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Effect of denture wearing on occurrence of Candida species in the oral cavity.

ABSTRACT

Degradation of oral health is often assumed to progress with aging. However, significantly higher total counts and greater varieties of Candida species can be detected in wearers of removable dentures compared with non-denture wearers. Denture wearing constitutes a stable factor that can affect oral health status. Its impact is almost unaffected by aging. This should be taken into account when making predictions and assessments concerning oral health management for middle-aged and elderly subjects.

KEY WORDS: Candida species, denture wearing, oral hygiene

INTRODUCTION

Candida has been recognized as a part of the normal oral flora without any harmful effects. (1,2) There are 300 to 400 species of microorganisms in the oral cavity, including 20 species of Candida. Changes in the oral environment effected by tooth loss or denture wearing can cause changes in oral microflora. (3) Candida is not harmful in healthy hosts, but may cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, such as patients suffering from AIDS, leukemia, or head or neck cancer. (4-6) Oral candidiasis has been reported to be associated with candidiasis in the lung and deglutition pneumonia. (7)

The amount of Candida has been found to increase in elderly individuals, (8-10) but most previous investigations focused solely on Candida albicans. Few studies concerning non-C albicans species have been conducted. No previous reports about the relationship between denture wearing and the occurrence of either C albicans or non-C albicans species in the oral cavity exist to the knowledge of the authors. In 1 study, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata were shown to be resistant to fungicides. (11)

This study suggests that non-C albicans species should be taken into account when trying to preserve oral health in middle-aged or elderly subjects. While providing dental care guidance to people in rural Japan, the authors conducted mass screenings about local conditions of oral health. Within this context, distribution characteristics of Candida species in subjects wearing or not wearing full or partial removable dentures were investigated.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Subjects

Two hundred eighty-six subjects (104 men and 182 women) underwent dental screening in rural areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Age distribution and denture wearing status of these subjects are shown in Table 1.

Investigation of Candida

Collected oral rinse samples from the subjects were cultured on CHROMagar Candida plates (CHROMagar, Paris, France) by the method of Beighton et al.12 The subjects rinsed with 10 mL of Phosphate-Buffered Salines(PBS) for 15 minutes, and 100 [micro]L of collected buffer were seeded on the plates, and then cultured for 48 to 72 hours at 37[degrees]C. Candida species were determined as colony forming units for each individual. Characteristically, C albicans exhibited green, C tropicalis exhibited purple, and C glabrata exhibited dark pink colors. Geotrichum species, unlike C albicans, formed small, rough colonies of pale green appearance (Figure 1).An API 20C AUX kit (BIOMERIEUX, France) was used for identification.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Results

No subjects under the age of 39 wore dentures.The detection rate of all Candida species, single and multiple combined, was 40.6% of the total of subjects in this youngest age group (Figure 2).Among the subjects who were 40 to 49 years of age, the Candida detection rate was higher in denture wearers (66.7%) than in nondenture wearers (39.3%). In the group of 50 to 59 year-old individuals, the rate of Candida detected in denture wearers (73.3%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of subjects not wearing dentures (34.1%). Candida detection rates observed in the subjects who were 60 to 65 years of age were 66.2% and 41.7%, respectively, (P<0.05).

This study indicates that, although detection rates of single Candida species were rather high in the youngest group of nondenture wearers, detection rates of single and multiple Candida species were significantly higher in denture wearers of all other age groups compared with individuals not wearing dentures. Denture wearing correlated with significant rises in detection rates of single and multiple Candida species in all of these groups, a condition that was not affected by age progression from 40 to 81 years. When denture wearers of all age groups were pooled and compared with the total of nondenture wearers, a higher occurrence of multiple Candida species significantly characterized denture wearers (Figure 3).

DISCUSSION

In Japan, the elderly population has increased, and this requires corresponding improvements in health care and medical technology. Citizens who were older than 65 years of age represented 12% of the overall Japanese population in 1990, 17% in 2000, and are expected to reach 21.3% in 2010.13 Prevention of oral diseases and oral health care is a prerequisite for quality of life in this population. Ideally, 20 teeth or more should be preserved to warrant acceptable mastication and food intake even up to the age of 80 years. (14)

Aging has been believed to cause progressive increases of Candida in the oral cavity. However, this study showed that the sole factor of denture wearing affected the number of Candida species detected as well as total Candida counts, independent of the age of the denture wearer (Figure 2). Accounting for the stable, constant factor of denture wearing and its effects could provide reliability and perspective to oral health assessments, which, when observing age or other data in isolation, might easily go astray.

Frequent occurrence of multiple Candida species sets denture wearers apart from subjects who do not wear dentures. Denture wearing is supportive of growth of species as C albicans, C tropicalis, and C glabrata (Table 2).

Distinguishing conditions among those who wear dentures from those who do not could permit clinical approaches that are better tailored to each group. Observing a single Candida spp alone is likely to afford a less conclusive picture. CHROMagar Candida was only one of many devices that could be used to assess the cleanliness of dentures and general oral hygiene in concerned subjects.

Denture wearing as a significant factor should not be neglected when providing oral hygienic guidance for middle-aged subjects. In elderly individuals, even broader health concerns are involved. Controlling Candida through appropriate denture management guidance is important in promoting general health throughout such generations.

REFERENCES

(1.) Arenforf TM, Walker DM. Oral Candida population in health and disease. Brit Dent J. 1979;147:267-272.

(2.) Arenforf TM, Walker DM. The prevalence and intra oral distribution of Candida albicans in man. Arch Oral Biol. 1980;25:1-7.

(3.) Sumi Y, Nagaosa S, Michiwaki Y, et al. Comparative study of denture and pharyngeal bacterial flora of dependent elderly. J J Gerodont. 2001;16:171-178.

(4.) Franker CK, Lucartorto FM, Johnson BS, et al. Characterization of the mycoflora from oral mucosal surfaces of some HIV-infected patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1990;69:683-687.

(5.) Samaranayake LP. Oral mycoses in HIV infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;73:171-180.

(6.) Zegarelli DJ. Fungal infections of the oral cavity. Otholaryngol Clin North Am. 1993;26:1069-1089.

(7.) Honda E, Mutoh T, Maeda N, et al. Study on oral microbial flora of elderly people(1)--Comparison of elderly people living in nursing homes and in their own homes. J J Gerodont. 2000;14:297-306.

(8.) Moskona D, Ilana, K. Oral lesions in elderly denture wearers. Clin Prevent Dent. 1992;14:11-14.

(9.) Shinada K, Teraoka K, Asaka T, et al. Distribution of Candida species and mutans streptococci related to oral conditions in elderly persons. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi. 1997;64:512-517. Japanese.

(10.) Mutoh T, Honda E, Maeda N, et al. Oral microbial flora in institutionalized elderly people. J Dent Health. 2000;50:351-360.

(11.) Mathews MS, Samuel PR, Suresh M. Emergence of Candida tropicalis as the major cause of fungaemia in India. Mycoses. 2001;44:278-280.

(12.) Beighton D, Ludford R, Clark DT, et al. Use of CHROMagar Candida medium for isolation of yeasts from dental samples. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:3025-3027.

(13.) Statistics of Oral Health 1993. Ichiyaku Publishers Inc; 1993. Japanese.

(14.) Mizuno T, Nakagaki H, Murakami T, et al. Dental Health Surveys at 80 years old in Tokoname City J Dent Hlth.1994;44:161-169.

Hiroyuki Mizugai, DDS, PhD * Emiko Isogai * Kimiharu Hirose ([dagger]) Itsuo Chiba *

* Department of Preventive Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido School of Dentistry, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan

([dagger]) Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Ohu University, Kooriyama, Fukushima, Japan
Table 1. Age, Sex and Denture Wearing Status of Subjects

 Men Women

Age Group DWs NDWs DWs NDWs Total

[less than
or equal
to] 39 0 21 0 38 59
40-49 3 18 6 43 70
50-59 3 15 12 26 56
[greater than
or equal
to] 60 * 25 19 40 17 101

Total 31 73 58 124 286

DWs: denture wearers; NDWs: nondenture wearers.

* The oldest individual surveyed was 83 years.

Table 2. Detection of Single or Multiple Candida Species in Denture
Wearers or Nondenture Wearers

Denture wearers (n-60) No. of
Detected Subjects
Species CA CT CG G CP CK (%)
 SPP

 + - - - - - 17 (28.3)
 + + - - - - 12 (20.0)
 + - + - - - 6 (10.0)
Positive + - - + - - 4 (6.7)
Species - + - - - - 6 (10.0)
 - + - + - - 1 (1.7)
 - + - - + - 1 (1.7)
 - - + + - - 1 (1.7)
 - - - + - - 4 (6.7)
 - - - - - + 2 (3.3)
 + + + - - - 1 (1.7)
 + + - - - + 2 (3.3)
 + - + - + - 1 (1.7)
 - + - + + - 1 (1.7)
 + + - + - + 1 (1.7)
 44 25 9 12 3 5 60

Nondenture wearers (n-77)
Detected No. of
Species CA CT CG G CP CK Subjects
 spp (%)
 + - - - - - 46 (59.7)

 + + - - - - 3 (3.9)
 + - + - - - 4 (5.2)
Positive + - - + - - 2 (2.6)
Species + - - - + - 1 (1.3)
 - + - - - - 7 (9.1)
 - - + - - - 3 (3.9)
 - - + + - - 1 (1.3)
 - - - + - - 4 (5.2)
 - - - + + - 1 (1.3)
 - - - - + - 4 (5.2)
 - - - - - + 1 (1.3)
 + + - - - + 1 (1.3)
 57 11 8 7 6 2 77

CA: Candida albicans; CT: Candida eopicalis; CG: Candida glabrata;
G spp: Geotrichum spp; CP: Candida spp; CK: Candida krusei.

Figure 2. Total count of Candidas in each age-set.
(Example: In 66.7% of the population of 40-49 years old denture
wearers, single or multiple species of Candidas were detected)

 DWs NDWs

Under 39 40.6
40-49 66.7 39.3
50-59 73.3 34.1
Over 60 66.2 41.7
All 67.4 39.1

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 3. Which categories of Candidas constitute the entire count
of Candidas detected in DWs or NDWs. (Example: Among all Candidas
detected in denture wearers of all age sets, single Candida species
represented 48.3%)

 DWs in all age sets NDWs in all age sets

One Candida 48.3 83.1
species
detected

Two Candida 41.7 * 15.6 *
species detected

Three Candida 10.0 * 1.3 *
species or more

(*: p<0.05)

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Mizugai, Hiroyuki; Isogai, Emiko; Hirose, Kimiharu; Chiba, Itsuo
Publication:Journal of Applied Research
Geographic Code:9JAPA
Date:Sep 1, 2007
Words:1769
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