Effect of Instructional Leadership on Teachers' Performance and Job Commitment: A Comparison of Public and Private Universities of Lahore.
Keywords: Job commitment, instructional leadership, teachers' performance, public and private.
Instructional leadership (IL) is identified as a dimension of educational leadership exclusively focusing on teaching and learning, technical core of educational institute. Instructional leaders are doing this by focusing on the work of teachers. Gaziel (2007) identified IL as use of multiple management instruments by a leader for the achievement of desired students result. Enueme and Egwunvenga (2008) have defined IL as combination of supervision along with the development of staff and curriculum to facilitate improvement in education.
Instructional leaders not only communicate expectations and goals (Murphy and Hallinger, 1985; Robinson, Hohepa and Lloyd, 2007) but maintain a positive learning environment in their organizations to enhance commitment and performance of teachers (Louis, Dretzke and Wahlstorm, 2010), by hiring, providing support and also retaining only good teachers whereas removing less effective ones (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2009). Murphy and Hallinger (1985) further explained that instructional leader promotes professional development of teachers by participating in their learning and development thus modeling their own commitment with the profession. Robinson, Lloyd and Rowe (2008) identified through a meta-analysis, a very stronger effect size of IL on students learning as compared to transformational, strategic and transactional leadership.
Thus, instructional leaders provide a wide road map to the staff members and clearly explain it. Instructional leader monitor all policies as well as teaching learning process, expertly manage the resources, provide valuable feedback and establish programs to develop teachers professionally, to introduce the advance programs, technologies and run them efficiently and sustain an effective and positive climate into the institution. Blase and Blase (2000) identified certain behaviors of IL like providing road map, monitor policies, provide resources, giving feedback, provide opportunities, promote professional growth and admire teaching learning process . Thus, the literature is indicative of impact of IL on teaching learning process through developing and working with teachers.
Job performance explains the efficiency of individual regarding certain task and job. It is associated with the level of energy through which a worker perform his specified task that characterize his behavior. Motivate to raise the level of worker's energy required to shape behavior appropriately, to determine the job performance as whole (Mitchell, Ortiz, and Mitchell, 1987). Teachers' job performance is one of the major factors of the progress of the entire process of educational institution. Teachers are backbone of any institution and job performed by them is instrumental in achieving goals of any institution (Akande, 2014). Caillier (2010) in his study identified that role ambiguity negatively affects job performance and employee's performance increases to high levels when they contribute to the mission of the organization. Enueme and Egwunyenga (2017) investigated effect of IL on work performance of teachers working at secondary schools.
They identified that performance of teachers effected by the behavior of instructional leaders. Similarly, Sungu et al, (2015) identified significant impact of instructional supervision behaviors on job contentment and enactment among school teachers. It was further identified that school principals are not only aware of professional development needs of their teachers plan and deliver programs for development of pedagogical skills and subject knowledge (Ng, Nguyen, Wong and Choy, 2015).
Commitment is a Latin word, derived from committere, that means combination of thigs, believes of someone and actions that he indented to do, e.g. existence of people as group who are determined to perform a task (Situmorang, 2014). Meyer (2001) described that commitment is action of individual towards certain task and designed targets of any institution. Herscovitch (2001) identified three elements of commitment: Affective, normative and continuous. Several studies further investigated and identified that all these elements of commitments are ensuring strong bonds between employees and the institution and instructional leadership enhances the commitments of the teachers to get better outcomes (Meyer, 1997; Ismail, 2012; Wiener and Gechman, 1977). Masila (2013) identified IL is positively associated with teacher commitment. Ail, Taib, Jaafar, Salleh and Omar (2015) conducted a study in Malaysian schools and identified significant correlation between IL and commitment of teachers.
Sarikaya and Erdogan (2016) identify relationship between IL behaviors of principals working in secondary schools and organizational commitment of teachers in Turkey. The study reinforced the earlier findings and identified existence of significant as well as positive correlation between IL behaviors particularly identification and internalization dimension and teachers' commitment. Mannan (2017) came with similar conclusion as she identified significantly positive relationship between IL practices of women principal and commitment of teachers. Keeping in view the influences of IL behaviors on the commitment and performance of teachers, need of the current study was raised. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigate the effect of IL on Teachers' Performance and Commitment at university level in Pakistan and the following hypotheses were hypothesized:
H1: There is nosignificant effect of IL on theperformance of teachers working in universities of Lahore.
H2: There is nosignificant effectof IL on Job commitment ofteachers workingin universities of Lahore.
H3: There is nosignificant difference between the effect of IL on theperformance of teachers working in private and public universities of Lahore.
H4: There is nosignificant difference between the effect of IL on the job commitmentof teachers working private and public universities of Lahore.
To test these hypotheses a conceptual framework was developed.
A sample of twelve (six private and six public) universities of Lahore were selected by using convenient sampling technique and data was collected from 60 faculty members comprising of 30 teachers (25 male and 5 female) of private universities and 30 teachers (23 male and 7 female) of public universities. Research instrument at 4 point likert scale comprising of 35 items was adapted according to requirement that includes items to measure teachers' performance, instructional leadership (IL) and teachers' commitment.
Linear regression was applied tofind out theeffect of instructional leadership (IL) on teachers' performance (TP), , and theresults arepresented in Table 1 and 2.
Table 1 Effect of Instructional-Leadership (IL) on Teachers' Performance
Table shows the results of F-test which supports the predictive utilities of IL on Teachers' Performance. Whereas, R-square =.715, value of adjusted R-square =.710, and F = 145.7 is significant at p = 0.000 with df =1.
Table 2 Regression Coefficient Analysis of the effect of Instructional-Leadership (IL) on the Teachers' Performance (TP)
Table 2 depicts that un-standardized coefficient of IL [beta]^ =.887, t= 12.701, p = 0.00 was found statistically significant. The null hypothesis claiming no significant effect of IL on TP, is therefore, rejected.
The results of residuals scatter plots presented atest ofassumptions ofnormality, linearity, andhomoscedasticity betweenpredicted dependent variablescores (teachers' Job commitment) and errors ofprediction.
The results of histogram of data of current study depicted the approximate normal distribution (figure 1), whereas the P-P plot displayed a linear relationship (figure 2) and the residual plot presented no set patterns and, therefore, the assumption of homoscedasticity or homogeneity of variance of the effect of instructional leadership was not violated.
Assumptions of residuals in regression analysis are the difference that exist between the obtained values and predicted values of dependents variables (DV) i.e. scores of DV are distributed normally by considering the scores of DV that were predicted and this relationship is displayed in straight-line relationship. Whereas, its variance about the predicted DV values have similar values for all predicted scores. However, these assumptions are assembled; the residuals show as in Figures 3. The assumption of homoscedasticity or homogeneity of variance is that the standard deviations of errors are approximately the same for all predicted DV scores that are presented in these Figures.
In this section, the effect of IL of private universities on teachers' job commitment has been described. Regressionanalysis was applied to findout significant effect of IL onteachers' job commitment
Independent Variable: Instructional Leadership (IL), Dependent Variable: Job Commitment (JC)
In order to findout the effectof IL onteachers' JC, linear regression was applied, and the results found are presented in table 3 and 4.
Table 3 Effect of Instructional-Leadership (IL) on Teachers' Job Commitment (JC)
Table 3 shows the results of F-test which supports the predictive utilities of IL on Teachers' JC. Whereas, R-square =.715, adjusted R-square =.518, and F = 62.3 is significant at p=0.000 with df =1.
Table 4 Regression Coefficient Analysis of the effect of Instructional-Leadership (IL) on Teachers' Job Commitment (JC)
Table 4 depicts that unstandardized coefficient of IL [beta]^ =.845, t= 7.898, p = 0.00 was found statistically significant. The null hypothesis claiming no significant effect of IL on Teachers' JC, is therefore, rejected.
In order to find out difference between public and private Universities' Teachers' Performance, t-test was applied, and results yielded through this analysis are presented in Table 5.
Table 5 Difference in Teachers' Performance (TP) on the basis of Public and Private Universities
Types of Universities###N###M###SD###df###t###P
It is evident from table 5 that thereis no significantdifference between the effect of IL on performance of public and private university teachers in Lahore. In order to find out difference between private and publicuniversities' teachers' job commitment, t-test was applied and the results were reported in Table 6.
Table 6 Difference in Teachers' Job-Commitment (JC) on the basis of Public and Private-Universities
Types of Universities###N###M###SD###df###t###p
It is evident from value of t-test and p, which is higher than .05 as given in table 6, that there is nosignificant effect ofinstructional leadership on teachers' job commitment both in public and private universities.
The present study which explored theeffect ofInstructional Leadership on Teachers' Performance and Job Commitment at university level is an innovative effort in Pakistani perspective. Researchers highlight findings of this study would play vital role in earlier studies regarding this area and useful for existing researches. The overwhelming majority of empirical studies which have investigated the effect of Instructional Leadershipon Teachers Performance and Job Commitment from Western world. According to Khan(2012) Instructional Leadership is a most known term in any educational institution an Instructional Leader provide a wide plate form to the teachers in any educational institution for improve the teaching and learning process, Instructional Leader is responsible for provide ample resources in any institution, execution of curriculum and implementation of curriculum.
Similarly, in Pakistani scenario, the effect of Instructional Leadership primary measured through Teachers' Performance and their Job Commitment. The results of present study, which has been conducted in a developing country Pakistan, partially support the claim of earlier researchers like Blase and Blase (1999), Begum, 2004, Celikten (2001), Leithwood, Janti and Steinbach (1999), Memon (1999), Quinn (2002), Hallinger and Leithwood (1996) and Murphy (1985). Moreover, these results have been acknowledged and supported by other researchers like Khan (2012), and Masuku (2011), regarding Instructional Leadership.
Blase and Blase (1999), found in their study that Instructional Leadership is core of different tasks which follows in any educational institution, which are properly manage the classroom atmosphere, teachers professional development and also establish effective curriculum and development. Similar results were found Tice (1992-41), Instructional Leadership means enhance the competencies of the teachers give them proper feedback, help them according to given situation and involve them in curriculum development and implementation process. (Motowidlo, 1986)
Found in the study that the main source of to assess the performance is judgment and evaluation (Akande, 2014). Means that Teachers' Performance is the combination of the abilities and competencies of the teacher which he used to enhance his teaching process.
Herscovitch Meyer (2001) examine that commitment is action of individual towards certain task and designed targets of any institution. Commitment is employees' obligation and mindsets for an institution. In this current study the researcher explains three major elements of commitment; First of all, the researchers clearly define Affective Commitment then discusses on Normative Commitment and in the last briefly explain Continuous Commitment.
In this current study the researcher also explored that there was a significant difference between the effect of Instructional Leadership on Teachers' Performance and also Teachers' Job Commitment. An important part of this study is the effect of Instructional Leadership on Teachers' Performance, Job Commitment and comparison of Private and Public universities of Lahore. This is suggested that a similar study may be extended to entire education system of Pakistan.
Abdurrahman Ilgan, Oksana Parylo and Hilmi Sungu (2015). Predicting teacher job satisfaction based on principals' instructional supervision behaviours: A study of Turkish teachers. Irish Educational Studies, 34(1), 69-88,
Ail, M.B.M, Talib, M.R.B., Jaafar, H.B., Salleh, W.A.R.M., and Omara, M.N. (2015). Principals' Instructional Leadership And Teachers' Commitment In Three Mara Junior Science Colleges (Mjsc) In Pahang, Malaysia. Procedia-Science and behavioral Sciences, 191, 1848-1853.
Allen, N. J., and Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of vocational behavior, 49(3), 252-276.
Akande, F. B. (2014). Assessment of the Relationship between Conditions of Service and Teachers' Job Performance In Secondary Schools in Kogi State, Nigeria.
Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., and Loeb, S. (2009). Effective Schools: Managing the Recruitment, Development, and Retention of High-Quality Teachers. Working Paper 37. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research.
Blase, B. (2000). Effective instructional leadership: teachers' perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration.
Blase, J. B. (1999). Teachers' perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 130-131.
Danielson, C. (2001). New Trends in Teacher Evaluation. Educational Leadership, 12-15.
Enueme, C. P., and Egwunyenga, E. J. (2017). Principals' instructional leadership roles and effect on teachers' job performance: A case study of secondary schools in Asaba Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 16(1), 13-17.
Feinstein, A. (2002). A study of relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among restaurant employees. Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Science, 6.
Foo Seong David Ng, Thanh Dong Nguyen, Koon Siak Benjamin Wong and Kim Weng William Choy (2015) Instructional leadership practices in Singapore, School Leadership and Management, 35:4, 388-407,
Gaziel, H. H. (2007). Re-examining the relationship between principal's instructional/educational leadership and student achievement. Journal of Social Science, 15(1), 17-24.
Hallinger, P. and. (1996). Assessing the Instructional Management Behaviors of Principals. The Elementary School Journal, 217-247.
Hallinger, P., and Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional management behavior of principals. The Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 217-247.
Herscovitch, M. J. (2001). Commitment in the Workplace: Toward a General Model. Human Resource Management Review, 299-326.
Hoy, A. W., and Hoy, W. K. (2008). Instructional leadership: A research based guide to learning in schools. Pearson.
Ismail, N. (2012). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among staff of higher learning education insititution in Kelantan.
James Gerard Caillier (2010) Factors Affecting Job Performance in Public Agencies, Public Performance and Management Review, 34:2, 139-165
Jaros, S. (2007). Meyer and Allen Model of Organizational Commitment: Measurement Issues.
Khan, Z. (2012). Relationship between Instructional Leadership and Teachers' Job Performance in Secondary Schools in the Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Leithwood, K. and. (1999). The relative effects of principal and teachers sources of leadership on student engagement with school. Educational Administration Quarterly, 679-706.
Leithwood, K. J. (1999). Changing leadership for changing. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mannan, F. (2017). The relationship between women principal instructional leadership practices, teacher organizational commitment and teacher professional community practice in secondary schools in kuala lumpur. Phd. Dissertation. Institute of Educational Leadership University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur
Memon, M. (1999). Reconceptualizing the role of headteachers as pedagogical leaders in Pakistan:Implications for policy reforms. Eucation, 6-10.
Meyer, J. and. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory,research, and application. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications.
Mitchell, D. E., Ortiz, F. I., and Mitchell, T. K. (1987). Work orientation and job performance: The cultural basis of teaching rewards and incentives. SUNY Press.
Motowidlo, S. P. (1986). Occupational stress: its causes and consequences for Job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 618-629.
Mowday, R. L. (1979). The mearurement of Educational Commitment. Journal of vocational Behavior, 224-227.
Mowday, R. P. (1982). Employee-Organizational Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism and Turnover. NewYork: Academic Press.
Murphy, J. (1985). Principal instructional leadership. Advances in Educational Aministration, 163-200.
Quinn, D. (2002). The impact of principal leadership behaviors on instructional practice and student engagement. Journal of Educational Administration, 144-167.
Robinson, V. M., Hohepa, M., and Lloyd, C. (2007). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why (Vol. 41). Winmalee: Australian Council for Educational Leaders.
Robinson, V., Lloyd, C., and Rowe, K. (2008). The Impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635-674.
Seashore Louis, K., Dretzke, B., and Wahlstrom, K. (2010). How does leadership affect student achievement? Results from a national US survey. School effectiveness and school improvement, 21(3), 315-336.
Sarikaya, N., and Erdogan, C. (2016). Relationship between the Instructional Leadership Behaviors of High School Principals and Teachers' Organizational Commitment. Journal of Education and Practice. ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.7, No.3, 2016. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1089789.pdf
Situmorang, B. (2014). The Effect of Instructional Leadership, Knowledge of Educational Management, Interpersonal Communication and Job Satisfaction to Organization Commitment of the Senior High School Principals (A Case Study in Senior High Schools in Medan Municipality). International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 234-253.
Tice, T. (1992). Education Digest. Educational Leaders-again, 32.
Wiener, Y. (1977). Commitment:A behavioral approach to job involvement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47-52
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Journal of Educational Research|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2019|
|Previous Article:||Effect of Humor Orientation of the Principal on Teachers' Performance at Secondary School Level in Punjab.|
|Next Article:||Factors Distressing the Quality of Special Education Centers.|