Printer Friendly

Effect of Diverse Factors on the Frequency of Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis in Kundhi Buffaloes of Sindh, Pakistan.

Byline: Hasina Baloch, Rahmatullah Rind, Muhammad Rafique Rind, Viram Kumar, Nazia Baloch and Rajesh K. Oad

Abstract

The present study was aimed at determining the effects of diverse factors associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes. Significantly higher prevalence (49. 07%) of clinical mastitis was observed in buffaloes with average age of 6 to 9 years whereas those of > 9 years of age showed higher (33.33%) but non-significant prevalence of subclinical mastitis. However, significant impact of the number of parity on the prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in animals. Higher prevalence (48.20%) of clinical mastitis was observed in buffaloes with 4 to 7 calves. A similar trend of significant influence of the number of parity on the prevalence (39.72%) of subclinical mastitis was also noted in animals given more than 7 parity. Significant role of the humid hot summer month (August) on the occurrence of apparent and non-apparent mastitis in buffaloes was determined. The soil bedding material played significant role in the prevalence of both, clinical and subclinical mastitis.

Significantly higher prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in August (52, 10.74%), while the overall prevalence (26.65%) was determined during hot humid summer season. Similarly significantly higher frequency of non-apparent udder infection in animals was documented during August (36, 10.90%). The overall higher mean incidence (31.81%) of subclinical mastitis was detected in hot humid summer.

Key words

Diverse factors, Affecting mastitis, Clinical mastitis, Subclinical mastitis, Kundhi buffaloes, Bacterial mastitis.

INTRODUCTION

The major sources of infection in the diseased udder are infected quarters, soiled udder, and contaminated milking machines, teat cups, hands of milkers, washing clothes, flies and surgical instruments. A significant role of stage (P7 (40%) on prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in the current investigation (Table I). Hussain et al. (2013) observed a substantial (P< 0.01) positive association of subclinical mastitis with numbers of parity. Rabbani and Samad (2010) noted the number of parity as a risk factor against subclinical mastitis in buffaloes and recorded as 18.42%, 55.0%, 66.67%, 75.0% and 75.0% at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th parity, respectively. Elbably et al. (2013) identified significantly (P< 0.003) higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cows with parity numbers that ranged from 2-4. Aarestrup and Jensen (1997) observed a marked influence of number of parity on the progress of mastitis. A clear correlation was noted between parity and subclinical udder infection as the parity increased however there was also increase in the prevalence of mastitis in animals.

Adane et al. (2012) noted a significant (P9###84###52 (62)###24 (29)###28 (33)

Parity###1-3###155###93 (60)###58 (37)###14.40###35 (23)###7.73

###4-7###195###144 (74)###94 (48)###0.0007 **###50 (26)###0.021 *

###>7###73###46 (63)###17 (23)###29 (40)

No. of lactation###1-4###218###140 (64)###100 (46)###6.45###48 (22)###7.23

###5-8###151###100 (66)###47 (31)###0.03 *###45 (30)###0.027 *

###>8###54###43 (80)###22 (41)###21 (39)

Seasons/year###Autumn###72###47 (65)###27 (38)###1.62###20 (28)###0.12

###Winter###104###69 (66)###40 (38)###0.65 NS###26 (25)###0.98 NS

###Spring###69###44 (64)###26 (38)###18 (26)

###Summer###178###123 (69)###76 (43)###50 (28)

Floor types###Cemented###106###49 (46)###29 (28)###12.43###20 (19)###5.72

###Sand###121###78 (64)###46 (38)###0.002 *###32 (26)###0.05 *

###Soiled###196###156 (80)###94 (48)###62 (32)

Alike investigation against subclinical mastitis was launched during current research work; a significant effect on the higher prevalence (39%) of subclinical mastitis was recorded in buffaloes with more than 8 numbers of lactations (Table I). Salvador et al. (2012) demonstrated the effect of the number of lactation on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in Bulgarian buffaloes. They noted 42.76% prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes, whereas the recurrence was recorded as 75.03%. They further reported that lactation length also influenced the occurrence of SCM. Kavitha et al. (2009) stated that the first phase of lactation (from 1 to 4 months and the last part of dry period (10 to 12 months) in buffaloes were also noted more vulnerable to in-apparent mastitis.

Hussain et al. (2013) evaluated to ascertain the association of various risk factors of mastitis in water buffaloes. The frequency analysis showed a significant (P < 0.001) positive difference among various groups including lactation stage on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes. Joshi and Gokhale (2006) reported the highest incidence of subclinical mastitis in purebred Holsteins and Jerseys while lowest in local cows and buffaloes. The higher frequency of subclinical udder infection was observed in animals with higher lactation numbers. Rabbani and Samad (2010) detected the highest prevalence (71.43%) of subclinical mastitis at late lactation stage as compared to mid and early lactation stages.

Belayneh et al. (2013) and Elbably et al. (2013) reported the stages of lactation have substantial (P<0.05) effect on frequency of subclinical mastitis in animals. The results about the influence of the number of lactations on presence of subclinical mastitis observed during current investigation are closely coincided to the findings of the majority authors who also recorded similar conclusions as noted in this investigation.

Influence of season

During present study, all four seasons were analyzed and non-significant influence on the occurrence of clinical mastitis (76, 43%) in buffaloes was determined in summer season as compared to autumn, spring and winter seasons of the year. Similarly, non-significant influence of the seasons on the trend of prevalence (50, 28%) in subclinical mastitis was also recoded in buffaloes during summer season as observed in clinical mastitis (Table I). Osman et al. (2009) reported highest proportions of incidences were found during spring (10.71%) and winter (7.07%). Hashemi et al. (2011) conducted similar investigation to a certain the effect of season on the incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in Iran. They did find the effect of season on the incidence of clinical mastitis but non-significant difference in the incidence of clinical mastitis among different seasons. The highest incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded during December and January months.

A seasonal effect on the incidence of clinical mastitis was also studied by Shpigel et al. (1998) who observed the lower incidence of clinical mastitis in cows during dry summer months, the ratio of higher to lower incidence (1:62) was observed by January in Israel. Ranjan et al. (2011) determined highest incidence of clinical mastitis in winter followed by summer and least in rainy seasons. Riekerink et al. (2007) demonstrated the highest incidence of clinical mastitis in December to January. While, Sentitula et al. (2012) stated significantly higher incidence of mastitis in winter season as compared to summer. Baloch et al. (2013) determined the higher incidence of mastitis in buffaloes during August (50.0%) and March (65.0%) in their previous study.

The results of this investigation with reference to the effect of seasons on the incidence of clinical mastitis determined in the survey are in partial agreement to the majority of the workers reported earlier; however, the findings of the current survey are in agreement to the observations made by Ranjan et al. (2011) in Indian buffaloes who recorded in winter season which was also noted in this study during winter climate in Pakistan. Baloch et al. (2013) recorded the higher incidence of mastitis in buffaloes during August (50.0%) and March (65.0%) in their previous study. They further defined that this variation might be due to monsoon in August where the climatic conditions remain moist and humid that could help in propagation of bacterial organisms.

At the same time the influence of the season on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes was also studied. A non-significant effect of the season on the trend of prevalence (29, 27.88%) was also recoded in buffaloes throughout winter season as observed in clinical mastitis in this survey (Table I). Joshi and Gokhale (2006) conducted investigation on subclinical mastitis in Indian buffaloes and recorded the incidence that did vary from 5-20%. Further informed that the monsoon season played a major role in subclinical mastitis than summer or winter. Elbably et al. (2013) stated significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis (P<0.003) during summer months. Hashemi et al. (2011) and Riekerink et al. (2007) demonstrated the higher incidence of subclinical mastitis in bovine occurred during December and January.

However, the results obtained for the influence of season on the percentage incidence of in-apparent mastitis in bubaline are in line to findings noted by Joshi and Gokhale (2006), they demonstrated 5-20% influence of summer and winter seasons on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes. Moreover, the influence of season on the prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes found during different seasons in the present study is also in accordance to the results acquired by the above workers because we are living in the same ecosystem therefore similar conclusions could be achieved.

Effect of type of floor bedding

Considering the type of bedding as a risk factor worldwide, A significant increase in the prevalence (94, 48%) of clinical mastitis was encountered in animals kept on soil floored houses while lower prevalence (29, 27%) was recorded in animals provided cemented and sand bedding materials (Table I). Furthermore, significant effect of soil bedding on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was also found in animals as recorded in clinical mastitis. Abera et al. (2012) observed a clear association of the floor typing and bedding material (P< 0.05) on the prevalence of clinical mastitis. The animals kept on concrete-floored houses had lower prevalence (19.0%) of mastitis as compared to animals kept on soil-floored houses (47.6%). Kavitha et al. (2009) recorded less incidence of clinical mastitis in animals provided sand flooring (14.2%) as compared to concrete (18.5%).

Bilal et al. (2004) reported that concrete and brick floors added more towards clinical infection of udder in bovine as compared to kacha grounds. Fadlelmoula et al. (2007) encountered a higher probability (P<0.001) of mastitis in tie-stall housed cows. The influence of type of housing and bedding material on the prevalence were also demonstrated by various workers in terms of favorable conditions for bacterial growth and ultimately the occurrence of mastitis would be inevitable in animals. They further noted that management of bedding had a big influence on exposure of teats to mastitis causing bacteria (Zdanowicz et al., 2004; Ruegg, 2012). Also cleared that sand bedding usually has the least bacterial populations but using of recycled sand had increased the moisture content and resulted in increased growth of mastitis pathogens.

A significant effect of soil bedding on the prevalence (32%) of subclinical mastitis was also observed in animals during present study (Table I). Kavitha et al. (2009) detected higher prevalence (21.2%) of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes kept on soil floored bedding as compared to sand (14.2%) and concrete (14.8%). Alemu et al. (2013) indicated in their studies that along with other risk factors, housing and bedding had significant effect on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cows. They further signified that the animals were kept at very good condition houses showed 88.9% mastitis while animals kept at poor houses with poor bedding showed 33.1% mastitis in Ethiopian cows. Furthermore, Fadlelmoula et al. (2007) also demonstrated higher incidence of mastitis in tie-stall housed cows in Germany.

The observations subtracted for the effect of bedding on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis made in the current examination are in accordance to the outcomes of Kavitha et al. (2009). Ruegg (2012) defined that sand bedding usually has the least bacterial populations but using of recycling sand had increased the moisture content and resulted in increased growth of mastitis as compared to inorganic bedding. He also mentioned that organic bedding materials had supported the bacterial.

Different types of floors such as cemented, sand and soiled were studied from study areas. At Hyderabad, TandoAllahyar and Tandojam areas, the higher prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in 29 (48%), 31 (48%) and 34 (47%) animals, respectively, while in subclinical mastitis, it was detected in 17 (28%), 19 (30%) and 26 (36%) animals, respectively. When the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was equated among three locations and types of floors provided, significantly higher influence of the soiled floor on the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was observed in animals at Hyderabad. However, similar significant effect of the soiled floor on the frequency of apparent and un-apparent clinical udder infections in bubaline of TandoAllahyar was also demonstrated (Table II).

Bilal et al. (2004) documented the association of the floor as a risk factor that influenced the prevalence of mastitis in animals. They reported that concrete and block grounds promoted further towards clinical mastitis in bovine as accorded to mud made floors. Kavitha et al. (2009) stated that the occurrence of udder infection was lower on silt flooring than cemented. A mud used bedding material provided higher frequency of clinical and subclinical infection of udder (21.2%) in buffaloes was observed as compared to sand and concrete floor bedding.

The conclusions drawn with regards to the floor management as a risk factor for contribution of prevalence of both mastitis, clinical and subclinical in buffaloes in the current survey are also concluded by Bilal et al. (2004) and Kavitha et al. (2009), they noted the higher prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in animals which were provided soil floor bedding as revealed in this study. Therefore, the present findings are in agreement to the observations made by the above workers.

Table II.- Divers factors associated with floor management in the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes at Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar and Tandojam locations.

Locations###Floor types###Total###Clinical mastitis###Subclinical mastitis

###buffaloes###Total No.###Positive###x2 and P-value###Total No. Positive###x2 and P-value

###examined###No. (%)###significance###No. (%)###significance

Hyderabad###Cemented/bricked###51###26###10 (20)###17.77###25###08 (19)###6.14

###Sand###43###28###16 (37)###0.0001 *###15###10 (20)###0.046*

###Soiled###60###32###29 (48)###28###17 (28)

Tando###Cemented/bricked###33###15###11 (33)###5.68###18###07 (21)###2.05

Allahyar###Sand###39###18###15 (39)###0.058 *###21###10 (26)###0.35 NS

###Soiled###64###32###31 (48)###32###19 (30)

Tandojam###Cemented/bricked###22###10###08 (36)###3.52###12###05 (23)###3.59

###Sand###39###17###15 (38)###0.17 NS###22###12 (31)###0.166 NS

###Soiled###72###35###34 (47)###37###26 (36)

Total###423###213###169 (40)###210###114 (27)

Table III.- The mean number and percentage incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes during different months of the year.

Seasons Months###Total No.###Clinical mastitis###Sub-clinical mastitis

of the of year of samples No. of###No. of###Overall x2 and###No. of###No. of###Overall###x2 and

year###examined###samples###positive###% of###P-value###samples###positive###% of###P-value

###examined samples (%) season Significance examined samples (%) season Significance

Winter December###152###84###42 (9)###24###1.09###68###32 (10)###25###5.89

###January###124###60###32 (7)###0.58 NS###64###19 (6)###0.05*

###February###140###72###42 (9)###68###33 (10)

Spring March###144###80###49 (10)###16###1.76###64###25 (8)###16###0.05

###April###132###60###30 (6)###0.18 NS###72###27 (8)###0.85 NS

Dry Hot May###132###68###39 (8)###17###1.42###64###17 (5)###9###0.98

Summer June###160###88###42 (9)###0.23 NS###72###14 (4)###0.32 NS

Humid###July###144###76###43 (9)###27###13.20###68###25 (8)###32###7.00

hot###August###124###64###52 (11)###0.001*###60###36 (11)###0.03*

summer September###152###64###34 (7)###88###44 (13)

Autumn October###152###72###40 (8)###16###0.40###80###33 (10)###18###0.68

###November###136###64###39 (8)###0.52 NS###72###25 (8)###0.40 NS

Total###1692###852###484 (29)###840###330 (20)

Significantly higher incidence of clinical mastitis was observed in the month of August (52, 11%), while the overall prevalence (27%) was noted during hot humid summer season. Similarly, significantly higher incidence of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes was recorded during August (36, 11%) month of the year. Overall higher mean incidence (32%) of subclinical mastitis was detected in hot humid summer season of the year (Table III). Elbably et al. (2013) studied significantly (P<0.000) higher occurrence of subclinical mastitis in summer months and recorded 2.94, 5.63, 5.63 and 8.75% prevalence during autumn, winter, and spring and summer seasons of the year in dairy cows, respectively, in Egypt. Baloch et al. (2013) in their previous study observed higher prevalence of clinical mastitis in buffaloes in the months of August (50.0%) and March (65.0%).

They described August month as a humid hot summer month with high rainfall of the year while March month is noted to be spring season that provides suitable environmental conditions in terms of appropriate temperature and moisture for the growth of bacterial organisms. In contrast to above workers, Hashemi et al. (2011) obtained the highest incidence of clinical mastitis in December and January months. Shpigel et al. (1998) who observed lower incidence of clinical mastitis in cows throughout dry summer months while the ratio of higher to lower incidence (1:62) was observed in January in Israel. Ranjan et al. (2011) calculated the highest incidence of clinical mastitis in winter followed by summer and least in rainy season. Riekerink et al. (2007) reported the highest incidence of clinical mastitis from December to January in cows whereas Shitu et al. (2012) explored significantly higher incidence of mastitis in winter season as compared to summer in buffaloes.

The results with regard the mean incidence of clinical mastitis in buffaloes in different months and seasons of the year observed in this study are in line to the incidence of clinical mastitis presented by Elbably et al. (2013) and Baloch et al. (2013) in their studies in cows and buffaloes, respectively.

Subclinical mastitis in buffaloes was also followed during present survey to compare the incidence in between two different cases. Significantly higher incidence of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes was recorded in month of August (36, 11%) of the id summer season of the year (Table III). Joshi and Gokhale (2006) stated the overall higher incidence (31.81%) of subclinical mastitis during hot-humid monsoon season that played a major role in the incidence of subclinical mastitis in animals than summer or winter seasons. Elbably et al. (2013) demonstrated significantly (P<0.000) higher occurrence of subclinical mastitis in summer months than the other months of the year and recorded 14.7, 25.91, 25.97 and 27.5% throughout autumn, winter, spring and summer months of the year in cows, respectively.

Similar conclusions were presented by Abdel-Rady and Sayed (2009) who detected higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot-summer (9.14%) and spring (4.86%) seasons and months than winter (2%) and autumn (3.14%) seasons and months of the year. The observations noted in this study about the mean incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes during different seasons and months of the year are coincided to the figures presented by the above workers. However, present values are in complete agreement to the results obtained by Elbably et al. (2013) who recorded similar incidence of subclinical mastitis in Egyptian cows. Irrespective of animal species, the weather conditions of Egypt are similar as in Pakistan. In general, bacterial organisms can cause infection in all animal species because the intrinsic environment of the udder of animal species is alike and can favour for propagation of bacterial species.

CONCLUSIONS

It is concluded that the age had significant influence on the prevalence of clinical mastitis in buffaloes with the average age ranged from 6 to 9 years than the younger animals. Significantly influence of the number of parity on the frequency of apparent (48.20%) and in-apparent mastitis (39.72%) was observed in buffaloes given 4 to 7 and more than 7 parity, respectively. However, significant role of the humid hot summer months (August) on the occurrence of apparent and unapparent mastitis in buffaloes was determined. It was further concluded that soil bedding material played significant role in the prevalence of mastitis in both, clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffaloes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Authors acknowledge with thanks, the help of Dr. Aslam Pervez Umerani, Director, Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Tandojam, Sindh for providing funds and assistantship to complete this project.

Statement of conflict of interest

Authors have declared no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

Aarestrup, F.M. and Jensen, N.E., 1997. Prevalence and duration of intramammary infection in Danish heifers during the prepartum period. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 312. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75939-3

Abd-Elrahman, A.H., 2013. Mastitis in housed dairy buffaloes: Incidence, aetiology, clinical findings, antimicrobial sensitivity and different medical treatment against Escherichia coli mastitis. Life Sci. J., 10: 532-538.

Abdel-Rady, A. and Sayed, M., 2009. Epidemiological studies on subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Assiut Governorate. J. Vet. World, 210: 373-380. https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2009.373-380

Abera, M., Habte, T., Aragaw, K., Asmare, K. and Sheferaw, D., 2012. Major causes of mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy farms in and around Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 44: 1175-1179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-0055-3

Adane, B., Guyo, K., Tekle, Y., Taddele, H., Boale, A. and Biffa, D., 2012. Study on prevalence vabello and risk factors of bovine mastitis in Borana pastoral and agro-pastoral setting of District, Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. American-Eurasian J. Agric. environ. Sci., 12: 1274-1281.

Aiza T., Asif, M., Abbas, Z. and Rehman, R., 2017. Three Bacteriophages SA, SA2 and SNAF can control growth of milk isolated staphylococcal species. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 529-533

Alemu, S., Tamiru, F., Almaw, G. and Tsega, A., 2013. Study on bovine mastitis and its effect on chemical composition of milk in and around Gondar Town. Ethiopian J. Vet. Med. Anim. Hlth., 5: 215-221.

Arshad, M., Muhammad, G., Siddique, M., Ashraf, M. and Khan, H.A., 2006. Staphylococcal mastitis in bovines and some properties of staphylococcal isolates. Pak. Vet. J., 26: 20-22.

Baloch, H., Rind, R. and Shah, M.G., 2013. Studies on mastitis in buffaloes caused by bacterial species. Pak. J. Agric. Agril. Engg. Vet. Sci., 29: 195-202.

Belayneh, R., Belihu, K. and Wubete, A., 2013. Dairy cows mastitis survey in Adam Town, Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Hlth., 5: 281-287.

Bilal, M.Q., Iqbal, M.U., Muhammad, G., Avais, M. and Sajid, M.S., 2004. Factors affecting clinical mastitis in buffaloes around Faisalabad district (Pakistan). Int. J. Agric. Biol., 6: 185-189.

Breen, J.E., Green, M.J. and Bradley, A.J., 2009. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the United Kingdom. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 2551-2561. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1562

Dimitar, N. and Metodija, T., 2012. Udder quarter risk factors associated with prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis. Mac. Vet. Rev., 35: 55-64.

David, W., Michael, W., Alvin, L., Rod, C. and Graeme, M., 2005. Chemical and rheological aspects of gel formation in the California Mastitis Test. J. Dairy Res., 72: 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029904000561

Elbably, M.A., Emeash, H.H. and Asmaa, N.M., 2013. Risk factors associated with mastitis occurrence in dairy herds in Beni-Suef Governorate. World's Vet. J., 3: 5-10. https://doi.org/10.5455/wvj.20130223

Fadlelmoula, A., Fahr, R.D., Anacker, G. and Swalve, H.H., 2007. The management practices associated with prevalence and risk factors of mastitis in large scale dairy farms in Thuringia-Germany: Environmental factors associated with prevalence of mastitis. Aust. J. Basic appl. Sci., 1: 619-624.

Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 146-184.

Hashemi, M., Kafi, M. and Safdarian, M., 2011. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in the central region of Fars Province, South of Iran. Iranian J. Vet. Res., 12: 236-241.

Hussain, R.J., Khan M.T. and Ghulam, A.M., 2013. Risks factors associated with subclinical mastitis in water buffaloes in Pakistan. J. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 45: 1723-1729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0421-4

Joshi, S. and Gokhale, S., 2006. Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and peri-urban dairy farms in India. Annls. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1081: 74-83. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1373.007

Kavitha, K.L., Rajesh, K., Suresh, K., Satheesh, K. and Sundar, N.S., 2009. Buffalo mastitis risk factors. Buff. Bull., 28: 135-137.

Osman, K.M., El-Enbaawy, M.I., Ezzeldeen, N.A. and Hussein, H.M.G., 2009. Mastitis in dairy buffaloes and cattle in Egypt due to Clostridium perfringenes: Prevalence, incidence, risk factors and cost. Rev. Sci. Technol. Int. Epiz., 28: 975-986. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.28.3.1936

MSP, 2011. Meteorological survey of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Muhammad, G., Athar, M., Shakoor, A., Khan, M.Z., Fazal-u-Rehman and Ahmad, M.T., 1995. Surf field mastitis test: An inexpensive new tool for evaluation of wholesomeness of fresh milk Pak. J. Fd. Sci., 5: 91-93.

Rabbani, A.F.M.G. and Samad, M.A., 2010. Host determinants based comparative prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating Holstein Frisian cross cows and Red Chittagong cows in Bangladesh. Bang. J. Vet. Med., 8: 17-21.

Radostits, O.R., Blood, D.C. and Gay, C.C., 2007. Mastitis veterinary medicine: A text book of the diseases of cattle, horse, sheep pigs and goats, 9th ed. Bailer Tindal, London, pp. 563-614.

Ranjan, R., Gupta, M.K. and Singh, K.K., 2011. Study of bovine mastitis in different climatic conditions in Jharkhand. Ind. Vet. World, 4: 205-208. https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2011.205-208

Reyher, K.K. and Dohoo, I.R., 2011. Diagnosing intramammary infections: Evaluation of composite milk samples to detect intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 3387-3396. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3907

Riekerink, R.G.M.O., Barkema, H.W. and Stryhn, H., 2007. The effect of season on somatic cell count and the incidence of clinical mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 1704-1715. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-567

Ruegg, P.L., 2012. Managing cows, milking and the environment to minimize mastitis. Adv. Dairy Technol., 24: 351-359.

Sadashiv, S.O. and Kaliwal, B.B., 2013. Prevalence of Bovine mastitis in North Karnataka, India. Int. J. Pharmacol. Hlth. Care Res., 1: 169-177.

Salvador, R.T., Beltran, J.M.C., Abes, N.S., Gutierrez, C.A. and Mingala, C.N., 2012. Short communication: Prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis as determined by the California mastitis test in water buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 1363-1366. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4503

Sentitula, B., Yadav, R. and Kumar, R., 2012. Incidence of Staphylococci and Streptococci during winter in mastitis milk of Sahiwal cow and Murrah buffaloes. Ind. J. Microbiol., 52: 153-159.

Sharma, N., Gupta, S.K., Sharma, U. and Hussain, K., 2007. Treatment of clinical mastitis in buffalo-A case report. Buff. Bull., 26: 56-58.

Shittu, A., Abdullah, J., Jibril, A., Mohammed, A.A. and Fasina, F.O., 2012. Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria. BMC Vet. Res., 8: 134. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-134

Shpigel, N.Y., Winker, M., Ziv, G. and Saran, A., 1998. Clinical bacteriological and epidemiological aspects of clinical mastitis in Israeli dairy herds. Prev. Vet. Med., 35: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(98)00052-X

Supre, K., Haesebrouck, F., Zadoks, R.N., Vaneechoutte, M., Piepers, S. and de Vliegher, S., 2011. Some coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species affect udder health more than others. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 2329-2340. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3741

Waage, S., Mork, T., Rose, A., Hanshamar, A. and Odegaard, S.A., 1999. Bacteria associated with dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci., 82: 712-719. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75288-4

Waage, S., Skei, H.R., Rise, J., Rogdo, T., Sviland, S. and Odegaard, S.A., 2000. Outcome of clinical mastitis in dairy heifers assessed by re-examination of cases one month after treatment. J. Dairy Sci., 83: 70-76. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74857-0

Waage, S., Odegaard, S.A., Lund, A., Brattgjerd, S. and Rothe, T., 2001. Case-control study of risk factors for clinical mastitis in postpartum dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci., 84: 392-399. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74489-X

Zaki, M.M., El-Zorba, H.Y. and Kaoud, H.A., 2010. Environmental organisms as risk factors in the occurrence of mastitis of dairy Buffaloes with suggested methods of control: A field study. J. Global Vet., 5: 97-105.

Zdanowicz, M., Shelford, J.A., Tucker, C.B., Weary, D.M. and Keyserlingk, M.A.G., 2004. Bacterial populations on teat ends of dairy cows housed in free stalls and bedded with either sand or sawdust. J. Dairy Sci., 87: 1694-1701. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73322-6
COPYRIGHT 2018 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Baloch, Hasina; Rind, Rahmatullah; Rind, Muhammad Rafique; Kumar, Viram; Baloch, Nazia; Oad, Rajesh
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Oct 31, 2018
Words:5155
Previous Article:Impact of Mycotoxin Binders on Humoral Immunity, Lymphoid Organs and Growth Performance of Broilers.
Next Article:In Vitro Culture and Biological Characteristics of Sheep Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |