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Effect of Humor Orientation of the Principal on Teachers' Performance at Secondary School Level in Punjab.

Byline: Muhammad Shafiq Ahmad and Khuda Bakhsh

Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Humor Orientation, Principal, Public Secondary School, Teacher Performance


Education is generally conceived as an instrument that is used for the social, moral, economical change and development of a nation. According Hussain (2004) education is considered as a medium for imparting facts, feelings, values, and information to the person. Moreover, it is responsible for improving the character and attitude of the individuals in the light of national aims, values and aspirations, it attempts as a whole to make the individuals as useful citizen for the society. As indicated by Chandler (1991) education is considered as a tool for human skill improvement, which would at last add to monetary, mechanical and technical advancement of a country.

There are two main devices teachers and principal used in an education industry. Teacher is considered a role model for the students who tends to solve the academic problems of the students with his due interest and utmost pleasure. He is trained professional to get completed the course work besides the moral development of his students. It is required to appoint a principal as school leader or administrator to guide and control the teaching staff. The fact that school administration is too essential to get the work done just in time as required .The Leadership is characterized by Northouse (2007) as "a procedure by which an individual impacts others to achieve a shared objective". Bryan (2007) characterized leadership "regarding affecting or inspiring others (teachers) towards the achievement of departmental objectives".

Educational studies in the field of education leadership do value the school head as a leader (Abdullah, 2007; Hall, 2007). Leadership is basically the craftsmanship or procedure of impacting, admiring, spurring, empowering, coordinating, controlling and organizing the exercises of the staff in a foundation towards the accomplishment of objectives of the organization. Administration in schools is to get the work completed by subordinates in a limited time to meet the predetermined objectives or the provided roadmap. If the school leadership is punctual, honest and dutiful then the subordinates (teachers) will try to follow his instructions with utmost diligence.

Transformational leadership concentrates more on change and cites his followers to do better in lined with needs of the society. By means of controlling and coordinating, he guides them to the right path as change leader. The heads in institutions are the individuals who inspire and move their subordinates and in doing to build up their own particular administration limits.

As Anderson (2001) has expressed that the desired result, school development and change can't be attained just through the execution of new strategies, organizational structures, good school climate, but these are leadership practices to bring the required changes defined by the government. Our present era is full of tension and troubles. No one is happy even sitting among his blood relatives. For the happy life, good presentation of humorous mood, merry making and gaiety is too important.

Humor Orientation

Sociologists regularly describe humor regarding cooperation, particularly, deliberate actions to incite a chuckle (Fine, 1984). Humor is a positive face expression as in most cases it is an inborn quality of happy life (Ziv,1988). This research tries to discover a piece of that correspondence, humor and its relationship with the sufficiency of administration. Humor orientation, a personality of correspondence in light of identity, has been demonstrated to enhance the appropriateness of heads in school climate (Tanveer, 2002). Right now of school choice, when the government subsidized education system of our nation is continually being tested, the qualities we look for and endeavor to create in our school pioneers are of crucial significance. School achievement is obviously the result of teacher performance and principal leadership (1988). A basic competency looked for in every single instructive executive is that of joyful correspondence (Barth, 2006).

Both inner and outer constituents' students, members of institute, families, and group, depend on the school head for administration. Some teachers are burnout from the behavior of the principal and tend to leave the school within ten months. The untoward movements of the principal decrease the resilience of the teachers. They are too saturated seeing their principal. Seeing the unwanted behavior, a teacher in Kotla Jam, one teacher physically tortured his principal in presence of teaching staff and students. Good looks and humor is even appreciated by our enemies. Most of our ideals were found happy, beautiful and fond of physical pleasure. We have been granted a short span of life, so we must be happy and live hearted to face the challenges of our daily life. Getting into tension, we cannot dissolve the problem, but it also increases your troubles leading to diabetics and heart failure. Tension is the root cause of different physical and psychological disorders.

All the citizens aged between forty to sixty years are highly advised to avoid tension besides physical activities. Humor, merry making polishes your inner sentiments leading to blooming growth of young tissues. Fun fair and cinemas are also available to get out of tension.

This theory additionally, considers humor as a sort of joy. Here when you are in joyful mood, the society will like to have a necessary interaction with you. Each and every action of a joyful person is liked and his statements are followed. When one is likely to deliver tension among his friends, then he is strongly disliked. A happy life is so attractive word in all cultural songs. All the famous poets have composed the joyful words to excite the people to get them out of tension. Different types of humor to be extremely practical in our general public. Identified with correspondence, Graham (1992) reported positive elements of pleasantness, for example, energy and setting up companionships, which are emphatically connected to correspondence ability. Humor is additionally utilized as a method for overseeing tension or shame as it can redirect consideration from an uncooperative circumstance (Ziv, 1984).

As a relational skill, humor is utilized to present troublesome themes or keep away from troublesome points. Humor has likewise been demonstrated as methods for social control. Humor can be utilized adequately to indicate endorsement or objection to somebody's activities that may concur with or damage aggregate standards (Zaigham, 2015). These conclusions are upheld by Tanveer (2002) who similarly observed humor to be a helpful tool in lessening social separation. Social advantages of funniness are frequently seen in associations.

Vinton (1989) found that humor was viable in mingling new individuals to the way of life, making bonds among representatives, and encouraging the achievement of job in an authoritative setting. Study of Moreall's (2012) provided evidence that in a working environment humor increases mental adaptability and physical wellbeing. He revealed that good sense of humor gave the "social ointment" that decidedly developed fellowship, beautiful sentiments and happy life. Creating a tension free environment is the basic need of the hour. We can never expect a subordinate to do better when he is depressed. All of our ideals faced the untoward situation in a bold style and they appeared as successful by facing the created environment. To develop frankness, joyful gestures are the powerful personal trait of the successful leaders.

Humor is a best method for managing strife, assuaging pressures and stress, rousing subordinates, and improving general correspondence channels (Davis and Kleiner 1989; Malone 1980). Getting into matter, the researcher realized to investigate the role of joyful leadership towards the better performance of his followers.

Statement of the Problem

The main statement of the problem was to find out how well certain transformational leadership skill namely humor orientation taken as determinant contributes to the teachers' performance in public secondary schools of the Punjab. The study was designed if a principal was motivated, humor oriented, acquainted, to strengthen system or improve these activities. What are the prerequisites for a successful administration? What are the main factors to improve the teachers' performance in Punjab province? These queries were disturbing the cognizance of the researcher which wanted powerful evidences. So he considered it attractive to answer all these questions on the basis of principal's perceptions. Hence we tend to explore the effect of humor orientation of the principal on the teacher performance.

Research Questions

Considering the needs of the study, the following research questions were established to be answered accordingly.

* What is the level of humor orientation displayed by the principals?

* What is the contribution of humor orientation towards teachers' performance?

Significance of the Study

The study is of the highly significance as there has been no work on transformational leadership skill (humor orientation) of the principals in Punjab. The principals tending to be much efficient by his humor orientation, the finding of the study will be useful. They may teach how to inspire and motivation their subordinates to get the work done with their due interest and pleasure.

The finding of the study will also highlight the certain leadership practice/skill of elementary school leaders in the field of educational leadership and management.

The study will also measure the level of transformational leadership of the secondary school practice regarding the transformational leadership practice humor orientation of the principals. The result of the study will be equally useful for such stake holders (chief executive officers education, policy makers, and master trainers) and administration of the Punjab. The findings will also provide feedback to the competent authority to recruit principals regarding their persona traits.

Research Methodology

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of humor orientation of public sector secondary school principals on teacher performance in Punjab province, Pakistan. In this regard, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the perceptions of the principals in this descriptive study.

Population of the Study

The target population of this study was comprised of all principals of public secondary schools in Punjab province, while the accessible population of the study was comprised of all principals of Faisalabad district of Punjab province. A sample of 223 principal of public secondary schools were taken in the study using a random number table by applying proportion allocation technique.

Research Instruments

After studying the pertinent literature, the researcher personally developed two questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale to measure the transformational leadership skill (humor orientation) of the principals and teachers' performance.

Validity and Reliability of the Research Instruments

In this study, reliability of instruments has been estimated through Cronbach's Alpha that is a common method for estimating the internal consistency of the items using SPSS. Reliability of the first instrument was 0.81 and of the second was 0.80.

Data Collection

The principals marked a questionnaire to evaluate their own humor orientation and also marked the teachers' performance. The researcher visited the 260 public secondary schools and delivered the questionnaires to the principals. All these schools were visited in person by the researcher and respondents were explained the process of filling in the questionnaires. From the principals in Faisalabad district, the data collection process was completed in three months.

Data Analysis

After data collection, it was placed into SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) Version 21. Mean standard deviation and regressions were used to answer the research questions.


Research Question 1. What is the level of humor orientation displayed by the principals?

Table 1 Descriptive Statistics Regarding Principals' self-Perceptions on the Function of Humor Orientation


I like to share funny stories when with staff###223###1.76###2.36

I am a straight forward person###223###3.76###0.92

I encourage to make joyful stories###223###2.43###1.06

I am a cheerful person###223###3.93###0.61

I feel comfortable in teachers company###223###2.61###1.17

I use humor to ease the troubled conditions###223###3.91###0.76


Table 1 explains the mean and standard deviation of transformational leadership practice, humor orientation made by the principals indicating that the principals' leadership practice regarding the humor orientation is satisfactory. They are too bold and humorous to ease the tension leading to a happy life. It was also found that most of the principals possess cheerful personality traits. The students and teachers are comfortable sitting in the company of their principal. The mean varies from 1.76 to 3.91. The entire mean is 3.07 and SD is 1.14 indicates moderate level of the principals' leadership effectiveness regarding the humor orientation in Punjab. So the principals frequently show this practice to influence their subordinates in a happy environment to get the work done in time.

Research Question2: What is the contribution of humor orientation towards teachers' performance?

Table 2 Linear Regression of "Humor Orientation" with Teachers' Performance









Table 2 is showing information regarding the non-standardized coefficients for humor orientation and teachers' performance. Humor orientation [beta] = 1.943, t = 7.317 at p < .001 was found to significant regarding teachers' performance. Therefore, it was concluded from the above results that humor orientation had a significant positive effect on teachers' performance. Also, the value of standardized Beta = .442 reflects a weak positive relationship between humor orientation of the principal and teachers' performance.

Table 3 Model Summary of Linear Regression Analysis of "Humor Orientation" with Teachers' Performance

###Std. Error of the

Model###R###RA2###Adjusted RA2



To investigate the level of the effect of humor orientation on teachers' performance, simple linear regression statistical technique was applied, and results are reported in table 3. There was a significant effect of humor orientation on teachers' performance at the secondary school level. The results of above table report that the value of RA2 = .195, found highly significant at p< 0.001. The humor orientation of the principal accounted 20% (RA2 = .195) to the variance of teachers' performance. It shows that the humor orientation is a good predictor of teachers' performance. The magnitude of RA2 = .195 indicates that there is as much as 20% variation in teachers' performance is being accounted for by the variation in humor orientation. It is necessary for the head to makes his senses enriched with good sense of humor. So that his subordinates may shows their performance better than before.

Conclusions and Discussions

Good and joyful humor as principal's leadership skill was found as a bold determinant of teacher performance. Mean and standard deviation of the transformational leadership skill made by the principals is clearly indicating that the principals' leadership effectiveness regarding the leadership skill humor orientation is of moderate level.

In the analysis, it was found that humor orientation accounted 20% (RA2 = .195) to the teachers' performance in significant (p< 0.001) line. So here it was well found out that humor orientation clearly influences upon the teachers to the work done with their due interest and pleasure. It was concluded principal's humor orientation placed a significant effect on the performance of his teacher to do better in a happy environment. We have been blessed a short time to live in this trouble world. We must certain measure to face the troubles in a bold way with so excited live heart. We must display good looks enriched with smiles on a gallant face. One cannot solve the problems of his daily life getting into tensions but it also increases the troubles. So one must display pleasure even in untoward situations. This will reproduce his sentiments exciting him to fight for. The tension should not be delivered to your friends besides facing the situation in a magnanimous style.

The results declared that a positive relationship exists between principals' humor orientation and the teachers' performance. Humor orientation contributed 20% to the teachers' performance. This showed that increase in humor orientation helped to enhance teachers' performance in public secondary schools in Punjab province. So here it was well established that humor orientation clearly influences upon the teachers to get the work done with their due interest and pleasure. Developing a joyful environment is the need of hour especially in our secondary school leading the teachers to do better. It may be considered a bold personal trait of a result oriented school leader.


On the basis of the study results, following major recommendations and suggestions were made:

The principal leadership effectiveness was found at moderate level regarding the humor orientation. The principal effectiveness was found not up to the mark. The humor orientation as leadership skill has been well proved as a bold determinant of teachers' performance. So the principal should frequently display this practice may to place potent effect on teachers' performance. The principal must exercise this practice to improve his administrative marks besides the teacher performance. With the joyful personality of the principal enriched with good humor excited his teachers to develop positive frankness /understanding with him. As a result, they are stress-free in his presence to do something better.

Further studies may be replicated by having used participants who are executive heads of the principals such as Chief Executive Officers (CEOs), District Education Officers (DEOs) etc.

This study is limited only to principals of public secondary schools in Punjab but the principals of government colleges and public administrators may also be taken parallel to these lines.


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Publication:Journal of Educational Research
Date:Jun 30, 2019
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