Effect of Dyeing Temperature on the Shrinkage and Fastness Properties of Polyester/Acrylic Fabric.
The demand of high quality apparels and upholstery has been increased with the brisk improvement of people's living. Synthetic fabrics are making progress worldwide especially polyester, acrylic and blends of both are contributing as one of the largest shares of the textiles in different formats. Acrylic is lightweight, soft, and warm, with a wool-like feel and can be used to mimic other fibres, such as cotton, when spun on short staple equipment. The fabrics made of this yarn are quick drying and resistant to sunlight, fading, mildew and insects. Polyester is strong and durable with good resistance to abrasion. It stands up well to sunlight, mildew, and insects. Blends of polyester and acrylic fibre are important in woven upholstery and finishing; easy care suiting, outwear and dress-wear. Acrylics have moderate dimensional stability (Siddique, 1999).
Dyeing, the process of imparting colour to a textile material, involves many processes such as substantively, adsorption, absorption, exhaustion and fixation of dye molecule on the textile material. The dyeability of a fibre is a measure of the ability to fix the dye molecules within the fibre. It involves a process of adsorption, exhaustion and fixation of dye molecules (Ujhelyiova et al., 2007). The knowledge of dyebath and specifications of the textile material is necessary for a successful dyeing. For instance, before dyeing, the textile material must be free from impurities to get a uniform application of dye (Siddiqui and Needles, 1982). Therefore, an appropriate process of scouring, desizing and bleaching is applied to ensure this condition.
Dyeing of polyester/acrylic blended woven fabrics is done by two different types of dyestuff namely basic (cationic) dyes for acrylic yarns and disperse dyes for polyester yarns in conventional two bath method. Disperse dyes give excellent overall fastness properties with polyester whereas basic dyes are water soluble cationic dyes where the coloured part has a positive charge, interacts with the negative group (either carboxyl or sulfonic acid group) of the fibre molecule (Choi et al., 2000).
In general, the higher temperatures (up to 120 [degrees]C) are required for dyeing of polyester. The chemical carriers are added at times because boiling water cannot perform the complete job in the presence of disperse dyes above boiling points. These carriers are small aromatic compounds used in dyeing for disperse dyes-bath in solution form to facilitate the dyeing process. The carriers help with the swelling of polyester fibres and increase the inter fibre space and let the dye molecules to penetrate in the hydrophobic fibre system easily, (Iskender et al., 2005).
A survey of the literature showed that polyester/acrylic blends are usually piece layered. Polyester-acrylic fabrics are dyed by a two bath method for improving fastness. The polyester should be dyed slight heavily to allow partial transfer of disperse dyes to acrylic during second stage ofbasic colour dyeing (Choudhury, 2006). Dyeing of acrylic with basic dye was also studied and concluded that it gives very good fastness properties at low temperature and time (Bajaj and Munukutla, 1990).
Dyeing characterisations of alkoxide pre-treated polyester/acrylic fibres blend by the use of a cationic dye in one bath by two steps is also studied by El-Gabry and Bendak (2006). The colour strength of the dyeing generally increased with increasing application temperatures (Sona et al., 2004). Thermodynamic factor and the structural factor of dyeing of acrylic fibre with basic dyes were reported by Wang (2009).
The aim of this study is to characterise the factors that influence the fabric shrinkage with temperature gradient. Also the effect of temperature on fastness properties of dyed acrylic, polyester and polyester/acrylic blended fabrics. The novelty of this work is to define the structural change of acrylic fabric with the increase in temperature, especially when polyester/acrylic blended fabrics are manufactured.
Materials and Methods
Sample of plain weave pure acrylic fabric with average weight 200 g/[m.sup.2] and polyester fabric with average weight 190 g/[m.sup.2] were obtained from the Department of Fibre and Textile Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Polyester/acrylic fabric was self-manufactured on hand loom. The polyester yarn was used in warp while acrylic yarn was interlaced as weft in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different variables on its dyeing behaviour. The fabrics were pretreated and dyed, later the colour fastness and fabric shrinkage properties of the fabric were evaluated. The plain woven fabric of acrylic, polyester and polyester/acrylic fabric were used with 150 ends/inch and 120 picks/inch.
Pretreatments of acrylic and polyester fabric were carried out in a pan with 1:50 liquor ratio at laboratory scale. Bath was prepared by adding fabric with Sandoclean PC (Detergent) at pH 4 (maintained through addition of acetic acid) and temperature was raised to 70 [degrees]C for 1 h. Firstly, 100% acrylic fabric was dyed followed by the 100% polyester and then polyester/acrylic blended fabric. HT (high temperature) dyeing machine was used at laboratory scale. Three fabric samples ([F.sub.1]=Acrylic, [F.sub.2]=Polyester and [F.sub.3]=Acrylic/Polyester) were undertaken to design the experiment at four various temperatures (T1=100 [degrees]C, T2=110 [degrees]C, T3=120 [degrees]C, T4=130 [degrees]C). HT dyeing machine works up to 150 [degrees]C with the capacity of 300 mL. 10 dyeing pots are fixed homogeneously in oil heating system controlled by the intelligent controller T- 410 NB HT:
Acrylic fabric with 1:50 liquor ratio was added to steel glasses based dyebaths. The amount of 1g of cationic red-3R basic dye (Hangzhou Emperor Chemical Co., Ltd.) was added with 99 mL of boiling water. After well shaking, it was diluted to 100 mL to get 1% stock solution. Stock solution of basic dye was added to dyebath with 2% sodium acetate. Temperature (100, 110, 120 and 130 [degrees]C) was varied in each test with fixed pH (6) and time (30 min). Dyebath glasses were closed with sealed caps and adjusted in the revolving portion (revolving speed 30 rpm) of HT dyeing machine (Yaman et al., 2009). All the processes were automatically controlled. After completing 25 min, automatic cooling started and temperature was reduced to 50 [degrees]C. The dyebaths were opened; samples were taken out, washed, rinsed, cooled and dried. For each test, time and temperature was adjusted after setting pH level inside the dyebath. Every fabric has an optimum limit of pH value for dyeing. The variation in pH results in the fibre degradation or wastage of dye.
Polyester fabric with 1:50 liquor ratio was used in dyebath steel glasses. The amount of 1g of Red-FB disperse dye (Hangzhou Emperor Chemical Co., Ltd.) was included with 99 mL of boiling water. By shaking, it was diluted to 100 mL to get 1% stock solution. A stock solution of disperse dye was put into dyebath. As similar to acrylic fabric dyeing, temperature (100, 110, 120 and 130 [degrees]C) was varied by fixing the pH (6) and time (40 min) in each test. For the dyeing of polyester/acrylic fabric one bath two stage method was used. The dyeing of blends containing acrylic was considered first because of the circulation of dye liquor through a mass of fibre and then polyester dyeing by the blend components.
Same as above method was used for dyeing with two different recipes separately. But before second stage the samples were passed from cold wash process with HCl (1g/L) to neutralize.
After all possible treatment combinations of dyeing methods, with variables and constants, the fabric samples were subjected to colour fastness and shrinkage tests. The dyed fabric samples were tested for washing (ISO 105-C04), rubbing (dry and wet) (ISO 105-X12), perspiration (acidic and alkaline) (ISO 105-E04), ironing (dry and wet) (ISO 105-X11), light fastness (ISO 105-B02) properties and shrinkage. AATCC (2003) standard was used for colour fastness properties. The data thus obtained from the shrinkage test were analysed statistically as suggested by Faqir (2004), using M-Stat micro computer statistical program devised by Freed (1992).
Results and Discussion
The aim of the present research is to study the effect of dyeing temperature by fixing the dyeing time and pH of dyebath on acrylic fabric, polyester fabric and its P/A blended fabric.
Fastness properties. The grey scale rating for all the samples responded from very good (4) to excellent (5) for all fabric samples ([F.sub.1]=acrylic, [F.sub.2]=polyester, and [F.sub.3]=polyester/acrylic). Temperature affected the washing fastness significantly at [T.sub.3] (120 [degrees]C) and [T.sub.4] (130 [degrees]C), while at [T.sub.1] (100 [degrees]C) and [T.sub.2] (110 [degrees]C) acrylic fabric countered very good (4) grading as stated by De Giorgi et al. (2000) and shown in Fig. 1.
Light fastness, the blue scale rating appeared very good (6) to excellent (7) for all fabric specimens as reported by Dr. Giorge et al. (2000) but at temperature [T.sub.3] and [T.sub.4] light fastness improved slightly as shown in Fig. 2.
The rubbing fastness ( dry) for all the samples reciprocated from very good (4) to excellent (5) range while only very good (4) values were noted in wet form at [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] but slightly improved at [T.sub.4] (Yi et al. 2005). With the increase in dyeing temperature the rubbing fastness (dry and wet) was also upgraded as given in Fig. 3.
Likewise the rubbing fastness ( dry), ironing fastness (dry) countered from very good (4) to excellent (5) at grey scale while only very good (4) value were noted in wet form at [T.sub.1], [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] but moderately improved at [T.sub.4] (Mahltig et al., 2004). As the dyeing temperature raised, the ironing fastness (dry and wet) was also refined as shown in Fig. 4.
The grey scale rating in Fig. 5 was very good (4) to excellent (5) for the perspiration fastness (acidic), although it was excellent (5) at [T.sub.3] and [T.sub.4] for the polyester fabric.
Graphical representation of shrinkage explained the direction proportion of acrylic fabric to dyeing temperature.
With the increase in dyeing temperature the shrinkage percentage also increased as given in Fig. 6. However, polyester fabric endured the temperature gradient, (Velazquez et al., 2000). The statistical comparison of individual treatment means for fabric shrinkage is presented in Table 1. In warp wise shrinkage, the individual comparison of mean values of fabric samples showed non-significant difference between the mean values of shrinkage obtained for polyester and polyester/acrylic but these values had significant difference from acrylic fabric. Similarly, temperature exhibited higher shrinkage with the increase of temperature gradient (Dyurnbaum and Bogdanov 1971). The comparison of all temperatures was observed significant, while last three temperatures appeared non-significant against each other (Sardag et al., 2007).
Fabric shrinkage (weft wise) analysis of variance revealed high significant effect of fabric samples between the mean values as shown in Table 1. Comparison of mean values between [T.sub.1] and [T.sub.2] was highly significant while non-significant for [T.sub.2], [T.sub.3] and [T.sub.4].
The study revealed that after well pretreatments, for maximum dye utilization, dyeing process was carried out under the optimal level of controlling parameters. The rise in temperature from 120 [degrees]C to 130 [degrees]C caused an increase in the shrinkage of the acrylic yarns. For this reason, dyeing temperature at 120 [degrees]C can be considered sufficient for the acrylic and polyester/acrylic fabric. However, high shrinkage was ultimate at 130 [degrees]C for acrylic fabric. Aggregately, colour fastness practiced good to excellent results. It was observed that dyeing of acrylic fabric in acidic medium with basic dyes is favorable for dye fixation while dyeing of polyester fabric was attained in disperse dyes. The maximum dye utilization and optimum results were observed at pH 6 for 30 min dyeing time in dyebath.
The auther greatly appreciate the cooperation of Naeem Ahmad Awan, Ex-lab head of Hilal Textile Pvt. Ltd. FSD, Pakistan.
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Musaddaq Azeem (a), Ahmed Fraz (*b) and Asif Javed (a)
(a) Faculty of Textile Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic
(a) School of Textile and Design, University of Management and Technology, C-II Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan
(received January 15, 2018; revised March 3, 2018; accepted March 5, 2018)
(*) Author for correspondence; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Comparison of individual treatment means of fabric shrinkage Warp wise Weft wise Fabric sample Temperature Fabric sample Temperature (F) (T) (F) (T) AC=6.462A [T.sub.1]=2.219B AC=6.497A [T.sub.1]=2.944B PE=1.772B [T.sub.2]=6.088A PE=1.785C [T.sub.2]=7.591A AC/PE=1.770B [T.sub.3]=6.088A AC/PE=4.585B [T.sub.3]=7.591A [T.sub.4]=6.088A [T.sub.4]=7.591A
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|Author:||Azeem, Musaddaq; Fraz, Ahmed; Javeda, Asif|
|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series A: Physical Sciences|
|Date:||May 1, 2018|
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