Effect of Storage Duration and Low Temperatures on Reproductive Characteristics of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
Abstract Green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) among the predators is an important component of biological control in integrated pest management of crops and vegetables.
Reproductive characteristics of C. carnea lead towards its effectiveness against target pests in a particular set of environmental conditions. The present study was carried out to investigate the reproductive characteristics of C. carnea under laboratory conditions.
Effect of low temperature and storage durations on the reproductive parameters of C. carnea at adult stage on different temperature conditions have showed that the reproductive parameters as pre-oviposition period, oviposition and adult life span were comparatively better for both short and long term storage durations.
Although the adult survived after stored at 6 and 8oC temperature conditions, storage was better for both long and short term durations at 10oC. So, it is obvious from the present findings that whenever, needed to conserve particular strains in laboratories for experimentation or field releases, storage at 10oC gave prolonged survival to adults without the detrimental effects.
Key words: Storage temperature, storage duration, Chrysoperla carnea.
Common green lace wing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a natural enemy of many insects and is present worldwide in many cropping systems (Lopez et al., 1976).
This naturally occurring predator is found in many agro ecosystems with broad range of hosts from harmful insects fauna of crops (Tauber et al., 1993) and can be reared under laboratory conditions on different hosts (Hamed et al., 2009; Nadeem et al., 2012).
It commonly feeds in larval form, while adult sucks cell sap of leaves in crops, vegetables, fruit plants and weed habitats. This predator has a tremendous predacious potential and can consume many species of insect pests, such as nymph of whiteflies, aphids, thrips and eggs of bollworms and other soft bodied insects (Gurbanov, 1984; Hashami, 2001; Atlihan et al., 2004; Silva et al., 2007).
As a voracious feeder of pests in field crops, field releases are giving successful results and its larvae have a wide range of prey upon insects (Reddy and Manjunatha, 2000).
Storage of insects can be achieved by holding them either in diapause or non diapause conditions under low temperatures (Nordlund and Morrison, 1992; Chang et al., 1995).
Low temperature regimes, prolonged the shelf life of eggs of C. carnea (Arroyo et al., 2000). In adults of Chrysolperla carnea, short to long term storage can be attained at low temperatures with least significant effects (Albuquerque et al., 1994; Chang et al., 1996).
Previous work showed that a lot of research has been reported on studying the biology, rearing and field releases of C. carnea (Albuquerque et al., 1994).
Tauber et al. (1997a), observed more than 85% survival to adults and indicates that survival decreased as the storage duration increased. Reproduction in adults after storage of 30 and 60 days at 10oC was almost at par to that of the control (un-stored at 24oC) which in progress of oviposition after 6 days.
All females laid fertile eggs and the average rate of oviposition was 15-18 eggs/day with 97% egg fertility. At 120 days of storage, the reduction in reproductive performances was in comparable to that of 30 and 60 days storage.
Tauber et al. (1997b) have reported the variation in life history in Chrysoperla carnea after stored at low temperature and their results showed that storage of diapaused adults, at 5oC temperature for 13 weeks yielded with better survival and reproduction ability as compared to un stored at 24oC. Chang et al. (2003), have carried bulk rearing, production and storage of Chrysoperla carnea with four Carnea biotype and one Mohave biotype population. Mohave population showed delayed oviposition as compared to Carnea populations.
Survival to diapased adults after storage of first 18 weeks recorded high among all the 4 Carnea populations and survival remained high up to 35 weeks of storage in other 3 Carnea populations. After 6 weeks storage, adults tended to produce average fecundity ranged from 400-900 eggs/female.
However, in commercialization, the storage by the effective means is still lacking. Realizing the need of storage, the efforts were carried out in the present investigations to sort out a suitable low temperature for certain durations with good post storage quality of C. carnea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was designed to find out the optimum storage temperature and duration of the predator, Chrysoperla carnea at its adult stage in cooled incubators. Experiments were carried out by using adults reared on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Hamed and Nadeem, 2012) from the offspring of naturally occurring C. carnea in crops supplied by the mass rearing laboratories at NIAB, Faisalabad and experiment was carried out in same laboratories.
Adult of the predator, C. carnea, were held separately at temperatures of 6, 8 and 10 C and stored for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days in cooled incubators.
Experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 repeats and 10 adults were kept at each temperature and storage durations. Adults were provided water and artificial diet made up of protein hydrolysate, yeast and honey. After completing the storage period according to each treatment and duration, adults were transferred and placed at standard temperature 25+-2oC and 65+-5% relative humidity conditions.
After storage, adults were paired in rearing chambers and keep on under observation for the record of biological life parameters of the predator. Pre-oviposition period (days) was recorded before egg laying.
Oviposition, eggs laid (no) per female per day was counted from the cloth provided on upper side of rearing chamber and female adult longevity (days) recorded from all the observed conditions. Data were analyzed statistically by MSTAT-C software programme and means were compared by Duncan multiple new range test (Steel et al., 1997). Standard error (+-SE) was calculated by Microsoft excel programme.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Reproductive characteristics of Chrysoperla carnea at adult stages after held at low temperatures, 6, 8 and 10oC storage without higher rates of mortality to adults at different durations (5,
10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days) in comparison to the control narrated significant differences.
Results showed significant variations for pre- oviposition period (days) at 6oC (F = 17.85, df = 11, P = 0.0000), 8oC (F = 6.84, df= 11, P = 0.0000) and 10oC (F = 5.88, df = 11, P = 0.0000) (Table I). Pre- oviposition period at 6oC was observed as the lowest (6.6) after 5 days storage and increased gradually at other storage durations and reach to the highest (14) after 90 days of long term storage.
Similar trend of pre-oviposition was witnessed at 8oC conditions from 5 to 90 days storage. At 10oC conditions the lowest (5.4) and the highest (9) period was recorded after 5 and 90 days of storage conditions, respectively.
Our findings suggest that pre- oviposition period increased as the duration of storage increased from 15 to 90 days when compared to 7.1 days of pre-oviposition period at control conditions.
Oviposition of female after held under various temperature conditions showed significant variations at 6oC (F = 16.67, df = 11, P = 0.0000), 8oC (F = 8.86, df = 11, P = 0.0000); 10oC (F = 7.7560, df = 11, P = 0.0000) (Table I) comparable to control 20.8 eggs/day/female. High rates of post storage pre-oviposition period were observed at 10oC temperature conditions. Female oviposited 19 eggs per day after stored for 5 days and 8.3 eggs after storage of 90 days observed as the highest and the lowest one at 6oC storage conditions, respectively. At 8oC, female oviposit in a trend with increased duration, the number of eggs were decreased from 18.4 to 9.4 after 5 and 90 days of storage conditions, respectively.
Oviposition at 10oC yielded better performance where female gave highest number of eggs by a single female ranged from 19.2 to 12.3 per day from 5 to 90 days of storage durations.
Different temperatures and durations had significant effects on adult female longevity (days) at 6oC (F = 9.98, df = 11, P = 0.0000), 8oC (F =5.13, df = 11, P = 0.0000) and 10oC (F = 11.80, df =11, P = 0.0000) (Table I).
Our results illustrated that female respond to survive for 33.7, 34 and 33.3 days at 6, 8 and 10oC temperature conditions, respectively at 5 days storage. At 10 days storage 33, 33.2 and 32.1 days of female longevity were observed at 3 tested temperatures, respectively. After 15 days storage, longevity was almost same as 32.8, 32.1 and 32.8 days, respectively.
Nevertheless the extended storage of adults at various temperatures and durations yielded better female longevity for short term storage up to 30 days which gave storage of almost one month at 10oC lower than un-stored (42.7 days) but prolonged the shelf life without the detrimental effects to adults.
Adults withstand the prolonged storage for 90 days at all tested temperatures for 20 to 25.7 days of female adult longevity.
From the illustrations of our results it is clear that although adults were survived after stored at 6 and 8oC of temperature conditions but the reproductive parameters were comparatively better at 10oC conditions, for both short and long term storage up to 90 days.
Results obtained in present study are inconsistent to the study reported by Tauber et al. (1997b), who have got storage of C. carnea adults at 5oC temperature conditions and got 24.4 eggs, after 30 days of the adult storage. Our results are in the line with the work reported by Tauber et al. (1997a) who have got oviposition by C. externa at 10oC upto 15 eggs per day for 60 days of adult storage and 10.1 eggs per day at 120 days storage.
Comparable study to our results was carried by Chang et al. (2003) who has reported egg laying by female held for 42 days of storage.
The effect of storage duration and temperature on the reproductive characteristics as pre-oviposition period, fecundity/female/day and adult female longevity at the adult stage of C. carnea at different temperature conditions have showed that although the adults survived after held at 6 and 8oC temperature conditions but these characteristics were comparatively better at 10oC, for up to 90 days.
However, comparative study is advisable for further investigations on other methods of storage of C. carnea.
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|Author:||Nadeem, Sajid; Hamed, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad Kashif; Hasnain, Muhammad|
|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Zoology|
|Date:||Feb 28, 2014|
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