Effect of Governmental Notification of Up-gradation on Job Satisfaction of Teachers of Children with Mental Retardation in Punjab.
The substantive aim of this study was to identify the effect of governmental notification of up gradation of special education teachers on job satisfaction of teachers working in the area of mental retardation. Punjab Special Education Department notified the creation of 270 posts of Senior Special Education Teachers (BS-17, one in each disability like hearing impairment, physical disabilities and visual impairment) excluding teachers of children with mental retardation. The study was a comparison of job satisfaction of these teachers before and after the issuance of notification. A sample of forty one teachers (26-38 years old) was taken from a list of forty five Government Special Education Centers selected through systematic random sampling technique. Two self-developed questionnaires were used to elicit responses from these teachers.
The reliability of validated instrument 1(before notification) was .73(Cronbach alpha) and instrument 2(after notification) was .79 (Cronbach alpha).The major findings exhibited moderate level of job satisfaction among teachers which was extremely affected after the issuance of notification of up gradation. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.
Keywords: Job satisfaction; teachers of children with mental retardation; up gradation of teachers
Job satisfaction is the view that an individual's values regarding work are fulfilled by the job and that these values have a consistency with the job.1 Job satisfaction is considered one among the most important factors that may cause pleasure, happiness and productivity in individuals.2
Job satisfaction is a response of a person against the environment where he works. It plays a significant part in improving dedication of the competent employees to the institution and motivating them to have love for their jobs.3 Job satisfaction is one of the most important components for the persons to have success, satisfaction and creativity in life.4 Research has proven that persons having higher level of job satisfaction possess higher commitment with their organization.
Teachers play the fundamental role in achieving the goals of any country. Discontented teachers can never be devoted and dedicated to their work and would not be able to perform at the best of their abilities. The profession of teaching is undergoing hardships pertaining to job satisfaction of teachers. The general thinking is that the government school teachers are not satisfied with their profession.5
In United States of America, in terms of job satisfaction, special education possesses the eighth rank among the top 10 jobs, and in terms of happiness level, special education moves towards fifth position. Despite this fact, there are a large number of people who stop working in this field.6 Among the teachers working in special education, job satisfaction is related with the on job pressure and place of job. Researchers divided job satisfaction affecting components in accordance with its source namely; external factors including financial, social and organizational features and internal factors comprising the teachers' training and qualification.
A research study explored the correlation between the competence of special education teachers and their job satisfaction related to the training they got during the initial years of their job.
The researcher studied the feelings of 222 teachers from 22 schools in Kentucky State towards their competence and job satisfaction through comparison between the level of competence and level of job satisfaction pertaining to their qualification and training. The researcher found no statistically significant differences in job satisfaction among these teachers regarding the training they had got and they were satisfied with their jobs.7
In Turkey, a study was conducted on 245 special education teachers to find the factors which have an effect on the level of job satisfaction. The researchers found the scarcity of the teaching aids, unproductive assessments, and the attitude of students towards their classrooms, the additional duties, the low salaries and paper work on a large scale as the job satisfaction affecting factors.8
A study was conducted to investigate job satisfaction among 35 male and female teachers of students with mental retardation and 300 male and female teachers working in public education sector.9 The data were collected on a fifty-item scale containing five major factors including satisfaction with one's monthly pay, satisfaction of teachers' needs, the nature of work and general environment in the school, the kind of administration and the social position. The researcher reported that the two previously described groups were having low level of job satisfaction.
Another research study explored job satisfaction among 251 general education and special education teachers from the Ministry of Education in Riyadh. A two dimensions scale on the job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction was used. The findings indicated that the two groups were having around mean with some statistically significant differences in job dissatisfaction among the teachers working in general education.
A study was carried out to explore job satisfaction among 112 female teachers working in the centers for children with mental retardation. A statistically significant difference in job satisfaction was found in terms of level of earning and incentives.10
Researchers investigated the aspects of job satisfaction among 160 male and female elementary teachers in California. They explored that democratic leadership, the salaries of teachers, the chances of progress, the rewards on achievements and the acknowledgement of teachers' worth by the principles were the most contributing variables.11
Researchers12 explored that the head teachers who were managing schools for mentally challenged children were more satisfied than those working in other disabilities. This finding is consistent with that of another study. The researchers identified that the teachers who were working with children with severe disabilities were having higher level of job satisfaction than those who were serving children with mild or moderate disabilities.
Contrary to this, no difference was reported by another study pertaining to the severity of the disability.13
Punjab Special Education Department started 90 Special
Education Centers at 90 Tehsils of the Punjab Province in 2005 to cater the special educational needs of special children of four disabilities i.e. hearing impairment, visual impairment, physical disabilities and mental retardation. Junior Special Education Teachers (JSETs BP: 16), having specialization in these areas, were recruited to work in these centers.14 Punjab Special Education Department, in 2012, notified the creation of 270 posts of Senior Special Education Teachers (SSETs BS: 17) in disabilities like physical handicaps, hearing impairment and visual impairment for smooth functioning of these 90 special education centers. No post of SSET BP: 17 was kept reserved for the teachers working in the area of mental retardation.15 This study was conducted to see the effect of this governmental notification on job satisfaction level of teachers of children with mental retardation. The substantive objectives of this study were as follows:
* To see the level of job satisfaction of teachers of children with mental retardation working in Government Special Education Centers in Punjab.
* To measure the effect of governmental notification on the job satisfaction of teachers of children with mental retardation working in Government Special Education Centers in Punjab.
* H0: The level of job satisfaction among teachers working in the area of mental retardation decreased after the issuance of Governmental notification of up gradation of Special Education Teachers (working in three specific disabilities excluding disability of mental retardation).
The population of study comprised all 125 Junior Special Education Teachers working in the area of mental retardation in 90 Government Special Education Centers of 90 Tehsils of the Punjab Province. In order to select a representative sample, a list of all Government Special Education Centers working at Tehsil level was obtained from Directorate of Special Education, Lahore, Punjab. By using systematic random sampling technique, 45 Government Special Education Centers (50% of the total) were taken and 41 teachers from 41 centers were selected as the participants of the study after informed consent. The rest of the four centers had no teacher working in the area of mental retardation. The teachers 'age ranged between 26 to 38 years. Out of 41 participants, 11 were males and 30 were females.
Two self-developed questionnaires were used as tools of study. After reviewing the related literature, indicators of job satisfaction were identified. Afterwards, questions based on these indicators were formulated which were refined with the help of experts. First questionnaire was developed to elicit responses from Junior Special Education Teachers (JSETs) about their job satisfaction before the issuance of Governmental Notification. The reliability of the validated instrument 1 (before notification) was .73 ( Cronbach alpha). The second questionnaire was developed to get responses about their job satisfaction after the issuance of Governmental Notification. The reliability of instrument 2 (after notification) was .79 (Cronbach alpha).The questionnaires were piloted on five JSETs serving in the area of mental retardation. The respondents were interviewed for removing ambiguity of statements and making them understandable for the participants.
Their suggestions on improvement of the questionnaire were also welcomed. The final draft of each questionnaire comprised 10 statements where the respondents had to respond on five point Likert type scale: 1= Strongly Agreed, 2= Agreed, 3= Agreed to Some Extent, 4= Disagreed, 5=Strongly Disagreed.
It is to be noted that the researchers had already collected data regarding measuring level of job satisfaction of JSETs serving in the field of mental retardation. Meanwhile, that very governmental notification of up gradation was issued which might have caused some sort of restlessness among these teachers. So investigators decided to find out level of job satisfaction of the same group of participants using same questionnaire with some modifications pertaining to issuance of notification of up gradation and to investigate difference between level of job satisfaction before and after this notification.
Procedure of Data Collection
The investigators obtained a list of all Government Special Education Centers working at Tehsil level in the Punjab Province along with their land line numbers from Directorate of Special Education, Lahore. The heads of these centers helped the researchers in providing personal contact nos. of the JSETs working in the area of mental retardation. Most of the participants were graduates of Department of Special Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore and they extended their utmost support in collection of data.
Table 1: Paired Sample t-test for Difference in Job Satisfaction Before and After Govt. Notification
Before Govt.###After Govt.
The above table shows that there was statistically significant difference between mean scores of job satisfaction before and after governmental notification. Job satisfaction appears to drop on an average of about 13.78 points after the notification. So, our hypothesis that, "The level of job satisfaction among teachers working in the area of mental retardation decreased after the issuance of Governmental notification of up gradation of Special Education Teachers working in three specific disabilities excluding disability of mental retardation is accepted." 16
Therefore, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of job satisfaction.
Table 2: Level of Job Satisfaction among Teachers Working in the Area of Mental Retardation
Level of job satisfaction###Time1###Time 2
Table: 02 clearly indicate the difference in number of subjects categorized according to the levels of job satisfaction recorded in the two different timings. Numbers of subjects having high level of Job satisfaction (13) decreased on second time (N= 9). At the same time, it can be observed that more people were included in the low level of job satisfaction on time 2 (N = 17), and the number of participants gradually increased in moderate level of job satisfaction.
Responses on the Job Satisfaction Index indicate that there was significant difference among the levels of job satisfaction of teachers working in the area of mental retardation in Punjab before and after the governmental notification. Teachers dealing with children with mental retardation were satisfied with their job before the issuance of governmental notification of creation of posts in Government Special Education Centers but after this notification, their job satisfaction level decreased and they showed low motivation towards continuing their job in area of mental retardation. This finding is consistent with the work of researcher17 who reported that a large number of people working in field of Special Education left their jobs.
The teachers of children with mental retardation also reported about the degrading attitude of their colleagues working in other three disabilities towards them. They also expressed their feelings of thinking themselves to be inferior to other teachers working in other three disabilities.
On not being up graded, the teachers of children with mental retardation would have been deprived of an increase in salary and other incentives which were contingent with up gradation. It is consistent with the results of a study conducted18 on finding job satisfaction among 112 female teachers working in mental retardation centers. She found dissatisfaction among teachers regarding the level of salaries and rewards. The results also show consistency with a study conducted19 in Turkey on 245 special education teachers. This study referred to scarcity of teaching aids, the unsuccessful assessment, and the attitudes of students towards their classrooms, additional work load, the low salaries and much written work as factors affecting job satisfaction level among special education teachers.
Research also identified factors leading to job satisfaction among elementary teachers in California which included democratic leadership, the salaries, the promotion opportunities, the achievement rewards and recognition of teachers' value. Among these five factors, three i.e., the salaries, the promotion opportunities and recognition of teachers' value find close consistency with the findings of this study.
On the basis of findings, the following recommendations can be given:
* As the field of Special Education is very sensitive, the government should always create posts for all categories of disabilities at the same time.
* To enhance level of job satisfaction of the teachers dealing with children with mental retardation, posts with the ratio of other categories should be immediately advertised and processed.
* More opportunities should be provided for up gradation in this category to save any loss of such students.
* Further research should be conducted using qualitative methods technique.
Notes and References
1 Don Hellriegel, and John W. Slocum, Organizational Behavior (n.p.: Thomson Publications, 2007), 159.
2 Majd Tawfeeq Mrayyan, "Nurse job satisfaction and retention: comparing public to private hospitals in Jordan", Journal of Nursing Management 13, no. 1 (2005): 40-50.
3 John B. Miner, Industrial-Organizational Psychology (n.p.: McGraw- Hill Book Company, 1992), 112.
4 O.Cam, E. Akgun, A. B. Gumus, A. Bilge, and G. U. Keskin, "Investigation of relationship between evaluation of clinic environment annd job satisfaction of doctors and nurses in a mental health and illnesses hospital", Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 6, no. 1, (2005): 213- 220
5 DeVito, Special Educators and Job Satisfaction (Master's diss. Special Education Graduate Program, Rowan University, 1998).
7 Meziyet Ari and R. Firat Sipal, "Factors affecting job satisfaction of Turkish special education professionals: predictors of turnover", European Journal of Social Work 12, no. 4 (2009): 447-463.
8 Ab Hakiem, "Job satisfaction among public education teachers And special education teacher comparative study", Journal of Reading and Knowledge 94, no. 1, (2009):14-30
9 Directorate of Special Education, Punjab (2012). Avaiable at: http://sed.punjab.gov.pk/
10 Kh Yahia, "Job Satisfaction for female worker at mental retardation centers in Amman City", Human Research Journal 21, no. 1, (1994): 142-168.
11 Shaista Naz, Fazil, and Nasir Sulman, "Levels of job satisfaction in principals of special schools of Karachi, Pakistan", Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4, no. 1, (2012): 566-581.
12 Meziyet Ari and R. Firat Sipal, "Factors affecting job satisfaction of Turkish special education professionals: predictors of turnover", op.cit.
13 Ab Hakiem, "Job satisfaction among public education teachers And special education teacher comparative study", op. cit.
14 Directorate of Special Education, Punjab, op.cit.
16 Ab Hakiem, "Job satisfaction among public education teachers And special education teacher comparative study", op. cit.
17 DeVito, Special Educators and Job Satisfaction, op. cit
18 Directorate of Special Education, Punjab, op.cit.
19 Meziyet Ari and R. Firat Sipal, "Factors affecting job satisfaction of Turkish special education professionals: predictors of turnover", op.cit.
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|Author:||Fatima, Ghulam; Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed; Malik, Misbah|
|Date:||Sep 30, 2016|
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