (2002) and Len et al. (2007) did not find any effect of diets with different concentrations of NDF on feed intake in both indigenous and exotic growing pigs, as the diets were iso-energetic. Jorgensen et al. (1996) and Freire et al. (2000) also found no differences in ME intake between low and high fiber diets for young piglets and growing pigs. The numerically higher DM intake in the finishing period than in the growing period confirmed that the pig's ability to consume fibrous feeds improves with age. Low (1993) summarized the results of some previous studies and also concluded that intakes of high fiber diets in the finishing phase were consistently higher than in the growing phase. There was no difference in DM intake between the sexes in the growing period and overall, but the castrated males had higher feed intake than the gilts in the finishing period (p<0.05).

Among the three breeds, Mong Cai had the highest DM and nutrient intake (expressed as g/kg [BW.sup.0.75]), followed by F1 and LandracexYorkshire (p<0.001). Overall, DMI of the Mong Cai was 5.3% higher than of the F1 and 15.5% higher than of the LandracexYorkshire pigs, probably as a result of the higher energy requirement of the Mong Cai, which is an obese breed, whereas the LandracexYorkshire has been selected for lean, and thus probably indirectly selected for a reduced appetite. According to Webb (1989) within breed, the genetic correlation of feed intake is positive with growth rate, and negative with lean meat. Renaudeau et al. (2005a) also found that an indigenous pig (Creole) had higher daily feed intake than the Large White when expressed as g/kg BW0.75, and similar results were found by Freire et al. (1998), Freire et al. (2000) and Len et al. (2007).

Pig performance

The effects of dietary fiber level and breed on pig performance are shown in Table 4. The results indicate that for growing animals (60-120 days) the effect of a high fiber level in the diet on growth rate was greater than for finishing pigs (120-170 days). During the growing phase, the pigs in treatment L-L and L-H were given the same diet, with a lower fiber content than those in treatment H-H, and therefore as expected, average daily weight gain (ADG) of the pigs given diet L was not different, but was significantly higher than for the H pigs (p<0.001). Although the H and L diets were iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous, nutrient digestibility in the H diet in the growing period was shown in an earlier study by Len et al. (2006) to be lower than in the L diet. Other studies have confirmed the negative effect of high levels of dietary fiber on nutrient digestibility. For example, Nongyao et al. (1991) and Wang et al. (2006) reported decreased apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of amino acids as a result of including fibrous feedstuffs in diets for growing pigs, and Wang et al. (2004) found that supplementation of diets for growing pigs with wheat bran and sugar beet pulp reduced fecal digestibility of energy.

In the finishing period, however, there were no differences in pig performance between treatments (p>0.05). The probable explanation for this is that as pigs grow, their digestive tract bacterial profile becomes more stable, especially the hind-gut bacteria (Varel et al., 1982), and also the capacity of the hindgut increases in response to fibrous diets (Bach Knudsen and Jorgensen, 2001). Previous studies have confirmed that the ability of pigs to digest and utilize fibre in the diet is proportional to their age and live body weight (Fernandez et al., 1986; Shi and Noblet, 1993; Reverter et al., 1999; Le Goff et al., 2003). However, Jorgensen et al. (1996) found that animals given a high fiber diet in fact had higher daily live weight gain compared with pigs on a low fiber diet. Their explanation for this was that on fibrous diets the weight and size of the visceral organs and gastrointestinal tract increase, as does the weight of gut-fill, mainly as a result of the higher water-holding capacity of fiber (Zhao et al., 1996; Qin et al., 2002). Therefore a more accurate measure of performance in pigs given diets with different levels of fiber is average daily carcass gain (ADCG), and this was calculated in the present study by assuming that carcass percentage of live body weight at beginning of the trial was 69% (Batterham et al., 1986), and by using actual carcass percentage values at slaughter (Table 5). The results in Table 4 show that the overall ADG of pigs in treatments L-H and H-H was only 1% and 7.5% lower than in treatment L-L (p<0.01), but ADCG was 2.5% and 9.5% lower, respectively, in treatments L-H and H-H compared to treatment L-L (p<0.001). During both growing and finishing periods, the ADG and ADCG of the castrated males and gilts were not different (p>0.05).

The effect of genotype on growth rate in both feeding periods was very clear (p<0.001). The Mong Cai had 29.5% and 40.6% lower ADG, and 30.6% and 44.9% lower ADCG compared with F1 and LandracexYorkshire, respectively. The explanation for these differences is the considerably lower genetic growth potential, and possibly also the greater weight of the digestive tract of Mong Cai compared with F1 and LandracexYorkshire.

The effects of diet on feed conversion efficiency are also shown in Table 4. In the growing period, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was not different between pigs in treatment L-L and treatment L-H, but was significantly better than that of pigs in treatment H-H (p<0.05). There were no treatment effects on DMI, and so the poorer FCR was entirely a result of the lower ADG of the H-H pigs. As DMI and ADG in the finishing phase were similar among treatments no differences were found for FCR.

Feed conversion efficiency of LandracexYorkshire was better than that of F1 and Mong Cai, mainly as a result of its lower feed intake and higher growth rate. There would also have been an additional effect of carcass composition, as the LandracexYorkshire pigs used were from a lean meat line, and had a lower carcass fat percentage than the F1 and Mong Cai. The poorer feed conversion of the Mong Cai in the present study is in agreement with Fevrier et al. (1992), who found that in a paired feeding trial, the Chinese Meishan, an indigenous breed with a fatty carcass, grew more slowly and had and higher back fat thickness than LandracexYorkshire, resulting in a poorer FCR. The feed energy cost of fatty tissue growth is more than three times that of lean tissue growth, mainly on account of the different water content of these tissues (Whittemore, 2003).

Carcass traits and chemical composition of lean meat

It is clear from the data shown in Table 5 that the high-fiber diet negatively affected hot carcass and dressing percentage, and pigs in treatment H-H had carcass and dressing percentages that were about 2 percentage units lower than of pigs in treatments L-L and L-H (p<0.05). This was probably due to the increased weight of visceral organs and gastrointestinal tract and digesta, also found in other studies where pigs were given high-fiber diets (Jorgensen et al., 1996; Zhao et al., 1996; Qin et al., 2002). However, there were no effects of dietary treatment on other carcass traits or on the chemical composition of lean (p>0.05). The results in our study are in agreement with Partanen et al. (2002) and Fevrier et al. (1992), who also found that carcass characteristics (back fat thickness and carcass lean) were not affected by fibre level in the diet.

Carcass, dressing and lean meat percentages were highest in LandracexYorkshire, followed by F1 and Mong Cai (p<0.001), while back fat thickness and EE content in lean meat were lowest in LandracexYorkshire and highest for Mong Cai, with F1 being intermediate (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in CP content in loin lean meat between three breeds (p>0.05). The differences in carcass traits between breeds found in the current study can be mainly accounted for by differences in the genetic potential for lean meat of the three breed types. Affentranger et al. (1996) confirmed that for growing-fattening pigs, meat quality is mainly determined by genotype, and the indigenous pigs of China and SE Asia usually have a higher carcass fat percentage than exotic pigs. In the present experiment, Mong Cai and F1 had lower dressing percentage and higher lean percentage than found in previous studies carried out in Vietnam (Thien et al., 1995; Van et al., 2000; Vuong et al., 2000), probably due to the lower body weight of Mong Cai and F1 at slaughter in the present experiment compared to the previous studies. In the current study, the castrated males had thicker back fat than the gilts (p<0.001) and somewhat higher fat content in lean meat. According to Renaudeau et al. (2005b) castrated males are fatter than females as a result of a higher lipogenic ability.

It can be concluded from the results of this study that in the growing period, high fiber diets should not be fed to LandracexYorkshire pigs, but can be fed to all the three breed types examined in the finishing period without any negative effects on growth performance or carcass traits. Although the Mong Cai and F1 pigs were clearly inferior with respect to performance and carcass traits, the F1 had reasonable performance and carcass quality on the high-fiber diet. As the F1 cross between Mong Cai and Landrace xYorkshire is well adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of the rural areas of Vietnam, and its meat fetches a higher price than that of exotics, it can be recommended to small farmers whose main source of feed is generally fibrous, locally available crop- and agro-industrial by-products.


The authors would like to thank Sida-SAREC (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency-Department for Research Cooperation), through the regional MEKARN program, for financial support, and researchers in the Department of Animal Nutrition and Feeds of the National Institute of Animal Husbandry in Hanoi for assistance in carrying out the study.

Received October 11, 2006; Accepted April 3, 2007


Affentranger, P., C. Gerwig, G. J. F. Seewer, D. Schworer and N. Kunzi. 1996. Growth and carcass characteristics as well as meat and fat quality of three types of pigs under different feeding regimens. Livest. Prod. Sci. 45:187-196.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.

Bach Knudsen, K. E. and H. Jorgensen. 2001. Intestinal degradation of dietary carbohydrates--from birth to maturity. In Digestive Physiology of Pigs (Ed. J. E. Lindberg and B. Ogle). CABI Publishing, New York. pp. 109-120.

Batterham, E. S., L. M. Andersen, B. V. Burnham and G. A. Taylor. 1986. Effect of heat on the nutritional value of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius)-seed meal for growing pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 55:169177.

Borin, K., J. E. Lindberg and R. B. Ogle. 2005. Effect of variety and preservation method of cassava leaves on diet digestibility by indigenous and improved pigs. Anim. Sci. 80:319-324.

Chiba, L. I., A. J. Lewis and E. R. Peo. 1991. Amino acids and energy interrelationships in pigs weighing 20 to 50 kilograms: 1. Rate and efficiency of weight gain. J. Anim. Sci. 69:694-707.

Chinh, B. V., B. T. Oanh, N. N. Ha, T. Q. Viet, D. T. Khang and N. T. Tinh. 2001. Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Animal Feeds in Vietnam. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi.

Coffey, M. T., R. W. Seerley, D. W. Funderburke and H. C. Campbell. 1982. Effects of heat increment and level of dietary energy and environmental temperature on the performance of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 54:95-102.

FAO. 2004. Statistics.

Fernandez, J. A., H. Jorgensen and A. Just. 1986. Comparative digestibility experiments with growing pigs and adult sows. Anim. Prod. 43:127-132.

Fevrier, C., D. Bourdon and A. Aumaitre. 1992. Effects of level of dietary fibre from wheat bran on digestibility of nutrients, digestive enzymes and performance in the European Large White and Chinese Meishan pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 68:60-72.

Freire, J. P. B., A. J. G. Guerreiro, L. F. Cunha and A. Aumaitre. 2000. Effect of dietary fibre source on total tract digestibility, caecum volatile fatty acids and digestive transit time in the weaned piglet. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 87:71-83.

Freire, J. P. B., J. Peiniau, L. F. Cunha, J. A. A. Almeida and A. Aumaitre. 1998. Comparative effects of dietary fat and fibre in Alentejano and Large White piglets: Digestibility, digestive enzymes and metabolic data. Livest. Prod. Sci. 53:37-47.

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1991. Forage fibre analysis (apparatus, reagents and some applications). USDA Agric. Handbook. National Academic Press, Washington, DC. 379:119.

Jorgensen, H., X. Zhao, B. O. Eggum and X. Q. Zhao. 1996. The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 75:365-378.

Kanengoni, A. T., K. Dzama, M. Chimonyo, J. Kusina and S. M. Maswaure. 2002. Influence of level of maize cob meal on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Large White, Mukota and LWxM F1 crossbred pigs. Anim. Sci. 74:127-134.

Lapar, M. L., V. T. Binh and S. Ehui. 2003. Identifying barriers to entry to livestock input and output markets in Southeast Asia. rts/lsr_VNM.pdf

Le Goff, G., J. Noblet and C. Cherbut. 2003. Intrinsic ability of the faecal microbial flora to ferment dietary fibre at different growth stages of pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 81:75-87.

Len, N. T., J. E. Lindberg and B. Ogle. 2007. Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fiber in local (Mong Cai), F1 (Mong CaixYorkshire) and exotic (LandracexYorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam. J. Anim Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (In press).

Low, A. G. 1993. Role of dietary fiber in pig feeds. In Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition 2. Cole, D.J.A., Haresign, W. and Garnsworthy, P.C. Nottingham. UK. 137-162.

Ly, J., F. J. Dieguez, R. M. Martinez and A. Garcia. 1998. Digestion of a diet very high in fibre in Cuban Creole pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:397-402.

Morales, J., J. F. Perez, S. M. Martin-Orue, M. Fondevila and J. Gasa. 2002. Large bowel fermentation of maize or sorghumacorn diets fed as a different source of carbohydrates to Landrace and Iberian pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 88:489-498.

Ndindana, W., K. Dzama, P. N. B. Ndiweni, S. M. Maswaure and M. Chimonyo. 2002. Digestibility of high fibre diets and performance of growing Zimbabwean indigenous Mukota pigs and exotic Large White pigs fed maize based diets with graded levels of maize cobs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 97:199-208.

Noblet, J. and G. Le Goff. 2001. Effect of dietary fibre on the energy value of feeds for pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 90:35-52.

Nongyao, A., In K. Han and Yun J. Choi. 1991. Amino acids digestibility in pigs of various fiber sources: 1. Apparent digestibility of amino acids in ileal digesta and feces. AsianAust. J. Anim. Sci. 4(2):169-175.

Partanen, K., T. Jalava, J. Valaja, S. Perttila, H. Siljander-Rasi and H. Lindeberg. 2001. Effect of dietary carbadox or formic acid and fibre level on ileal and faecal nutrient digestibility and microbial metabolite concentrations in ileal digesta of the pig. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 93:137-155.

Qin, G. X., L. M. Xu, H. L. Jiang, A. F. B. van der Poel, M. W. Bosch and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2002. The effects of Chinese and Argentine soyabeans on nutrient digestibility and organ morphology in Landrace and Chinese Min pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:555-564.

Renaudeau, D., F. Siloux, M. Giorgi and J. L. Weisbecker. 2005a. A comparison of growth performance and feeding behaviour in Creole and Large White pigs: Preliminary results. Arch. Zootec. 54:471-476.

Renaudeau, D., M. Hilaire and J. Mourot. 2005b. A comparison of carcass and meat quality characteristics of Creole and Large White pigs slaughtered at 150 days of age. Anim. Res. 54:4354.

Reverter, M., T. Lundh and J. E. Lindberg. 1999. Ileal amino acid digestibility in pigs of barley-based diets with inclusion of lucerne (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Br. J. Nutr. 82:139-147.

Rodriguez, L. and T. R. Preston. 1997. Local feed resources and indigenous breeds: fundamental issues in integrated farming systems. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 9,

Rodriguez, L. and T. R. Preston. 1996. Comparative parameters of digestion and N metabolism in Mongcai and MongcaixLarge white cross piglets having free access to sugar cane juice and duck weed. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 8 (1),

Schulze, H., P. van Leeuwen, M. W. Verstegen, J. Huisman, W. B. Souffrant and F. Ahrens. 1994. Effect of level of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal apparent digestibility and ileal nitrogen losses in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2362-2368.

Shi, X. S. and J. Noblet. 1993. Contribution of the hindgut to digestion of diets in growing pigs and adult sows: Effect of diet composition. Livest. Prod. Sci. 34:237-252.

Thien, N., P. T. Van, N. K. Quac and P. N. Le. 1995. Results of study of cross between exotic and indigenous pigs in Vietnam. Proceeding of Animal Science Workshop. National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hanoi, Vietnam. 13-21 (in Vietnamese).

Van, P. T., H. T. H. Tra, L.T. K. Ngoc and T. H. Dung. 2000. Meat productivity of crosses between Landrace and Yorkshire and between Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc, and effects of two feeding regimes. Proceeding of Animal Science Workshop. National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hanoi, Vietnam. 211215 (in Vietnamese).

Varel, V. H., W. G. Pond, J. C. Pekas and J. T. Yen. 1982. Influence of high-fiber diet on bacterial populations in gastrointestinal tracts of obese--and lean-genotype pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:107-112.

Vuong, N. V. 2000. Productivity of hybrids between Yorkshire, Landrace and Mongcai pigs in Thainguyen province. Doctoral thesis. 110-115 (in Vietnamese).

Wang, J. F., Y. H. Zhu, D. F. Li, H. J. Jorgensen and B. B. Jensen. 2004. The influence of different fiber and starch types on nutrient balance and energy metabolism in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(2):263-270.

Wang, J. F., M. Wang, D. G. Lin, B. B. Jensen and Y. H. Zhu. 2006. The effect of source of dietary fiber and starch on ileal and fecal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(7):1040-1046.

Webb, A. J. 1989. Genetics of food intake in the pig. In: The Voluntary Food Intake of Pigs (Ed. P. B. Lynch, J. M. Forbes, M. A. Varley and T. L. J. Lawrence). 13:41-50.

Whittemore, C. T. 2003. The Science and Practice of Pig Production. Blackwell Science, Ltd., Oxford, UK. 54-55.

Zhao, X., H. Jorgensen, V. M. Gabert, B. O. Eggum and X. Q. Zhao. 1996. Effect of environmental temperature on digestive tract, visceral organ size, digestibility and energy metabolism in rats fed different levels of pea fibre. Acta Agric.Scand. 46:183-192.

Ninh Thi Len (1), Jan Erik Lindberg (2) and Brian Ogle (2), *

(1) Department of Animal Nutrition, National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Thuy Phuong-Tu Liem, Hanoi, Vietnam

* Corresponding Author: Brian Ogle. Tel: +46-18-672061, Fax: +46-18-672995, E-mail:

(2) Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
Table 1. Chemical composition (% of DM) and metabolisable energy (ME)
content of feed ingredients

Parameter Maize Soybean meal Rice bran

Analysed values
 Dry matter 91.2 90.5 90.2
 Crude protein 8.7 46.0 10.5
 Crude fibre 4.6 3.5 17.5
 Neutral detergent fiber 13.5 18.6 46.4
 Calcium 0.14 0.35 0.21
 Phosphorus 0.27 0.55 1.12
Calculated values *
 Lysine 0.25 2.70 0.45
 Methionine+cystine 0.33 1.19 0.51
 Threonine 0.29 1.72 0.44
 Tryptophan 0.09 0.62 0.14
 ME (MJ/kg DM) 13.6 13.8 9.6

Parameter Fish meal Cassava residue

Analysed values
 Dry matter 90.6 91.2
 Crude protein 50.0 1.8
 Crude fibre 1.30 16.3
 Neutral detergent fiber 2.40 45.6
 Calcium 5.10 0.11
 Phosphorus 2.60 0.20
Calculated values *
 Lysine 2.80 --
 Methionine+cystine 1.38 --
 Threonine 1.78 --
 Tryptophan -- --
 ME (MJ/kg DM) 11.1 96.2

* Vietnamese Feed Tables (Chinh et al., 2001).

Table 2. Ingredient and chemical composition of the experimental
diets (%of DM)

 Growing period
 Low fiber (L) High fiber (H)

Maize meal 50.16 9.04
Soybean meal 19.5 23.0
Rice bran 10.0 26.0
Fish meal 5.0 5.0
Cassava residue meal 10.0 26.0
Soya oil 3.0 9.0
Di-calcium phosphate 0.60 0.30
Limestone 1.00 1.00
Mineral-vitamin premix 0.25 0.25
Lysine 0.14 0.06
DL-methionine 0.05 0.05
Salt (NaCl) 0.30 0.30
Nutritive value
 ME (MJ/kg DM) ** 13.0 13.0
 Crude protein * 17.1 17.1
 Crude fiber * 6.4 10.1
 Neutral detergent fiber * 19.7 29.5
 Calcium * 0.87 0.80
 Phosphorus * 0.61 0.68
 Lysine ** 0.96 0.95
 Methionine+cystine ** 0.56 0.55
 Threonine ** 0.61 0.63
 Tryptophan ** 0.18 0.19

 Finishing period
 Low fiber (L) High fiber (H)

Maize meal 58.1 19.8
Soybean meal 16.0 19.0
Rice bran 10.0 25.0
Fish meal 3.0 3.0
Cassava residue meal 10.0 25.0
Soya oil 0.50 6.00
Di-calcium phosphate 1.10 0.50
Limestone 0.70 1.15
Mineral-vitamin premix 0.25 0.25
Lysine 0.05 0.00
DL-methionine 0.00 0.00
Salt (NaCl) 0.30 0.30
Nutritive value
 ME (MJ/kg DM) ** 12.5 12.5
 Crude protein * 15.1 15.0
 Crude fiber * 6.6 10.1
 Neutral detergent fiber * 20.1 29.3
 Calcium * 0.81 0.79
 Phosphorus * 0.65 0.65
 Lysine ** 0.75 0.76
 Methionine+cystine ** 0.48 0.46
 Threonine ** 0.54 0.55
 Tryptophan ** 0.17 0.17

* Analysed; ** Calculated from vietnamese feed tables
(Chinh et al., 2001).

Table 3. Effects of fibre level in the diet and breed on average
daily feed and nutrient intake (g/kg [BW.sup.0.75]/day *)

 Treatment (T)
 L-L L-H H-H
Growing period
 DMI 111 111 112
 NDFI 22 (a) 22 (a) 34 (b)
Finishing period
 DMI 110 114 114
 NDFI 22 (a) 34 (b) 34 (b)
 DMI 111 112 113
 NDFI 22 (a) 28 (b) 34 (c)

 Breed (B)
Growing period
 DMI 119 (a) 112 (b) 102 (c)
 NDFI 28 (a) 26 (b) 24 (c)
Finishing period
 DMI 119 (a) 115 (a) 105 (b)
 NDFI 32 (a) 31 (a) 28 (b)
 DMI 119 (a) 113 (b) 103 (c)
 NDFI 30 (a) 28 (b) 26 (c)

 p value

Parameter SEM
 T B
Growing period
 DMI 2.8 0.925 0.001
 NDFI 0.7 0.001 0.001
Finishing period
 DMI 2.7 0.214 0.001
 NDFI 0.4 0.001 0.001
 DMI 1.1 0.467 0.001
 NDFI 0.6 0.001 0.001

(a, b, c) Means within a row and factor with different superscripts
are significantly different (p<0.05). * [BW.sup.0.75] = [((initial
body weight+final body weight)/2).sup.0.75]

Table 4. Effect of fiber level in the diet and breed on body weight
changes (kg), average daily gain (kg/day) and feed conversion (kg
feed/kg gain) of growing-finishing pigs

 Treatment (T)
 L-L L-H H-H

Growing period
 IBW 15.5 15.3 15.4
 FBW 47.9 (a) 47.3 (a) 44.4 (b)
 ADG 0.540 (a) 0.536 (a) 0.484 (b)
 FCR 2.69 (a) 2.70 (a) 2.91 (b)
Finishing period
 IBW 47.9 (a) 47.3 (a) 44.4 (b)
 FBW 81.2 (a) 80.3 (a) 76.5 (b)
 ADG 0.667 0.659 0.641
 FCR 3.71 3.85 3.8
 ADG * 0.597 (a) 0.591 (a) 0.555 (b)
 ADCG ** 0.490 (a) 0.479 (a) 0.443 (b)
 FCR *** 3.21 (a) 3.28 (ab) 3.38 (b)

 Breed (B)

Growing period
 IBW 11.3 13.7 21.1
 FBW 33.7 (a) 45.2 (b) 60.7 (c)
 ADG 0.374 (a) 0.525 (b) 0.659 (c)
 FCR 3.30 (a) 2.70 (b) 2.51 (c)
Finishing period
 IBW 33.7 (a) 45.2 (b) 60.7 (c)
 FBW 58.0 (a) 80.1 (b) 99.9 (c)
 ADG 0.485 (a) 0.697 (b) 0.785 (c)
 FCR 4.32 (a) 3.66 (b) 3.57 (b)
 ADG * 0.425 (a) 0.603 (b) 0.716 (c)
 ADCG ** 0.332 (a) 0.479 (b) 0.602 (c)
 FCR *** 3.83 (a) 3.20 (b) 3.04 (c)

 p value
Parameter SEM
 T B

Growing period
 IBW 0.3 0.575 0.001
 FBW 0.6 0.001 0.001
 ADG 0.1 0.001 0.001
 FCR 0.1 0.012 0.001
Finishing period
 IBW 0.6 0.001 0.001
 FBW 1.3 0.002 0.001
 ADG 0.1 0.389 0.001
 FCR 0.2 0.499 0.001
 ADG * 0.1 0.002 0.001
 ADCG ** 0.1 0.001 0.001
 FCR *** 0.1 0.024 0.001

(a, b, c) Means within a row and factor with different superscripts
are significantly different (p<0.05). IBW, FBW: Initial and final
body weight, respectively. * ADG: Average daily gain. ** ADCG:
Average daily carcass gain.

** ADCG = (BW end finishing period x carcass percentage) - (initial
BW x 0.69)/110

*** FCR: Feed conversion ratio = kg feed/kg gain.

Table 5. Effects of fiber level in the diet, breed and sex on carcass
traits and chemical composition of lean meat

 Treatment (T)
 L-L L-H H-H

Body weight (kg) 80.9 80.1 80.5
Hot carcass (%) 79.6 (a) 78.6 (ab) 77.3 (b)
Dressing (%) 71.5 (a) 70.8 (ab) 69.3 (b)
Back fat (cm) 2.3 2.4 2.4
Lean (%) 51.2 51.5 50.8
CP in lean meat (%) 22.4 22.1 22.2
EE in lean meat (%) 1.7 1.7 1.7

 Breed (B)

Body weight (kg) 58.6 82.3 101.0
Hot carcass (%) 76.3 (a) 77.8 (ab) 81.5 (b)
Dressing (%) 66.8 (a) 70.1 (b) 74.8 (c)
Back fat (cm) 2.87 (a) 2.33 (b) 1.90 (c)
Lean (%) 41.7 (a) 50.8 (b) 61.1 (c)
CP in lean meat (%) 22.1 22.2 22.4
EE in lean meat (%) 1.76 (a) 1.69 (b) 1.60 (c)

 Sex (S) p value
Parameter SEM
 M F T B S

Body weight (kg) 80.5 80.4 0.6 0.62 0.001 0.966
Hot carcass (%) 78.5 78.4 0.5 0.03 0.001 0.846
Dressing (%) 70.6 70.4 0.5 0.03 0.001 0.962
Back fat (cm) 2.60 (a) 2.13 (b) 0.1 0.30 0.001 0.001
Lean (%) 50.7 52.4 1.3 0.63 0.001 0.068
CP in lean meat (%) 22.4 22.2 0.7 0.42 0.280 0.601
EE in lean meat (%) 1.7 1.7 0.1 0.35 0.001 0.090

(a, b, c) Means within a row and factor with different superscripts
are significantly different (p<0.05).
COPYRIGHT 2008 Asian - Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Len,Ninh Thi; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Ogle, Brian
Publication:Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9VIET
Date:Feb 1, 2008
Previous Article:The modulating effect of [beta]-1, 3/1, 6-glucan supplementation in the diet on performance and immunological responses of broiler chickens *.
Next Article:Effects of organic acids on growth performance, gastrointestinal pH, intestinal microbial populations and immune responses of weaned pigs.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters