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Effect of Natural and Hydroponic Barley Plant and Sprout on the Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Growth Performances.


World aquaculture has grown tremendously during the last years becoming an economically important industry. Today it is the fastest growing food-producing sector in the world with the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for aquatic food [1]. Globally, aquaculture is expanding into new directions, intensifying and diversifying. A persistent goal of global aquaculture is to maximize the efficiency of production to optimize profitability.

Barley is used for a wide range of traditional and novel end-uses. In most countries, the major portion of barley is fed to animals, particularly cattle and pigs. Human food uses of barley are more limited, although recent trends in the use of barley varieties, high in dietary fiber, have been identified. A significant high-value use is to produce malt as a raw material for the brewing industries, including beer and whiskey. An arabinoxylan-rich germinated barley product has been reported by Kanauchi [2] to induce the proliferation of bifidobacteria in the human intestine. However, as for all known and emerging prebiotics, convincing evidence of a consistent clinical benefit in the treatment of IBD remains to be demonstrated in large, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies [3,4].

Maltose is produced by hydrolysis of starch using the enzyme p-amylase. It occurs only rarely in nature and only in plants as a result of partial hydrolysis of starch. Maltose is produced during malting of grains, especially barley, and commercially by the specific enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of starch using p-amylase from Bacillus species, although the p-amylases from barley seed, soybeans, and sweet potatoes may be used. Maltose is used sparingly as a mild sweetener for foods. Proteins of major cereals and legumes are often deficient in at least one of the essential amino acids. While proteins of cereals, such as rice, wheat, barley, and maize are very low in lysine and rich in methionine, those of legumes and oilseeds are deficient in methionine and rich or adequate in lysine. Oats, barley, and rye are examples of cereals that contain a relatively high percent (5%-25% of total carbohydrates) of non-starch polysaccharides in the flour. The pentosan fraction of cereals is a complex mixture of branched polysaccharides with an arabinoxylan backbone containing small amounts of glucose and ferulic acid [5].

So the objective of the study compare natural planting, Barley sprout powder and hydroponic germination of Barley of common carp growth performance in weight gain, Daily growth rate, Specific growth rate, Relative growth rate, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), Food efficiency ratio (FER) and Protein efficiency ratio (PER).

Materials and Methods

Experimental diet

Seven practical diets were formulated based on the proximate composition of the feed ingredients. Diet 1 (Control diet free of any barley), diets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 contained 2.5 and 5 gm/kg diet of each of natural, Barley sprout powder and hydroponic planting respectively on an equivalent protein basis. Composition and proximate analysis of different experimental diet diets were shown in Table 1 and the chemical composition of the different diet by NRC et al. [6,7] explained in Table 2.

Animal concentrate commercial Brocon-5 Special W 40% imported by Wafi. B.V. Holland.

Premix: vitamins: Vit A: 6000 UI; Vit D3: 1000 UI; Vit E: 60 UI; Vit K: 12 UI; Vit B1: 24 mg/kg: Vit B2: 24 mg/kg; Pantothenic acid: 60 mg/kg; Niacin: 120 mg/kg; Vit B6: 24 mg/kg; Biotin: 0.24 mg/kg; Folic acid: 6 mg/kg; Choline chloride: 540 mg/kg; Vit B12: 0.024 mg/kg. Minerals include (mg/kg): Fe: 50; Cu: 3; Mn: 20; Zn: 50; I: 0.1; Co: 0.01; Se: 0.1.

Fish and feeding regime

Common carp Cyprinus carpio fingerlings with an average weight 34.71 g were brought from local fish farm located in Daqoq/HaftaGar Middle of Iraq were randomly allocated on the aquaria (7/aquarium). Each treatment was represented in three aquariums (3 replicates). A feeding regime of 3% body weight per day was employed throughout the experiment. The amount of food was calculated and readjusted weekly according to change in the body weight and distributed in three equal portions for 56 days.

Experimental diets

The different feeding combinations (seven formulas of isoenergy diets, (Table 1) were prepared as follows:

The control as T1 with 0% barley, Natural planting as T2 with 2.5 gm/kg diet, T3 with 5 gm/kg diet, Hydroponic Planting as T4 with 2.5 gm/kg diet, T5 with 5 gm/kg diet 5), Barley sprout powder as T6 with 2.5 gm/kg diet, and T7 with and 5 gm/kg diet.

Experimental system

The experimental facility consisted of 21 Aquaria (60 litters each). Each aquarium was supplied with aerated and dechlorinated tap water, which was stored in tanks for 24 hours and aerated by air pump (Model-Rina 301) during the experimental period. The water level was maintained to a fixed level by the addition of new well-aerated fresh water.

Growth parameters

The individual body weight (g) and total body length (cm) for all fish per treatment were measured weekly. The feed consumption of each treatment was recorded and readjusted according to the obtained biomass at every treatment weekly. The average body weight gain (WG) as (g/fish) was estimated according to the following equation:

Body weight gain (g/fish)=Mean of weight (g) at the end of the experimental period-weight (g) at the beginning of the experimental period

Daily weight gain (DWG)=Gain/experimental period

Relative weight gain (RWG%)=Gain/initial weight x 100

Specific growth rate (SGR)=(In W1-In W0)/T) x 100

W1: final weight W0: initial weight T: time between W1 and W0

Feed conversion ratio (FCR)=Total feed fed (g/fish)/total wet weight gain (g/fish)

Protein efficiency ratio (PER)=Total wet weight gain (g/fish)/amount of protein fed (g/fish).

Statistical Analysis of Data

Statistical analysis was performed using the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) two-way classification and Duncan's multiple Range Test, to determine differences between treatments means at significance rate of P<0.05. The standard errors of treatment means were also estimated. All statistics were carried out using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program [8].

Results and Discussion

Common carp is fresh water fish that is distinct to the Northern Hemisphere. This species requires an optimal temperature range between (20[degrees]C to 28[degrees]C) according to [9]. The activity of the carps is affected by low water temperatures which minimize their moving and feeding activities [10]. The temperature of water demonstrated in the present study was approximately 20[degrees]C throughout the entire experimental period. Over the entire period of the experiment, no mortalities among the fish have been observed. Wang et al. [11,12] obtained a similar survival rate with C. carpio over 56 days of a feeding trial. This result reflects healthiness of the experiment fish.

According to the results in Table (3) no significant differences observed in mean initial weight this was done in way to avoid differences attributed to fish initial weight, T4 (Barley sprout powder 2.5 g/kg diet) was significantly higher in each daily and relative growth rate, but the specific growth rate both T4 and T7 were significantly higher than other treatments.

No significant differences observed in Food Conversion Ratio and Protein Efficiency Ratio as shown in table (4), T4 (Barley sprout powder 2.5 g/kg diet), T6 (Natural planting 2.5 gm/kg diet) and T7 (Natural planting 5 gm/kg diet) differ significantly in Food Efficiency Ratio.

Little information is known about the impact of barley in different germination way on feed utilization parameters in common carp. The findings of the current study may help to explain the improved feed utilization performance in this species. The most notable outcome of prebiotic supplementation, in general, is changes brought about to the intestine, both morphologically and microbiologically. Changes to the morphology of the intestine may be attributed to the production of short-chain fatty acids through the microbial fermentation of prebiotic substances.

The characteristics of proteinase enzyme are consistent with its being the predominant proteinase synthesized during barley germination. Such endoproteinases are important because they are responsible for transforming the grain endosperm storage proteins into soluble proteins, amino acids and peptides that can be metabolized and utilized by the growing plantlet. Commercially, this transformation is important because, during the malting of barley for brewing, the insoluble storage proteins must be reduced to low molecular mass nitrogenous compounds that can be utilized by brewing yeasts and this may be the reason of significant differences of the Barley sprout powder [13].

The entry of sugar from the endosperm is evidently very slow, at any rate during the greater part of this period, for it exercises very little influence on the carbohydrate metabolism. This is shown by a comparison between the changes which take place in embryos germinated on their endosperms and those which are excised and grown on sand moistened with a culture solution containing no carbohydrate The production of fresh cell wall material indicated by the increase in the insoluble fractions is as great in the excised embryos as in the germinating grains, both show a slight accumulation of maltose and in neither is there any marked accumulation of hexose. In both cases there is a rapid loss of sucrose and raffinose, which also contains a sucrose unit, and only here is there any clear indication of the entry of sugar derived from the reserves in the endosperm. Sucrose almost entirely disappears from the excised embryos, whereas those germinating on their endosperms still contain approximately 33% of the amount present after 2 hr. It will be seen that during the first 24 hr. the greater part of the sugar in the embryo has either been lost in respiration or used in the production of insoluble material [14].

Fish feed on 2.5 g (FOS) had better growth than those feed on 5 g (FOS) in the study of [15] Improved growth performance is likely to be brought about by elevated digestive enzyme activities, possible improvements of intestine morphology or via prebiotic fermentation by endogenous gut microbes to produce SCFAs as stated by Dimitroglou et al. [16]. The results of clearly demonstrate the association of improved growth and performance, gut health, immune status and resistance to disease in fish fed Bio-Mos.

As general conclusion the adding of germinated barley enhance common carp performance in any way of germination.


[1.] FAO (2014) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Opportunities and challenges. Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations, Rome pp: 243.

[2.] Kanauchi O, Fujiyama Y, Mitsuyama K, Bamba T (1990) Increased growth of Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium by germinated barley foodstuff, accompanied by enhanced butyrate production in healthy volunteers. Int J Mol Med 3: 175-179.

[3.] Sweetman J, Davies S (2006) In: Lyons TP, Jackues K (Eds.) Improving growth performance and health status of aquaculture stocks in Europe through the use of Bio-Mos*. Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, pp: 445-452.

[4.] Gibson GR, Rastall RA (2006) Prebiotics: Development & Application. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, the Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England.

[5.] Damosaran S, Parkin KL, Fennema OR (2008) Fennema's Food Chemistry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 4th Ed pp: 179-260.

[6.] NRC (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Acad. Press, Washington, DC, pp: 114.

[7.] NRC (1994) National Academy of Science, Nutrient requirement of poultry (9th ed) Washington USA, pp: 157.

[8.] SAS (2004) SAS/STAT* 9.1 User's Guide, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.

[9.] Horvath L, Tamas G, Seagrave C (1992) Carp and Pond Fish Culture. Fishing News Books, Oxford pp: 158.

[10.] Bauer C and Schlott G (2006) Reaction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) to oxygen deficiency in winter as an example for the suitability of radio telemetry for monitoring the reaction of fish to stress factors in pond aquaculture. Aquaculture Res 37: 248-254.

[11.] Wang YB, Xu ZR (2006) Effect of probiotics for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Anim Feed Sci Tech 127: 283-292.

[12.] Al-Jammoor KMS (2012) Evaluating the effects of dietary immunostimulants on growth performance, survival, immune response and digestive enzymes activity of Koi (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758), University Perth.

[13.] Jones, Berne L, Poulle M (1990) A Proteinase from Germinated Barley II Hydrolytic Specificity of a 30 Kilodalton Cysteine Proteinase From Green Malt. Plant Physiol 94: 1062-1070.

[14.] Mahious AS, Ollevier F (2005) Probiotics and prebiotics in aquaculture: review", In: Urmia 1: 17-26.

[15.] Ahmed VM (2014) Comparative effects of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), prebiotic (fructooligosaccharide fos) and their combination on growth performance and some blood indices in young common carp (cyprinus carpio). Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani.

[16.] Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Spring P, Sweetman JMR, Davies SJ (2010) "Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal histology and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)", Aquaculture 300: 182e8.

Hazem S Abedalhammed (1*), Nasreen M Abdulrahman (2) and Haitham L Sadik (1)

(1) Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Al- Anbar, Iraq

(2) Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, University of Sulaimani, Iraq

(*) Corresponding author: Hazem S Abedalhammed, College of Agriculture, University of Al-Anbar, Ramadi, Al Anbar Iraq, Tel: +964 (24) 481161; E-mail:

Received date: December 08, 2016; Accepted date: March 01, 2017; Published date: March 08, 2017

Copyright: [c] 2017 Abedalhammed HS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI: 10.4172/2150-3508.1000191
Table 1: Chemical composition of fish diets used in the experiment.

           Chemical Composition

Crude protein%           27.351
Crude fat%                2.584
Crude fiber%              6.155
Energy kgal/kg         2235.2
Ash%                     87.61

Table 2: Chemical composition of the different diet by NRC et al. [5,6].

Ingredients     Crude      Crude   Dry           Crude    Energy   % in
                Protein%   Fat%    Materials%)   Fiber%   KG/kg    diet

Animal protein  40         5       92.9           2.2      2107     10
Yellow corn      8.5       3.6     89             2.2      3350     15
Soybean meal    44         1.1     89             7        2230     40
Barely          11         1.9     89             5.5      2640     15
Wheat bran      15.7       4       89            11        1300     18
Premix           ---       ---      ---           ---       ---      2

Table 3: Effect of Natural planting, Barley sprout powder and
hydroponic germination of Barley in common carp growth parameters of
common carp reared in indoor aquaria. Mean values with different
superscripts within a column differ significantly (P < 0.05).

Treatment            Mean initial weight       weight gain (gm)

T1 (control)         34.775 [+ or -] 0.025 a   10.870 [+ or -] 0.100 c
T2 Hydroponic        34.675 [+ or -] 0.050 a   10.920 [+ or -] 0.760 c
Planting 2.5
g/kg diet
T3 Hydroponic        34.640 [+ or -] 0.020 a   11.265 [+ or -] 0.065 c
Planting 5 g/kg
T4 Barley sprout     34.670 [+ or -] 0.005 a   13.175 [+ or -] 0.010 a
 powder 2.5
g/kg diet
T5 Barley sprout     34.730 [+ or -] 0.030 a   11.185 [+ or -] 0.345 c
powder 5
g/kg diet
T6 Natural           34.700 [+ or -] 0.060 a   11.760 [+ or -] 0.165 bc
planting 2.5
gm/kg diet
T7 Natural           34.765 [+ or -] 0.075 a   12.460 [+ or -] 0.050 ab
planting 5
gm/kg diet

Treatment            Daily growth rate (gm/     Specific growth rate
                     fish/day)                  (/day)

T1 (control)         0.194 [+ or -] 0.002 c     0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 b
T2 Hydroponic        0.195 [+ or -] 0.012 c     0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 ab
Planting 2.5
g/kg diet
T3 Hydroponic        0.203 [+ or -] 0.001 bc    0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 ab
Planting 5 g/kg
T4 Barley sprout     0.231 [+ or -] 0.001 a     0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 a
 powder 2.5
g/kg diet
T5 Barley sprout     0.201 [+ or -] 0.010 bc    0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 b
powder 5
g/kg diet
T6 Natural           0.212 [+ or -] 0.001 abc   0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 ab
planting 2.5
gm/kg diet
T7 Natural           0.223 [+ or -] 0.006 ab    0.002 [+ or -] 0.000 a
planting 5
gm/kg diet

Treatment            Relative growth rate

T1 (control)         31.255 [+ or -] 0.265 c
T2 Hydroponic        31.395 [+ or -] 2.455 c
Planting 2.5
g/kg diet
T3 Hydroponic        32.745 [+ or -] 0.055 bc
Planting 5 g/kg
T4 Barley sprout     37.355 [+ or -] 0.020 a
 powder 2.5
g/kg diet
T5 Barley sprout     32.160 [+ or -] 1.675 bc
powder 5
g/kg diet
T6 Natural           33.675 [+ or -] 0.490 abc
planting 2.5
gm/kg diet
T7 Natural           35.840 [+ or -] 0.495 ab
planting 5
gm/kg diet

Table 4: Effect of Natural planting, Barley sprout powder and
hydroponic germination of Barley in common carp feed utilization of
common carp reared in indoor aquaria. Mean values with different
superscripts within a column differ significantly (P [less than or
equal to] 0.05).

Treatment         Food Conversion Ratio    Food Efficiency Ratio

T1 ( control)     3.085 [+ or -] 0.035 a   32.055 [+ or -] 0.005 b
T2 (Hydroponic    3.790 [+ or -] 0.510 a   32.700 [+ or -] 0.230 b
Planting 2.5
g/kg diet)
T3 (Hydroponic    3.530 [+ or -] 0.530 a   33.700 [+ or -] 0.020 b
Planting 5
g/kg diet)
T4 (Barley        2.595 [+ or -] 0.005 a   38.965 [+ or -] 0.030 a
sprout powder
2.5 g/kg diet)
T5 (Barley        3.025 [+ or -] 0.115 a   33.355 [+ or -] 1.535 b
sprout powder
5 g/kg diet)
T6 (Natural       2.590 [+ or -] 0.025 a   37.030 [+ or -] 0.345 a
planting 2.5
gm/kg diet)
T7 (Natural       2.695 [+ or -] 0.620 a   37.080 [+ or -] 0.100 a
planting 5
gm/kg diet)

Treatment         Protein Efficiency Ratio

T1 ( control)     1.180 [+ or -] 0.000 d
T2 (Hydroponic    1.225 [+ or -] 0.000 c
Planting 2.5
g/kg diet)
T3 (Hydroponic    1.230 [+ or -] 0.000 c
Planting 5
g/kg diet)
T4 (Barley        1.410 [+ or -] 0.005 a
sprout powder
2.5 g/kg diet)
T5 (Barley        1.240 [+ or -] 0.010 c
sprout powder
5 g/kg diet)
T6 (Natural       1.340 [+ or -] 0.010 b
planting 2.5
gm/kg diet)
T7 (Natural       1.355 [+ or -] 0.025 b
planting 5
gm/kg diet)
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Abedalhammed, Hazem S.; Abdulrahman, Nasreen M.; Sadik, Haitham, L.
Publication:Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2017
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