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Effect of altitude and mulch type on growth, yield and quality of 'lembah palu' shallot variety.

INTRODUCTION

Shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum Group) is known as one of root vegetable with many usages, especially as flavor for various dishes as well as raw material for traditional medicine. Central Sulawesi has local varieties of shallot as a national varieties namely 'lembah palu' shallot variety. This shallot has a very good quality as a raw material for fried shallots. Fried shallots product from Central Sulawesi has been widely recognized with very good quality of fried shallots. It has good texture, taste and flavor as well as resistant in storage. Market demand, both locally, nationally and export are bigger, but the demand cannot be met, due to limited 'lembah palu' shallot as raw materials (Central Sulawesi Agriculture Office, 2005). Shallot production at 'lembah palu' is only around 1028-1380 tones/year from planting area of 290 hectares (Central Sulawesi Agriculture Office, 2010). Total production cannot meet the raw materials needs of fried shallots industry with amount of 10802160 tons/year (excluding unauthorized domestic industry) [10]. The low production is mainly due to limited cultivation area and very low productivity. Average productivity of 'lembah palu' shallot at level of farmers today is 3.5-4.5 t/ha [4] while the potential is up to 9.7 t/ha (Minister of Agriculture, 2011).

Production of 'lembah palu' shallots can be done by application of intensive farming techniques at origin location of development, or by expansion of planting areas, especially outside of development area. 'lembah palu' shallot is being cultivated in area of Palu Valley (Palu and Donggala and parts of Sigi) at altitude of less than 300 m. Shallot varieties of 'lembah palu' can be cultivated until 450 m above sea level (Minister of Agriculture, 2011). Research by Muhamma-Ansar et al. (2012b) with polybag found that 'lembah palu' shallot can be grown and makes yield that are not significantly different at altitude 100-800 m above sea level.

Suitability requirements of environmental conditions at new location with different altitude are main factors that need attention if crop varieties is cultivated outside the conventional area. Differences altitude directly causes differences in environmental factors to affect the growth and development of shallot crop, especially the air temperature is heavily influenced by altitude of sea surface. High altitude of sea surface will determine the air temperature and intensity of sunlight received by plants. Higher a place will decrease the temperature. High place is a major factor to converts heat uniformity and an average temperature decreases with increasing high place at approximately of 0.6[degrees]C/100 m [12].

Higher place has a trend of higher rainfall and relatively higher humidity, but the intensity of sunlight and air temperature is lower. Sun shine intensity is the energy source for plants, especially in photosynthesis activity. The changes in environmental factors will affect on growth and shallot yield. Altitude level also affects on phonological development of plant, determine flowering and harvesting [28]. Too high (> 40[degrees] C) and too low (<20[degrees] C) temperatures will inhibit plant growth, and even damaging and lowering the crop yields. Research results of Hanada [14] states that one favor environmental factors for shallot tuber growth is air temperature.

The usage of various mulch types is an alternative technology that can be used to modify microenvironment around the plantation. Mulch usage is expected to protect the plants from rainfall or high intensity of sunlight on plateau and also can increase soil temperature fluctuation at around the plantation. Mulch usage is expected to create an optimal temperature for crop in order to obtain maximum crop growth and yield. This is supported by Maged [16] that microclimate modification by plastic mulch can increase growth and yield and quality of crops, because it can improve soil moisture. Carroll et al. [6] show a relationship between the creation of a good microclimate environment and optimal plants growth. Mulch has a role to reduce evaporation and water loss. It makes soil moisture and water availability in root environment can still be maintained [24].

Plastic mulch provides a beneficial effect to control weeds, conserve soil moisture and increase soil temperature [25]. Mulch from crop residues and materials synthesis can provide a major contribution to increase capacity of soil moisture conservation [27]. Straw mulch effective to conserve groundwater because it is able to save and maintain more soil moisture, while plastic mulch can improve soil temperature and both have the same function to improve growth and yield [30]. Rice straw mulch usage can decrease soil temperatures about 2.5% compared without mulch, while black plastic mulch can improve soil temperatures about 1.3% compared without mulch. It creates an ideal environment for growth and development of Shallot plants at different environmental conditions [22]. It indicates a need to investigate the growth and yield of 'lembah palu' shallot at different altitudes environmental. This result is expected to provide benefits information to cultivate 'lembah palu' shallot outside the conventional environment to increase production and raw materials need for fried shallots industry can be met in a sustainable manner.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Time and research location:

This study was conducted in February-June 2011, at three different altitudes, namely: (1) Solouwe Village, Sigi-Biromaru Subdistrict at 150 m altitude, (2) Makmur District, Palolo Subdistrict at 450 m altitude, and (3) Bobo village, Palolo Subdistric at 750 m altitude. Table 1 shows the location, altitude level (m asl.), Air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine intensity (SI) and characteristics of soil sites.

Experiments Design:

This study uses Split Plot Design at multi locations. Main plot is the altitude level (asl), consists of: (1) 150 m asl, (2) 450 m asl and (3) 750 m asl. Sub-plots are based on mulch type, consisting of: (1) without mulch, (2) organic rice straw mulch, and (3) inorganic black plastic mulch. Mulch treatment at each location is repeated three (3) times.

Experiment Procedures:

Experiments were conducted at perfect soil treatment by hand tractors. Experiment plots have bed of 120 cm wide, 250 cm long and 25 cm high. Distance between beds is 40 cm and distance between replications is 60 cm. Space is 15 cm x 15 cm and each hole is planted by one seed tuber seed shallot, previously cut 1/3 the edges in order to obtain uniform growth. Seeds are soaked to sterilize the seeds from fungi and fungal with a solution of fungicide Dithane M-45 at ratio of 10 g/10 kg of seeds for 10-20 minutes. Maintenance of plant includes the provision of water by inundated up to field capacity. Fertilizer is given in according to recommended dosage of BPTP Biromaru [3], respectively 100 kg urea, 200 kg ZA, 300 kg SP-18 and 100 kg of KCl per hectare. Fertilizer application of SP-18 and KCl were done at first planting, while urea and ZA is given at two stages of planting time and during the 30-day-old plants after planting. Pest and disease is controlled by pesticides sprayed on crops in case of attack symptoms, besides physically pest control of direct killing pests, especially caterpillars at every plant.

Observation Parameter:

Observations parameter are components of growth, yield and quality of shallot tuber. Growth component is observed at 40 days after planting, namely: (i) leaves number, (ii) leaves width, (iii) leaves length, (iv) total leaves width of planting, (v) root dry weight per plant, (vi) dry weight of crop leaves, (vii) total dry weight per plant, (viii) root-shoot ratio and (ix) proline content. Observed components of crop yield are (i) harvest age (ii) number of tubers per clump (iii) tubers length, (iv) tuber diameter, (v) fresh weight of tuber per clump, (vi) dry weight per 10 tuber and (vii) weight of fresh tubers per hectare; as well as the components of tubers quality which include of water content, dissolved solids content and hardness tuber.

Data Analysis:

Data observations from three different locations were analyzed based on Gomez and Gomez [13] by combination analysis model based on Split Plot Design with three replications. Collected data were analyzed by SAS program with Window Release 9.00 version. If the analysis of variance results have significant effect, it followed by difference test analysis between treatments using Hones Significant Difference test (Tukey) at a 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Number of leaves and leaves width strands:

Analysis of variance result shows that relation between altitude and mulch type did not significantly affect on number and wide of leaves of 'lembah palu' shallot at 40 days after planting. Location and mulch also show insignificant effect on number and width of leaves. This suggests that environmental factors influenced by altitude did not significantly affect on growth and development of 'lembah palu' shallot leaves; although Table 2 indicated that number of leaves and leaves wide tend to be larger at altitude of 750 m., compared with 150 and 450 meters above sea level. These results are consistent with studies conducted by Muhammad-Ansar et al [21] that 'lembah palu' shallot to produce number and wide of leaves that are not significantly different at altitude of 100-800 m above sea level.

Leaves width and dry weight:

Variance analysis results show that relation of altitude with mulch type did not significantly affect on leaves width per plant and total dry weight per 'lembah palu' shallot plant at 40 days after planting, as well as the location and mulch single factor does not show significant effect on total leaves width per plant and leaves dry weight per plant. This shows that 'lembah palu' shallot at different altitude did not change significantly the leaves width and leaves dry weight.

Leaves length:

Variance analysis results show that there is no significant relation between different altitude and addition of various mulch types to leaves length of 'lembah palu' shallot. Similarly, various mulch types do not have significant effect, but location with different altitude significantly affect on leaves length of 'lembah palu' shallot. Tukey test result with [alpha] 0.05 in Table 3 shows that longest strands of shallot leaves is obtained at altitude of 450 m above sea level and vary in altitude of 750 m. But this did not differ significantly with altitude of 150 m above sea level. This is because the leaves elongation process on plants can be affected by growth regulator substances in plants and its activity is influenced by environmental factors. Nagarajan and Minhas [23] stated that elongation of plant or segment stems and leaves as a result of acid activity in plant have quite high gibberellin which is affected by temperature and light intensity. Gibberellin acid spurs growth through increased crop top division and cell elongation.

Root dry weight:

Variance analysis results show that there was no significant relation between different altitudes and addition mulch types on roots dry weight. Similarly, various mulch types had no significant effect, but different differ significantly affect on root dry weight of 'lembah palu' shallot at 40 days after planting.

Tukey test results at [alpha] = 0.05 in Table 3 show that root dry weight is higher at altitude of 150 m above sea level and significantly different with altitude of 450 m and 750 m. Dry root weight is lowest at altitude of 450 m above sea level. It can be influenced by lower level of acidity (pH=4.5) at Makmur location with altitude of 450 m above sea level compared with other locations with soil pH ranging from 5.9 to 6.2. Judge et al. stated that low soil pH can makes Al poisoning and hinder the root growth. Suitable pH for Shallot cultivation is 5.6 to 7.5; and optimum pH for Shallot is 6.0 to 7.8 [7].

Roots-shoot ratio:

Variance analysis results show that there is no significant relation between different altitudes and various mulch additions on roots-shoot ratio of shallot. Similarly, various mulch types had no significant effect, but location with different altitude significantly affect on roots-shoot ratio of 'lembah palu' shallot at 40 days after planting. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 3 shows that roots-shoot ratio of shallot is higher at 150 m above sea level and significantly different at altitude of 450 and 750 m asl. But the altitude of 450 m above sea level and 750 m above sea level does not significantly show difference of root shoot ratio. It relates to a lower root development in Makmur location at altitude of 450 m compared to other two locations. Root-shoot ratio show how much dry matter of photosynthesis for plant growth because root functions as organs to absorb nutrients and water along with plant crown organ with functions as photosynthesis process. This condition indicates that low temperature conditions in highlands make root growth become more active than lowlands with higher temperatures.

Total dry weight per plant:

Variance analysis results show that there is no significant relation between different altitudes and addition various mulch types on total dry weight per shallot plant. Similarly, various mulch types had no significant effect, but different altitude significantly affect on total dry weight per plant of 'lembah palu' shallot at 40 days after planting. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 3 shows that total dry weight per plant shallot is higher at 750 m above sea level and significantly different at 150 and 450 m above sea level. Total dry weight of plant is affected by dry weight of root and leaves dry weight after deducting the net photosynthesis respiration. High rate of photosynthesis will be followed by higher photosintate in form of dried plant material. Photosynthesis level is highly depend on availability of main raw material as water, C[O.sub.2] and sunlight. It can be presumed that at 750 meters above sea level, there are optimum raw materials of photosynthesis thus to support higher rate of photosynthesis. At 750 meters above sea level, water availability is relatively assured to support a more photosynthesis and relatively lower temperature (average 26,2[degrees]C) will reduce the respiration rate to make photosynthesis in form of dry material becomes higher than in lowlands where the temperature is relatively high (average 30[degrees]C). Limited water availability is caused by high evapotranspiration rate. It can potentially lower the net result of photosynthesis. It is consistent with Moment et al, that soil moisture conditions support the process of photosynthesis and higher plant growth.

Tuber length and diameter:

Variance analysis results show that there is no significant relation between different altitudes and addition of various mulch types on length and diameter of bulb. Similarly, single factor of altitude and mulch type do not significantly affect on tuber length and diameter of 'lembah palu' shallot.

Table 4 shows that length and diameter of shallot tuber are not significantly different at a different altitude, but a tendency of smaller tuber size was obtained at a height of 450 m above sea level.

Water levels of tuber:

Variance analysis results show that mulch type did not significantly affect on tuber moisture content. Similarly, location and mulch single factor does not show significant effect on water content of 'lembah palu' shallot. Table 4 shows that tuber water content of 'lembah palu' shallot is not affected by altitude. Tubers water contents range are 40.23 to 49.01%. Muhammad-Ansar et al. [20] showed that tuber water content of 'lembah palu' shallot does not differ at all locations with altitude of 100-800 m at average air temperatures ranging from 25.7[degrees]C to 29, 6[degrees]C.

Tuber number per clump:

Variance analysis results show that there is no significant relation between different altitudes and addition mulch types on tubers number per clump of 'lembah palu' shallot. Similarly, location with different altitude does not have significant effect, but the mulch type significantly affected the number of tubers per clump of 'lembah palu' shallot. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 5 shows that tubers number per clump of 'lembah palu' shallot are higher in rice straw mulching and significantly different with no mulch and black plastic mulch at altitude of 450 m above sea level and without mulch significantly different for all mulch treatments at all altitudes, except at an altitude of 750 place without followed by mulch addition. It is because caused mulch addition could increase soil moisture levels to make plants did not experience water stress and optimal photosynthesis process to produce photosintate to be translocated to tubers. Plants with high water status are capable to create more assimilation and having the depths (source) are capable to accommodate assimilation to distribute more assimilation into tubers. Bradford [5] stated that plants with water stress will limit photosynthesis, seed or tuber is growing stronger than the depths of vegetative tissues during the charging phase of seed or tubers.

Fresh tuber weight per clump:

There is no significant relation between different altitudes and addition of various mulch types on tuber fresh weight per clump. Similarly, location with different altitude does not have significant effect, but mulch type significant affect on tuber fresh weight per clump of 'lembah palu' shallot. Tukey test results at [alpha] of 0.05 in Table 5 shows that tubers fresh weight per shallot clump is higher at rice straw mulch and no mulch addition significantly differ, but insignificantly differ with black plastic mulch. Muhammad-Ansar et al [22] shows that application of rice straw mulch makes higher Plant Growth Rate than without use mulch. This relates to rice straw mulch role to suppress temperatures fluctuation and ability to store and maintain soil moisture in a relatively longer. Higher availability of water and nutrients will stimulate the formation of leaves, width leaves and higher photosynthesis to produce the total dry weight that can be realized to create Net Assimilation Rate and Plant Growth Rate at higher level. Abbey and Fordham (1998) stated that soil and higher field capacity will create higher growth of shallot crop.

Dry weight per 10 tuber:

Variance analysis results show that there is no significant relation between different altitudes and addition mulch types on dry weight per 10 tuber. Similarly, location with different altitude does not have significant effect, but various mulch types significantly affect on dry weight per 10 tuber of 'lembah palu' shallot. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 5 shows that dry weight per 10 tuber is higher at rice straw mulch and without mulching significantly different, but not significantly different with black plastic mulch. Large difference in tuber dry weight makes shallot crop is highly depend on photosynthesis ability (source) to economic results (sink) of shallot tuber. Turk et al. [26] stated that plants yield with enough water is limited by source strength.

Fresh tuber weight per hectare:

Variance analysis results show that altitude relation with mulch type did not significantly affect on fresh weight of tuber per hectare. Similarly, single factor locations and mulch also shows insignificant effect on fresh tuber weight per hectare of 'lembah palu' shallot. Table 4 shows that average fresh tubers weight per hectare insignificantly differs at specific altitude, with a fresh tubers weight range are 7.06 to 7.29 tones/ha, or about 72.8 to 75.2% of 'lembah palu' shallot varieties that is able to reach a fresh weight tuber of 9.70 tons/ha. This shows that 'lembah palu' shallot has the ability to adapt to different environmental conditions at different altitude. Adaptability of 'lembah palu' shallot to temperature is deals with morphology of small leaves size, leaves position is more upright and not easily droop. Fitter and Hay [11] stated that plant may have a wide adaptation to extreme temperatures, due to changes in properties of leaves (dimensions, diffusion resistance, angle leaves, reflection coefficient and leaves maturity). It can cause warming or cooling of plant to make optimal photosynthesis. Research results shows that physiological processes, growth, yield and quality of shallot is not affected by high places. An important factor for 'lembah palu' shallot to be cultivated at different locations outside the conventional area.

Proline:

High proline accumulation normally found in leaves and roots with stressed water conditions. This study analyzes proline at leaves. Variance analysis results show that that there is no significant relation between different altitude and different mulch types on levels of proline at shallot leaves. Similarly, mulch type is not significant, but different altitude significantly affect on proline levels in shallot leaves of 'lembah palu' shallot at 40 days after planting. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 6 shows that higher land makes proline content of 'lembah palu' shallot leaves tends to decrease. 'lembah palu' shallot varieties at altitude of 150 m above sea level has a higher proline (30.7967 pmol.planf1) and significantly different at location with altitude of 450 and 750 m above sea level. This shows that 'lembah palu' shallot with water stress is higher at 150 m above sea level compared to altitude of 450 m above sea level and 750 m above sea level. Proline compounds closely relates to plant's ability to overcome the adverse effects of environmental stress, including water deficit. Muhammad-Ansar [19] found that higher temperature in lowlands and followed by limited soil moisture will spur higher proline accumulation in shallot leaves.

Harvest age:

Harvest age is one variables to observe plant phenology. It relates to length of vegetative and generative phase of plant growth and development cycle. Variance analysis result show that relation of altitude and mulch type did not significantly affect on union harvest age, but a single factor of locations and mulch significantly affect on tuber harvest age of 'lembah palu' shallot. BNJ test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 6 shows higher altitude above sea level will increase harvest age. 'lembah palu' shallot varieties at altitude of 750 m above sea level has an average harvest age of 75.0 days while at altitude of 450 m above sea level and 150 m above sea level can be harvested after the age of 72.8 and 69.8 days, respectively. Age range is obtained in accordance with description of 'lembah palu' shallot has ranges between 65-70 days.

Mulch effect on Shallot harvest age is shown in Table 7. Mulch usage (rice straw and black plastic) increase the harvest age of 'lembah palu' shallot and this is a significantly differ with no mulch. This can occur because the mulch has role to improve soil moisture and soil moisture availability can extend the growth phase of plant to decrease harvest age criteria. Muhammad-Ansar et al. (2013) found that availability of soil moisture is 10.97% higher for land covered by mulch rice straw and 12.37% higher for land covered by black plastic mulch compared to soil without mulch.

Total Soluble Solid (TSS):

Variance analysis result shows that relation of altitude and mulch type did not significantly affect on Total Soluble Solid in tubers, but a single factor of locations and mulch significantly affect the TSS in 'lembah palu' shallot. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 6 shows that higher altitude tends to increase TSS. 'Lembah palu' shallots planted at altitude of 150 m above sea level have highest total dissolved solids in amount of 29.11 brix and significantly different at location with altitude of 450 and 750 m above sea level, respectively 26.11 and 25.22 brix.

Table 7 illustrates that rice straw mulch usage significantly can increase the TSS content in tubers and significantly different with black plastic mulch, but not significantly different from without mulch. Muhammadansar et al. [20] showed that 'lembah palu' shallot has the highest content of TSS and significantly different with 'Sumenep' shallot and the lowest TSS is obtained from 'Palasa' shallot. Content of TSS is specified by genetic nature of each shallot varieties. It can also be influenced by environmental factors. Air temperature caused by difference in altitude and soil moisture content plays an important role in process of plants photosynthesis to make assimilates at tubers for storage (sink). Tuber water content is low and TSS is higher in 'lembah palu' shallot. It can indicate the 'lembah palu' shallot can become raw materials of fried shallot with good quality.

Tuber hardness:

Tuber hardness is a form of resistance to deformation, lower hardness will be easily deformable (Bourne, 1982). Variance analysis result shows that relation of altitude and mulch type did not significantly affect on tuber hardness level. Similarly, location factors had no significant effect, but the mulch factors significantly affect on tuber hardness of 'lembah palu' shallot. Tukey test results at [alpha] 0.05 in Table 7 shows that black plastic mulch usage produce the highest tuber hardness (94.17 newton) and significantly different from without mulch, but not significantly different from rice straw mulch. Hardness level is strongly associated with tuber water content. High water content will lead to lower tuber hardness and total dissolved solids [20]. Changes in water content in tubers are affected by evaporation and respiration which in turn will affect by tuber weight [15]. As stated by Woldetsadik [29], availability of soil moisture affects on growth and quality of shallot tuber.

Conclusion:

1. There is no significant relation between the altitude at above sea level and mulch type on all components of growth, yield and quality of 'lembah palu' shallot.

2. Variations in altitude at above sea level did not significantly affect on plant growth components (leaves number, leaves width, leaves width per plant, leaves dry weight per plant) as well as the components of yield and quality (length and diameter, water content, and fresh weight of tuber per hectare of 'lembah palu' shallot with range of 7.06 to 7.29 tones/ha. Altitude only significantly affect the growth component (leaves length, root dry weight, root-shoot ratio, total dry weight per plant, leaves proline levels), as well as yield components (harvest age and total soluble solids) in tuber of 'lembah palu' shallot.

3. Type mulch only significantly affect on yield and quality components of shallot tuber (number of tubers per clump, tuber fresh weight per clump, dry weight per 10 tuber, harvest age, total dissolved solids and tuber hardness) of 'lembah palu' shallot. Rice straw mulch produce higher tubers number per clump, tuber fresh weight per clump, dry weight per 10 tuber and total soluble solids and significantly different from without mulch, but generally the addition of straw mulch and black plastic insignificantly differ with black plastic mulch.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 23 June 2015

Accepted 10 August 2015

Available online 25 August 2015

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Muhammad-Ansar

University of Tadulako, Faculty of Agriculture, Central Sulawesi--Indonesia

Corresponding Author: Muhammad-Ansar, University of Tadulako, Faculty of Agriculture, Jl. Soekarno Hatta KM 9 Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia 94118
Table 1: Location, altitude, temperature, humidity, sunlight
intensity (SI) and soil characteristics.

Location    Altitude   Temperature      Relative     SI ([micro]mol
(Village)   (m asl)    ([degrees]C)   humidity (%)     [m.sup.-2]
                                                     [sec.sup.-1])

Solouve       150         30,0 a        61,22 c         692,00 a

Makmur        450         27,7 b        68,90 b         626,33 b

Bobo          750         26,2 c        73,22 a         577,67 c

Location                      Soil characteristic
(Village)

Solouve      Lom texture, pH 6,2; N total low, [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]
                          very low, [K.sub.2]O medium

Makmur           Lom coarse texture, pH 5,4; N total very low,
                  [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] high, [K.sub.2]O medium

Bobo         Lom texture, pH 5,9; N total low, [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]
                         very high, [K.sub.2]O medium

Source: Primary data analysis, 2011.

Description:
asl = above sea level

Table 2: Leaves number, leaves width, leaves width per
plant and leaves dry weight per plant of 'lembah palu'
shallot at different altitudes

Altitude          Leaves       Leaves      Leaves width    Leaves dry
(m asl.)         number at   width (cm)   per plant (cm)   weight (g)
                  40 dap     at 40 dap      at 40 dap      at 40 dap

150                19,22       1,024          332,32         0,478
450                18,18       1,059          510,35         0,733
750                23,61       1,163          486,36         0,699
Tukey               ns           ns             ns             ns
  [alpha] 0,05

Description: the numbers with same letters in same
column significantly are not different at Tukey test
[alpha] 0.05.

ns = not significant

dap = days after planting

asl = above sea level

Table 3: Leaves length, root dry weight, root-shoot ratio and total
dry weight per plant of 'lembah palu' shallot at different altitudes.

Altitude         Leaves length   Root leaves   Root-shoot   Total dry
(m asl.)            (cm) at      weight (g)     ratio at    weight (g)
                    40 dap        at 40 dap      40 dap     at 40 dap

150                 21,70 a        0,68 a        1,53 a       3,01 b
450                 22,47 a        0,05 b        0,08 b       2,31 b
750                 19,40 b        0,14 b        0,21 b       3,90 a
Tukey                2,04           0,15          0,44         0,74
  [alpha] 0,05

Description: the numbers with same letters in same
column significantly are not different at Tukey test
[alpha] 0.05.

ns = not significant

dap = days after planting

asl = above sea level

Table 4: Tuber length, diameter and fresh weight per hectare and
tuber water content of 'lembah palu' shallot at different altitudes.

Altitude         Tuber      Tuber      Fresh tuber      Tuber
(m asl.)         length   diameter     weight per       water
                  (cm)      (cm)      hectare (ton)   level (%)

150               1,55      1,03          7,29          49,01
450               0,95      0,95          7,06          40,23
750               1,36      1,12          7,29          46,41
Tukey              ns        Ns            ns            ns
  [alpha] 0,05

Description: the numbers with same letters in same column
significantly are not different at Tukey test [alpha] 0.05.

ns = not significant

asl = above sea level

Table 5: Tuber number per clump, tuber fresh weight per clump and dry
weight per 10 tuber of 'lembah palu' shallot with mulch types
treatment.

Mulch type            Tuber number   Fresh tuber      Dry weight
                       per clump     weight per    per 10 tuber (g)
                                      clump (g)

Without mulch            4,74 b        25,38 b         29,99 b
Rice straw mulch         5,96 a        34,34 a         38,44 a
Black plastic mulch      5,11 b       27,05 ab         34,43 ab
Tukey [alpha] 0,05        0,44          7,33             6,58

Description: the numbers with same letters in same column
significantly are not different at BJN test [alpha] 0.05.

Table 6: 'Lembah palu' shallot at different altitudes.

Altitude                 Proline        Harvest       Total
(m asl.)              ([micro]mol.     age (day)     soluble
                     [plant.sup.-1])               solid (brix)

150                     30,7967 a       69,78 c      29,11 a
450                     22,3378 b       72,78 b      26,11 b
750                     14,5133 c       75,00 a      25,22 b
Tukey [alpha] 0,05       2,0328          1,12          0,97

Description: the numbers with same letters in same column
significantly are not different at Tukey test [alpha] 0.05.

ns = not significant

asl = above sea level

Table 7: Harvest age, total soluble solids and tuber hardness of
 'lembah palu' shallot with mulch types treatment.

Mulch type             Harvest    Total soluble   Tuber hardness
                      age (day)   solid (brix)       (newton)

Without mulch          70,44 b      26,72 ab         84,811 b
Rice straw mulch       73,89 a       27,39 a         91,69 ab
Black plastic mulch    73,22 a       26,33 b         94,17 a
Tukey [alpha] 0,05      1,12          0,972            8,27

Description: the numbers with same letters in same column
significantly are not different at Tukey test [alpha] 0.05.
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Author:Muhammad-Ansar
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Aug 1, 2015
Words:6059
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