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Effect of Ujjayi Pranayama on selected physiological variables.

Introduction

Today yoga is being a subject of varied interest, gained world popularity. Recent research trends have shown that it can serve as an applied science in a number of fields such as education, physical education and sports, health and family welfare, psychology and medicine also one of the valuable means fort he development of human resources for the better performance and productivity however their exist controversy in accepting yoga as medicine and therapy because it generally been believed that yoga is a spiritual science having emancipation a s its goal and hence cannot be treated only as a therapy. Yoga has its own way of strengthening the weak part of the body. Research in the field of yoga have established that the yogic Asana, pranayam and Kriyas are the best and useful as they help not only to strengthen each organ and develop every muscle of the body but also regulate the circulation of body blood, purity of lungs, inspire the mind and thus develop the harmonious development of human personality. A variety of Yogic practices are being done by top sportsman/ Olympian athletes of many countries like Brazil, Argentina, Poland, Germany, Canada etc. as a form of conditioning or relaxation exercise. Pranayam is science of respiration. The author of Hatha Pradipika gives eight varieties of Pranayam, one of which is Ujjayi. The chief characteristics of the Ujjayi Pranayam is the Loud noise produces, as will be seen in the technique, by partial closer of the Glottis. This Pranayam is called Ujjayi to distinguish it from other varieties or congtore is rendered to able, when we take into consideration the two following effects; first the prefix vd occurring in the name Ujjayi means aloud. Second Ujjayi, a variant reading noticed by Bhramananda in his commentary on Hatha Pradipika, actually means pronounced loudly. Pranayam include the circulation of blood and capable of producing very high pressure in the lungs and in the thorax. Pranayam is the one of the first exercise for a weak heart and weak lungs. If its physiology is properly known and if it is judiciously administered exercise is cap[able of giving wonderful results.

High abdomen pressure created in Pranayam by action and counter action of the different anatomical parts together with the upward area is responsible for awakening of kundalini.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of Ujjayi Pranayam on the selected physiological variables among female students studying in Bachelor of Physical Education degree at Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior.

Hypothesis

On the basis of literature reviewed, research finding and scholar's own understanding of the problem it was hypothesized that there will be a significant improvement in the selected physiological variables on the female students studying in Bachelor of Physical Education degree at Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior

Methodology

For the purpose of present study 30 female students studying in Bachelor of Physical Education degree at Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior, India were selected randomly as the subjects for the study.

Experimental design

Random group design was used for the purpose of the present study. First the subjects were divided into two equal groups by drawing a lot. Group "A" acted as experimental group and Group "B" acted as Control group. Both groups consist of fifteen subjects each. Prior to the administration of test pre test scores for all the selected variables were collected. After eight weeks of training post test scores were collected on each of the selected variables. Experimental group perform Ujjayi pranayam daily for 30 minutes. No training was imparted to the control group.

Selection of variables

Following variables were selected for the purpose of present study:

1. Resting Heart Rate

2. Resting Pulse rate

3. Resting Respiratory Rate

4. Vital capacity

5. Breath Holding Time

i) Positive Breath Holding

ii) Negative Breath Holding

6. Peak Flow Rate

7. Blood Pressure

i) Systolic Blood Pressure

ii) Diastolic Blood Pressure

8. Cardiovascular Endurance

Collection of data

Data were collected by administering tests on the Bachelor of Physical Education degree students in the college premises. The practice trial in each test as per the prescription was ensured to each subject before the actual testing. This was done to familiarize the subjects with the nature and the demand of test. The use of apparatus was explained to them prior to the administration of test.

Statistical procedure

To investigate the effect of Ujjayi Pranayam on selected physiological variables Analysis of Co Variance was used at .05 level of significance. For the purpose of the analysis of data Software SPSS for Windows (11.5 Version) and Microsoft Excel was used.

Results and findings

Data were collected on thirty subjects belonging to two group i.e. one experimental and one control group to study the effect of Ujjayi Pranayam on selected physiological variable. The subjects were divided into two equal groups consisting of fifteen subjects each belonging to one experimental and one control group. Experimental group A was exposed to Ujjayi Pranayam and Control group B was not exposed to any Pranayam. Experimental group practiced for eight weeks. Data was analyzed using the Analysis of covariance at .05 level of significance. The subjects of both groups were compared on selected physiological variables. The results of analysis of covariance were presented through table 2 to 10.

Discussion of findings

The analysis of co-variance was used to find out the effect of ujjayi pranayama on female students of B. P.E., Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education. It was observed that their was no significance difference in Resting Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure, Vital Capacity, Maximum Breath Holding Time, Peak Flow Rate and Cardio Vascular Endurance.There was significant difference in Resting Heart Rate and Resting Pulse Rate. It was observed from the above findings that eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was found to be effective in case of Resting Heart Rate and Resting Pulse Rate where as it was not effective in case of Resting Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure, Vital Capacity, Maximum Breath Holding Time, Peak Flow Rate and Cardio Vascular Endurance. (M.M. Gore, 1984, M.A Wenger, B.K. Bagchi, 1996). In case of Resting Heart Rate findings of the present study was supported by Mertan where he concluded that during Ujjayi breathing without retention of breath the cardiac output increases while heart rate decrease in comparison to deep breathing of similar time reaction for inspiration and expiration. The characteristics features of Ujjayi are expected to be responsible for this effect. Other observation made by the scholar could not be supported by other researcher. More over the duration of training period was 8 weeks might be too short period for bringing any significant change in Resting Respiratory Rate, Maximum Breath Holding Time, Blood Pressure, Vital Capacity, Peak Flow Rate and Cardio Vascular Endurance. Under these circumstances the scholar is unable to give appropriate reason for above observation of the study & more in depth study is needed to find out the cause effect of Ujjayi Pranayama on selected physiological variables. (S.V. Devanand, 1959; J. Mertan, M.V., Bhole, 1979; P.V. Karambelkar, R.R Deshapande, M.V. Bhole, 1983; G. Shankar, N.P. Giri, 1995)

Discussing of hypothesis

In case of Resting Heart Rate and Resting Pulse Rate, hypothesis that there will be a significant improvement in selected physiological variable was accepted.In case of Resting Respiratory Rate, Maximum Breath Holding Time, Blood Pressure, Vital Capacity, Peak Flow Rate, Cardio Vascular Endurance, hypothesis that there will be a significant improvement in selected physiological variable was not accepted.,

Conclusions

1. There was a significant difference in the Resting Heart Rate which revealed that there is a significant effect of the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama on female students of B.P.E.

2. There was a significant difference in the Resting Pulse Rate which revealed that there is a significant effect of the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama on female friends of B.P.E.

3. There was no significant difference in the Peak Flow Rate which revealed that the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was not effective in this variable.

4. There was no significant difference in the Blood Pressure which revealed that the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was not effective in this variable.

5. There was no significant difference in the Maximum Breath Holding Time which revealed that the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was not effective in this variable.

6. There was no significant difference in the Cardio Vascular Endurance which revealed that the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was not effective in this variable.

7. There was no significant difference in the Vital Capacity which revealed that the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was not effective in this variable.

8. There was no significant difference in the Resting Respiratory Rate which revealed that the eight week training programme of Ujjayi Pranayama was not effective in this variable.

References

DEVANAND, S.V., 1959, The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga, New York: Bell Publication.

GORE, M.M., 1984, Anatomy and Physiology of Yogic Practices Pune: Kanchan Prakshan.

KARAMBELKAR, M.V., BHOLE, P.V., 1971, Effect of Yoga Training on Vital Capacity and Breath Holding Time Yoga Mimasa XIV:19-26.

KARAMBELKAR, P.V., DESHAPANDE, R.R., BHOLE, M.V., 1983, "Some Respiratory Studies in Ujjayi and Bhastrika Pranayama with Bhaya Kumbhka" Yoga Mimasa 22 :7-12.

MERTAN, J., BHOLE, M.V., 1979, Cardiac Output in Normal, Deep and Ujjayi (Pranayamic) Breathing Yoga Mimasa 19:11- 17.

SHANKAR, G., GIRI, N.P., 1995, Abstract from International Conference on Health, Sport and Physical Education; Need for an Integrated Approach, Jan 6- 18.

WENGER, M.A., BAGCHI, B.K., 1996, Series of Autonomic Functions in Practitioners of Yoga in India, Behavioral Science :312-313

RAKESH TOMAR (1), NEELIMA SINGH (2)

(1) Department of Physical Education, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, SAUDI ARABIA

(2) Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shahanjhapur, UP, INDIA rakesh@yahoo.com
Table--2. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR RESTING HEART RATE

S.      Test                    Groups                  df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      71.933         69.933         A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     71.2           65.8           A       1
        Means                                       B       28
                      70.872         66.128
3.      Adjusted                                    A       1
        Post Test                                   B       27
        Means

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      30             30             .617
        Means         1361.85        48.6

2.      Post Test     218703         218J0          5.285
        Means         1158.79        41.386
                                                    4.405
3.      Adjusted      165.125        165.125
        Post Test     1012.07        37.484
        Means

Table--3. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR RESTING PULSE RATE

S.      Test                    Groups                  df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      71.467         69.6           A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     70.467         65.133         A       1
        Means                                       W       28

3.      Adjusted      70.186         65.414         A       1
        Post Test                                   W       27
        Means

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      26.141         26.141         0.512
        Means         1429.32        51.047

2.      Post Test     213.328        213.328        5.463
        Means         1093.46        39.052

3.      Adjusted      167.742        167.742        4.696
        Post Test     964.389        35.718
        Means

Table--4. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR RESTING RESPIRATORY RATE

S.      Test                    Groups                    df
No.                   Experimental  Control
                      A             B

1.      Pre Test      18.6          19.00             A       1
        Means                                         W       28

2.      Post Test     16.6          16.3              A       1
        Means                                         W       28

3.      Adjusted      16.696        16.237            A       1
        Post Test Means                               W       27

S.      Test          Sum of        Mean Sum          F
No.                   Squares       of Squares        Ratio

1.      Pre Test      1.2           1.2               0.084
        Means         399.6         14.271

2.      Post Test     0.533         0.533             0.052
        Means         284.934       10.176

3.      Adjusted      1.578         1.578             0.222
        Post Test     192.104       7.115
        Means

Table--5. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR PEAK FLOW RATE

S.      Test                    Groups                 df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      394.667        436.667        A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     427.333        475.333        A       1
        Means                                       B       28

3.      Adjusted      441.229        461.438        A       1
        Post Test                                   B       27
        Means

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      13230          13230          1.553
        Means         238556         8519.875

2.      Post Test     17280          17280          2.524
        Means         191666.5       6845.232

3.      Adjusted      2901.938       2901.938       .898
        Post Test     87214.398      3230.163
        Means

Table--6. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR MAXIMUM BREATH HOLDING (POSITIVE)

S.      Test                    Groups                 df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      47             44             A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     60.46          55.53          A       1
        Means                                       B       28

3.      Adjusted      58.862         57.13          A       1
        Post Test Means                             B       27

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      67.5           67.5           .382
        Means         4946           176.643

2.      Post Test     182.531        182.531        .655
        Means         7801.469       278.624

3.      Adjusted      22.006         22.006         0.277
        Post Test     2143.543       79.390
        Means

Table--7. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR MAXIMUM BREATH HOLDING (NEGATIVE)

S.      Test                        Groups                 df
No.                       Experimental   Control
                          A              B

1.      Pre Test          40.067         45.6           A       1
        Means                                           W       28

2.      Post Test         49.867         46.533         A       1
        Means                                           B       28

3.      Adjusted          51.369         45.031         A       1
        Post Test                                       B       27
        Means

S.      Test              Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                       Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test          229.633        229.633        .328
        Means             19610.535      700.376

2.      Post Test         83.328         83.328         .289
        Means             8085.469       288.767

3.      Adjusted          297.772        297.772        3.49
        Post Test         2303.527       85.316
        Means

Table--8. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

S.      Test                    Groups                 df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      115            112.667        A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     118.867        116.667        A       1
        Means                                       B       28

3.      Adjusted      118.228        117.305        A       1
        Post Test Means                             B       27

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      40.812         40.812         .323
        Means         3543.34        126.548

2.      Post Test     36.312         36.312         .547
        Means         1859.062       66.395

3.      Adjusted      6.331          6.331          .214
        Post Test     798.715        29.582
        Means

Table--9. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL
AND CONTROL GROUP FOR DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

S.      Test                    Groups                 df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      58.467         61.533         A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     61.667         62.600         A       1
        Means                                       B       28

3.      Adjusted      62.578         61.689         A       1
        Post Test Means                             B       27

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      70.531         70.531         1.568
        Means         1259.469       44.981

2.      Post Test     6.539          6.539           .192
        Means         952.930        34.033

3.      Adjusted      5.619          5.619           .299
        Post Test     508.060        18.817
        Means

Table--10. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE

S.      Test                    Groups                 df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      52.807         61.880         A       1
        Means                                       W       28

2.      Post Test     56.307         67.287         A       1
        Means                                       B       28

3.      Adjusted      63.053         66.114         A       1
        Post Test                                   B       27
        Means

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      91.875         91.875         2.038
        Means         1262.14        45.07

2.      Post Test     219.250        219.250        2.316
        Means         2650.58        94.664

3.      Adjusted      65.527         65.527         0.849
        Post Test     2083.90        77.182
        Means

Table--11. ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF THE MEANS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND
CONTROL GROUP FOR CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE

S.     Test                     Groups                  df
No.                   Experimental   Control
                      A              B

1.      Pre Test      2183.33        2546.66        A         1
        Means                                       W         28

2.      Post Test     2333.33        2686.66        A         1
        Means                                       B         28

3.      Adjusted      2489.442       2530.55        A         1
        Post Test                                   B         27
        Means

S.      Test          Sum of         Mean Sum       F Ratio
No.                   Squares        of Squares

1.      Pre Test      990080         990080         6.522
        Means         4250672        151809.714

2.      Post Test     936320         936320         6.504
        Means         4030672        143952.571

3.      Adjusted      10269.562      10269.562      0.311
        Post Test     891871.188     33032.266
        Means

Fig. 1 Post Test Adjusted Means of Resting Heart Rate
Pulse Rate

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      70.87
Control group           66.12

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 2 Post Test Adjusted Means of Resting

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      70.87
Control group           65.41

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 3 Post Test Adjusted Means of Resting Respiratory Rate

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      16.69
Control group           16.23

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 4 Post Test Adjusted Means of Peak Flow Rate

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      441.22
Control group           461.43

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 5 Post Test Adjusted Means of Maximum Breath Holding (Positive)

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      58.86
Control group           57.13

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 6 Post Test Adjusted Means of Maximum Breath Holding (Negative)

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      51.36
Control group           45.03

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 7 Post Test Adjusted Means of Systolic Blood Pressure

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      118.22
Control group           117.3

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 8 Post Test Adjusted Means of Diastolic Blood Pressure
                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      62.57
Control group           61.68

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 9 Post Test Adjusted Means of Cardiovascular Endurance

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      63.05
Control group           66.11

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 10 Post Test Adjusted Means of Vital Capacity

                        Mean Scores

Experimental Group      2489.44
Control group           2530.55

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Title Annotation:VARIA
Author:Tomar, Rakesh; Singh, Neelima
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Words:3081
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