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Effect of bio-availability of magnetized water on different biological systems.

The role of magnet in the water purification process is not proved by means of data until recent time. There are many claims with respect to magnetically treated water such as passing of water through magnet will improve the physical, chemical, and bacteriological property of water. Some manufacturers claim that such magnetic treatment ensures basic level benefits like prevention and elimination of lime scale deposited in pipes, while some others make additional and unproved claims like softening, increase growth of plant, preventing the occurrence of diseases, etc. The chemistry aspect of magnetic water is that the magnetic field changes the water property due to the displacement and polarization of water atom. Therefore, the solid soaking capacity of the water will be increased due to magnetization of water (Pang and Deng, 2008).

The study of magnetic field on the calcium carbonate was done and it proves to have the beneficial claims on for reducing the scale formation. The beneficial claims are they increase the performance of domestic water heater by reducing the scale formation (Alim et al, 2006), improved crop yields (Lin and Yotvat, 1990), health benefits (Yue et al, 1983), change in the pH (Busche, 1985), water tension reduction (Cho and Lee, 2005). The supportive document on scale reduction found in Britain proves that the removal of scales was successful, though the cost for scale removal and heat transfer inefficiency was high (Smith, 2003). Later, another experiment performed by Smith (2006) has proved that scale reduction in domestic hot water storage tank was up to 70%. It has been proved by a Japanese named Fujio Shimazaki Wojcik (1995) that the stationary magnetic field can improve germination of seed and speed up the growth process of plants. According to Bogatin (1999), the crop yield was increased by 10-15% using magnetized water. A significant increase in germination percentage showed that the germination rate was faster for seeds exposed to the magnetic field than those exposed in control group (Chao and Walker, 1967; Muraji et al, 1998; Celestino et al, 2000). The results of Grewal and Maheshwari (2011) showed magnetic treatment of irrigation water and seeds have the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient content of seedlings. As a supporting data Ijaz et al. (2012) also studied and reported the irrigation magnetized water increased the seed germination. Against these points, the present study as aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic water on seed germination and osmotic effect of magnetised water.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sample Collection

The water samples were collected from three different sources such as Tap water (TW), Aquaguard water (AW), Aquaguard with biotron (2500 gauze magnet multiple ring magnets cartridge) water (ABW), To create the magnetic set up, the magnets were made as rings and packed in plastic containers. Each container was set with 5 rings of magnet. To check the magnetic effect, the demonstration was carried out applying seed germination, pH and osmosis test.

Seed Germination Test (Geetha et al., 2014)

The seed germination study was conducted to check the effect of water on seed germination. For this study, Vigna radiata seeds were selected based on their weight and shape. Experiment was done in triplicates with 9 seeds in each plate. Once the set up was ready, equal quantity of water from three different sources were added to respective plates. The germination rate was checked at different intervals of 18 hrs, 24 hrs and 48hrs.

Osmosis Assay (Bhagyashree et al., 2008)

Good quality grapes were selected to understand rate of absorption and its initial weight is noted for Osmotic process. The grapes were immersed in all the three types of water used for this study and their weight change was noted after different time intervals such as 2 hrs and 5 hrs.

pH Variation

The pH variation study was done to check the effect of magnetization in pH. The Aquaguard water was passed through the magnet and the pH variation was noted. The initial pH and the final pH were noted at every 2 hrs until 24 hrs.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Seed Germination

Parameters like number of germinated seeds and time taken for germination are noted. The number of seeds germinated was calculated at different time interval such as 18 hrs, 24 hrs and 48 hrs. The percentage was calculated as follows:

Germination percentage = Number 6 strongly germinated seed/Total number of seeds tested x 100

With reference to the ratio calculation, it is evident that the number of seeds germinated by the magnet treated water is high when compared to other two sources (Tables 1-3). Results prove that rate of seed germination and seedling emergences are higher for magnetized water than the normal water (Figs. 1-5). Many researches finding also proves that the magnetized water enhances the seed germination (Murphy, 1942; Walleczeh and Budinger, 1992; Martines et al., 2002; Ahmad Majd and Azita Shabrangi, 2009). The detailed study on the development of seed and the change in the rate of germination was studied and reported by many researchers. It was detected that the magnetic field stimulated the shoot development and led to the increase in germinating energy and fresh weight, and shoot length of maize (Aladjadjiyan, 2002).

According to Waleed et al. (2013), at a magnetic field of 50 mT, the root length, radicle length and weight of radicle increases. Studies which showed increased crop yield in Cereal, sunflower, flax, pea, wheat, pepper, tomato, soybean, potato and sugar beet made the magnetic treatment consistent supplemented with significant improvement (Pittman, 1972; Gubbels, 1982; Pietruszweski, 1993; Reina et al., 2001; Vakharia, 2009).

A study done by Mahmoud (2011) proved that the growth parameter, biochemical components and yield components of the tested plant is concomitantly increased when plants are treated with magnetic water.

Osmosis Test

Osmosis test was done so as to find the penetration rate of water inside the dry grapes. It has been identified that the number of hydrogen bonds is proportional to strength of the magnetic field. This implies that the size of water cluster can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic held. In addition with the change in behavior of water molecules under the magnetic field, it has been founded that there was more stability in water's structure accompanied with the enhancement in water molecules to produce more hydrogen bonds (Changa and Weng, 2006). The stimulatory effect of magnetic water may be attributed to their role in increasing absorption and assimilation of nutrients consequently increasing plant growth. (Mahmoud Hozayn et al, 2011).

pH Variation

The initial value of pH was 6.8 and after passing through the magnetic field there was an increase in the value reading 7.3. Later on the pH value remained same. This result varies with other reports. Some findings reported a constant pH value. Busche et al. (1985) reported that there was an initial decrease in pH of 0.5 units followed by increase from pH 7.5-8. Parsons et al. (1996) and Tai et al. (2008) reported that there was decrease in pH when the water is passed through the magnetic field. Later Quickenden (2002) found no pH change in double distilled water subjected to a very strong magnetic field of 24000 Gauss. A report by Ashraf et al. (2013) says that magnetic water doesn't have any effect on the water pH. Even if a slight change is found, it is inconsistent.

CONCLUSION

Hence the proof of higher penetration rate in magnetized water than in the normal water concludes that Magnetized water has positive effect on seed germination.

REFERENCES

[1.] Ahmad Majd, AzitaShabrangi. Effect of Seed Pretreatment by Magnetic Fields on Seed Germination and Ontogeny Growth of Agricultural Plants; PIERS Proceedings, Beij ing, China. March 23- 27, 2009.

[2.] Aladjadjiyan, A.Study of the influence of magnetic field on some biological characteristics of Zeamais. J. Central Eur. Agri., 2002; 3(2): 89-94.

[3.] Alimi, F., Tlili, M., Amor, M., Gabrielli, C., Maurin, G. Influence of magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation, Desalination, 2006; 206(2007): 163-168.

[4.] Bhagyashree, Shedame, M., Kubade, A.B., Patil, N.B., Shirshat, K.D. Effect of osmotic dehydration on drying characteristics of grape. Int. J. Agri Eng., 2008; 1(2): 35-37.

[5.] Bogatin, J., Bondarenko, N., Gak, E., Rokhinson, E., Ananyev, I. Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water: Experimental Results and Application Conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1999; 33(8): 1280-1285.

[6.] Busch, K.W., Busch, M.A. Laborator studies on magnetic water treatment and their relationship to a possible mechanism for scale reduction. Desalination, 1997; 109(2): 131-148.

[7.] Celestino, C., Picazo, M.L., Toribio, M. Influence of chronic exposure to an electromagnetic field on germination and early growth of Quercus suber seeds: preliminary study. Electro-and Magnetobiol., 2000; 19: 115-120.

[8.] Changa, K., Weng, C. The effect of an external magnetic field on the structure of liquid water using molecular dynamics simulation. J. Appl. Phys., 2006; 100: 7-11.

[9.] Chao, L.D., Walker, R. Effect of a magnetic field on the germination of apple, apricot, and peach seeds. Hort. Sci., 1967; 2: 152-153.

[10.] Geetha, K., Rajithasri, A.B., Bhadraiah, B. Isolation of Plant growth promoting rhizo bacteria from rhizosphere soils of green gram , biochemical characterization and screening for antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi. Int. J. Pharma. Sci. Inv., 2014; 3(9): 47-54.

[11.] Ijaz, B., Jatoi, S.A., Ahmad, D., Masood, M.S., Siddiqui, S. Changes in germination behavior of wheat seeds exposed to magnetic field and magnetically structured water. African J. Biotechnol., 2012; 11(15): 3575-3582.

[12.] Lin, I., Yotvat, J. Exposure of irrigation and drinking water to a magnetic field with controlled power and direction. J. Magnetism Magnetic mat., 1990; 83: 525-526.

[13.] Mahmoud Hozayn, Abdel-Monem, A.A., Abdul Qados, A.M.S. Irrigation with magnetized water, a novel tool for improving crop production in Egypt, Fifteenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC-15, 2011.

[14.] Maheshwari, B.L., Grewal, H.S. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: Its effects on vegetable crop yield and water productivity. Agri. Water Management, 2009; 96: 1229-1236.

[15.] Muraji, M., Asai, T., Tatebe, W. Primary root growth rate of Zea mays seedlings grown in an alternating magnetic field of different frequencies. Bioelectrochem. Bioenergtics, 1998; 44: 271-273.

[16.] Pang, X.F., Deng, B. The changes of macroscopic features and microscopic structures of water under influence of magnetic field. Physica B. 2008; 403: 3571-3577.

[17.] Parsons, S., Wang, B., Judd, J., Stephenson, T. Magnetic treatment of calcium carbonate scale-effect of pH. Water Res., 1997; 31(2): 339-342.

[18.] Pietruszweski, S. Effects of magnetic seed treatment on yields of wheat. Seed Sci. Techol., 1993; 21: 621-626.

[19.] Quickenden, T., Betts, D., Cole, B., Noble, M. Effect of magnetic fields on the pH of water. J. Phys. Chem, 2002; 75(18): 2830-2831.

[20.] Smith, C., Coetzee, P, Meyer, J. The effectiveness of a magnetic physical water treatment device on scaling in domestic hot-water storage tanks. Water SA, 2003; 29(3): 231-236.

[21.] Tai, C., Chang, M., Shieh, R., Chen, T. Magnetic effects on crystal growth rate of calcite in a constant-composition environment. J. Crystal Growth, 2008; 310: 3690-3697.

[22.] Vakharia, D.N., Davariya, R.L., Parameswaran, M. Influence of magnetic treatment on groundnut yield and attributes. Indian J. Plant Physiol., 1991; 34: 131-136.

[23.] Waleed, A.J., Riyadh, C.H., Abul Hail, Hussein, F.H. Effect of magnetic field on seed germination of Triticum aestivum. World J. Agri. Sci, 2013; 1(5): 168-171.

[24.] Ashraf kotb, Abd El Aziz, A.M. Scientific Investigations on the claims of the magnetic water conditioners. Int. J. Eng., 2013; 11(4): 147-157.

Rameetha Rajan (1), Dharmalingam Jothinathan Mukesh Kumar (2), Palani Perumal (2) and Abhay Kumar (1) *

(1) Eureka Forbes Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

(2) CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.22207/JPAM.11.2.66

(Received: 03 January 2017; accepted: 19 April 2017)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Tel.: +91-9341233172;

E-mail: abhay@eurekaforbes.com

Caption: Fig. 1. Seed germination test in petridishes

Caption: Fig. 2. Plant growth in pot trials

Caption: Fig. 3. Seed germination test with Aquaguard RO water with Biotron (ABW)

Caption: Fig. 4. Seed germination test with Aquaguard RO water without Bitron

Caption: Fig. 5. Seed germination test with Tap water (non purified)

Caption: Fig. 6. Effect of treated and untreated water on Grape seed Osmosis
Table 1. Seed germination test with Aquaguard RO water with Biotron
(ABW)

Sample   Seed Condition            Plate 1

                          18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

ABW      Germinated         7        8        8
         Non-germinated     2        1        1
         Ratio             3.5       8        8
         Percentage       77.78%   88.89%   88.89%

Sample   Seed Condition            Plate 2

                          18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

ABW      Germinated         8        8        8
         Non-germinated     1        1        1
         Ratio              8        8        8
         Percentage       88.89%   88.89%   88.89%

Sample   Seed Condition            Plate 3

                          18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

ABW      Germinated         6        8        8
         Non-germinated     3        1        1
         Ratio              2        8        8
         Percentage       66.67%   88.89%   88.89%

Table 2. Seed germination test with Aquaguard RO water without Bitron

                                   Plate 1

Sample   Seed Condition   18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

AW       Germinated         4        4        4
         Non-germinated     5        5        5
         Ratio             0.8      0.8      0.8
         Percentage       44.44%   44.44%   44.44%

                                   Plate 2

Sample   Seed Condition   18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

AW       Germinated         4        4        5
         Non-germinated     5        5        4
         Ratio             0.8      0.8      1.25
         Percentage       44.44%   44.44%   55.56%

                                   Plate 3

Sample   Seed Condition   18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

AW       Germinated         6        6        7
         Non-germinated     3        3        2
         Ratio              2        2       3.5
         Percentage       66.67%   66.67%   77.78%

Table 3. Seed germination test with Tap water (non purified)

                                   Plate 1

Sample   Seed Condition   18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

Tap      Germinated         3        3        3
Water    Non-germinated     6        6        6
         Ratio             0.5      0.5      0.5
         Percentage       33.33%   33.33%   33.33%

                                   Plate 2

Sample   Seed Condition   18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

Tap      Germinated         3        4        5
Water    Non-germinated     6        5        4
         Ratio             0.5      0.8      1.25
         Percentage       33.33%   44.44%   55.56%

                                   Plate 3

Sample   Seed Condition   18 hrs   24 hrs   48 hrs

Tap      Germinated         4        4        5
Water    Non-germinated     5        5        4
         Ratio             0.8      0.8      1.25
         Percentage       44.44%   44.44%   55.56%

Table 4. Osmosis Test Data

Water Condition                     initial     1 hrs(gm)   24 hrs(gm)
                                   weight(gm)

Aquaguard RO water with biotron       2.04        2.76         4.26
Aquaguard RO water                    2.04        2.61         4.2
Tap water                             2.04        2.52         4.24
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Author:Rajan, Rameetha; Kumar, Dharmalingam Jothinathan Mukesh; Perumal, Palani; Kumar, Abhay
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2017
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