Effect of cinnamon extract on male reproductive physiology in mice.
Cinnamon plant has many therapeutic effects.
One of these important effects is increasing of sexual ability. Cinnamon can be due to the treatment of diabetes [1,4, 17], reduced cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) , property of bactericide , improving nausea and diarrhea , reduction of the release of free radicals in the body  and increasing of sexual desire [15,19].
Cinnamon has been considered for study of sexual power and fertility rates since long. On the other hand, little research on the effect of this substance has been done on the male reproductive physiology. Spermatogenesis process is done within cells of testis tubules which produce sperm. Sperm during fertilization combined with ovum and formed the zygote. Thus, the aim of this study is the investigation of effect of cinnamon extract on male reproductive physiology.
Materials and methods
The animals used in this study are male adult mice (weighing about 30-34gr and 9-10 weeks old), purchased from research institute of vaccination in shiraz. There are 10 mice in each group (control, sham, treatment I and treatment II groups). During testing, temperature was set between 20 to 24[degrees]c. Photoperiod--the darkness were regulated for animals to 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light. During testing, animals were fed by pellet and drinking water. The animals were kept out two weeks for adaptation in animal house in Jahrom azad university. After preparation of cinnamon extract, it was used for injection. For preparating of cinnamon extract values of 10 and 20 g cinnamon was weighed on analytical precision scale, and 100 ml of distilled water was resolved. The gentle heat for 30 minutes (about 45 degrees) were to be extracted out. Then the solution was clear with filter paper and was ready for injection. The control animals received drinking water. The Sham group received distilled water. The treatment animals received cinnamon extract in concentrations of 10 and 20 (mg/kg B.W.) for two weeks, each day amount 1 ml inter peritoneum.
After injection the animals were sacrificed. The concentration of FSH, LH and testosterone hormones were measured with ELISA method. The concentration of LH, FSH and Testosterone hormones in sample blood was measured by special LH and FSH hormones kits were provided from Iran Teb Pishtaz Company using ELISA method.
Obtained results were investigated by SPSS statistical software, T-test and ANOVA in P-value (<0.05).
The concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone hormones was observed (fig.1, 2 and 3).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Discussion and Conclusion:
Cinnamomum zeylanicum as a medicinal plant, belongs to Luaraceae family. This plant has many therapeutic effects. One of important effects is increasing of sexual ability. The most important components in cinnamon are cinnamomin and cinnamaldehyde.
These compounds effect on the hypothalamuspituitary axis and was increased concentration of LH, FSH and testosterone hormones. Parivzi and Ellendorff showed that cinnamaldehyde extracted of cinnamon increase norepinephrine and this hormone can increase the release of nitric oxide. Cinnamaldehyde release cAMP with connecting calcium in cell memberane and occurs increasing of norepinephrine secretion (3). Norepinephrine increase LH secretion with activation of nitric oxide.
Nitric oxide affects hypothalamus axis and release gonadotropin hormone (GnRH). Gonadotorpin hormones increase secretion of LH and FSH hormones. LH hormone affects Leydig cells and this cells release testosterone hormone. Testosterone is the most important hormones in sex cells proliferation [12, 14].
Therefore, increased concentration of hormones LH, FSH and testosterone in serum in the treatment groups appears to increase GnRH .
Also, Kosior and Bobowiec proposed that leptin hormone increase FSH secretion with intermediating of nitric oxide synthesis .
Leptin hormone stimulate increasing of androgenic hormones secretion such as testosterone and this hormone proliferate sex cells .
Studies also indicate that delta-cadenin compound extracted of cinnamon can increase the concentration of testosterone [12 , 14].
Researchers have shown that Leydig cells release in addition to the production of testosterone, hormones and other factors such as oxytocin, Bendorphins, prostaglandins, and another steroids.
Leydig cells release testosterone. Also reports say that Leydig cells target cells of various factors including vasopersin and interleukin [5,6,9,13].
Reports indicate that spermatogenesis depends on cells to cells interactions such as Sertoli cells and Leydig cells interactions .
So, it can conclude that cinnamon is useful on male reproductive system in mice.
We wish to thank Saberi M. for their technical assistance.
[1.] Anderson, R.A., C.L. Broadburst, M.M. Polansky, W.F. Schmidt, A. Khan and V.P. Flanagan, 2004. The effect of cinnamon on diabetes in adult male rats. Isolation and Food Chem., 14: 52-70.
[2.] Calan, C.D., 1976. Cinnamon dermatitis from an iontment. Contact Dermatitis, 2(23): 167-70.
[3.] Chin, C.T., L.U. Min, T.C. Juei, 2000. Stimulatory effect of trans Cinnamaldehyde on norepinephrine secretion in cultured pheochromacytoma (PC-12)cell, Science Press, Beijing, 21(12): 1174-8.
[4.] Kamath, J.V. and A.C. Rana, A.R. Chowdhury, 2003. Pro healing effect of cinnamon zeylanicum bark.Phytother Res., 18: 970-972.
[5.] Kander, B.G. and A.J. Hsueh, 2009. Intragonadal hormonoes in rats. Endocrinology, 118.23-310.
[6.] Keys, A. and T. Anderson, 1995. Metabolism, 14: 747-775.
[7.] Khan, A., M. Sfdar, M.M. Ali Khan, K.N. Khattak and R.A. Anderson, 2003. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Car, 26(12): 3215-8.
[8.] Kosior, K.U. and R. Bobowiec, 2006. Leptin effect on nitric oxide and GnRH-induced FSH secretion from ovine pituitary cells in vitro. J physiol Pharmacol., 57(4): 637-47.
[9.] Lee, W., A.R. Mason and J.P. Mather, 2004. Interestitial cell cultures secrete and activity with characteristics of the hormones. Mol. Cell. Endocrino, 50: 21-27.
[10.] Nir, Y., I. Potasman, E. Stermer, M. Tabak and I. Neeman, 2000. Controlled trial of the effect of cinnamon extract on Helicobacter pylori.Helicobater, 5(2): 94-7.
[11.] Norman, J.F. and J.M. Way, 1998. Some ecological observations in hypothalamic hormones. Endocrinolology., 2: 532-548.
[12.] Parivzi, N. and F. Ellendorff, 1982. Further evidence on dual effects of norepinphrine on LH Secretion. Neuro Endocrinolog, 35(1): 48-55.
[13.] Parvinen, M.K., K. Vinko and J. Topari, 2007. Cell interaction during the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Cytology, 104: 114-129.
[14.] Sato, Y. and T. Tsukanmamoto, 2000. Effects of nitric oxide stimulation on the brain. Drugs Today, 36(2-3): 38.
[15.] Shagauo, R.B. and A.M. Davidson, 2006. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on histological structure of testis in rats. Endocrinology, 63: 241-252.
[16.] Sharp, R.M., 2009. Interatesticular factors of controlling of testicular function. Biology Report, 30: 29-49.
[17.] Shing, G., S. Maurya, M.P. Deamopna, C.A. Catanlan and A.N. Cesar, 2007. A comparision of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oil. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(9): 1650-61.
[18.] Skidmore, R.L., 2002. Handbook of Herbs and Netura Supplemnts, 2nd ed. St Louis: Mosey, 38.
[19.] Hemayatkhah Jahromi, V., K. Parivar and M. Forozanfar, 2011. The effect of cinnamon extract on spermatogenesis hormonal axis of pituitary gonad in mice. IJAS, 1(2): 99-103.
[20.] Xia, Z.F. and R.A. Richard, 2006. The brain Pituitary adipocyte axis role of leptin in modulating neuroendocrine function. J Anim Sci., 77: 12349-57.
(1) Hemayatkhah Jahromi Vahid, (1) Farzam Mohammad, (3) Dehghani Khatereh, (2) Momeni Hamid Reza
(1) Department of Biology, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, Iran.
(2) Department of Biology, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
(3) Islamic Azad University, Kazerun Branch, Department of Biology, kazerun, Iran.
Hemayatkhah Jahromi Vahid, Department of Biology, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, Iran.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||ORIGINAL ARTICLE|
|Author:||Vahid, Hemayatkhah Jahromi; Mohammad, Farzam; Khatereh, Dehghani; Reza, Momeni Hamid|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2012|
|Previous Article:||Effects of creatine and glutamine supplements in comparison with proper nutrition on performance factors of wrestlers.|
|Next Article:||The effects of mobile phone waves on the reproductive physiology in adult female rats.|