Printer Friendly

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Different Levels of Green Tea Powder and Fish Oil or their Combination on Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens.

Byline: Mohammad Hossein Alimohammadi Saraee Alireza Seidavi Mohammad Dadashbeiki Vito Laudadio and Vincenzo Tufarelli

Abstract This study was aimed at assessing the effects of fish oil and green tea powder and their combination on carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared for 42 d of age. Two hundred and seventy day- old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of nine dietary treatments with three replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary groups comprised a control diet without feed additive; diets containing only 1.0 or 1.5% of green tea powder; diets containing 1.5% of fish oil combined with 0 1.0 or 1.5% of green tea powder; diets containing 2.0% of fish oil combined with 0 1.0 or 1.5% of green tea powder. The growth responses achieved by broilers from all dietary groups complied with the standards. Dietary inclusion of fish oil and green tea powder did not affect broilers' body weight and carcass yield as well as meat cuts compared with those fed the control diet.

Feeding a combination of fish oil and green tea powder resulted in lower abdominal fat and neck percentages in birds as well as in higher heart and jejunum percentages. In conclusion results from the current trial suggested that the dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil and green tea powder may support carcass parameters in broilers. Further research is needed to assess the effects of these supplements as a feed resource for poultry production.

Keywords: Broiler fish oil green tea powder intestine carcass traits.

INTRODUCTION

Poultry meat is a popular and versatile and valuable food widely consumed compared to the other meats (Moumeni 2001). Optimal feeding program can reduce costs and economize productions in order to offer higher quality products to consumers (Laudadio et al. 2002a; Poorghasemi et al. 2013). Moreover due to concerns of bacterial resistance the use of antibiotics as growth promoters is under scrutiny. In this context herbal products have received increased attention because as natural additives they have a high acceptability amongst consumers (Toghyani et al. 2010).

Natural feed additives can be incorporated into diet to improve the livestock production through improvement of feed properties to enhance the animal productive performance as well as the derived food (Ebrahimi et al. 2014). Tea is one of the world's most highly consumed beverages and it has attracted much attention in recent years due to its numerous health benefits (Perumalla and Hettiarachchy 2011). The polyphenolic compounds of green tea have been shown to improve body weight gain and feed efficiency in pigs (Hossain et al. 2012) and poultry (Khan 2014). In poultry diets green tea and its derivatives such as green tea extract green tea leaves green tea by-products green tea polyphenols and green tea flowers are supplemented for improving performance (Khan 2014).

Fish oil is one of the available energy sources used in the poultry diet and its supplementation has been reported to improve body weight gain and feed efficiency in the broilers (Mansoub 2011) Moreover the positive effect of supplementing fish oil to broilers diet on their performance has been already demonstrated and it was found that fish oil enhanced also poultry immune response. Thus dietary fish oil and green tea powder may positively

Table I.- Ingredients and nutrient analysis of diets fed to broiler chickens during the starter period (1-14 days of age).

Ingredient (g/kg as fed###Dietary treatments

asis)###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8###9

Corn###583.1###574.2###568.2###576.5###566.5###561.6###573.8###564.1###559.3

Soybean meal###377.7###374.2###373.7###378.9###376.3###375.0###379.6###376.8###375.4

Fish oil###-###-###-###15.0###15.0###15.0###20.0###20.0###20.0

Green tea powder###-###10.0###15.0###-###10.0###15.0###-###10.0###15

Soybean oil###12.6###15.0###16.5###3.0###5.6###6.8###-###2.5###3.7

DL-methionine###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8

L-lysine###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8

Mineral mixture1###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0

Vitamin mixture2###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0

CaCO3###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0

Phytase enzyme###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5

Multi-enzyme###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5

Dicalcium phosphate###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0

Nutrient analysis

ME (kcal/kg diet)###2969###2969###2969###2969###2969###2969###2969###2969###2969

Crude protein (%)###22.13###22.10###22.13###22.12###22.13###22.13###22.13###22.13###22.13

Crude fiber (%)###3.34###3.46###3.52###3.34###3.46###3.53###3.34###3.47###3.53

Calcium (%)###0.65###0.65###0.65###0.65###0.65###0.65###0.65###0.65###0.65

Tryptophan SID3 (%)###0.42###0.41###0.41###0.41###0.41###0.41###0.41###0.41###0.41

Available phosphorus (%)###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24

Linoleic acid (%)###1.76###1.85###1.91###1.32###1.42###1.46###1.18###1.27###1.32

Lysine SID (%)###1.33###1.31###1.31###1.33###1.32###1.31###1.33###1.32###1.31

Methionine SID (%)###0.56###0.56###0.56###0.56###0.56###0.56###0.56###0.56###0.56

Cysteine (%)###0.68###0.67###0.67###0.68###0.67###0.67###0.68###0.67###0.67

Sodium (%)###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04

affect carcass traits and organ characteristics of modern broilers.

To the best of our knowledge no data have yet been published on the simultaneous effects of these feed additives on the growth performance of broilers. Therefore the current study was planned to evaluate the effects of fish oil and green tea powder and their combination in diet for broiler chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Two hundred and seventy day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of nine dietary treatments with three replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design and reared for 42 days. A 3 A- 3 factorial design was used in which corn-soybean meal based diets were supplemented with three different levels of fish oil (0 1.5 and 2.0% respectively) and green tea powder (0 1.0 and 1.5% respectively). Diets were formulated to meet broiler nutrients' requirements based on Ross 308 strain breeding manual. Feed and water were provided ad libitum.

All experimental starter grower and finisher diets contained 2969 3005 and 3050 of metabolizable energy (ME) kcal/kg diet and 22.1 20.5 and 19.4% of crude protein (CP) respectively. The ingredient composition of the experimental diets and the respective calculated nutrient analysis are reported in Tables I-III. The dietary groups comprised a control diet without feed additive (treatment 1); diets containing only 1.0 or 1.5% of

Table II.- Ingredients and nutrient analysis of diets fed to broiler chickens during the grower period (15-28 days of age).

Ingredient (g/kg as fed###Dietary treatments

asis)###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8###9

Corn###628.1###618.6###613.6###621.4###611.5###606.8###615.7###609.4###604.6

Soybean meal###333.6###330.8###329.5###335.0###332.3###330.9###336.2###332.7###331.3

Fish oil###-###-###-###15.0###15.0###15.0###20.0###20.0###20.0

Green tea powder###-###10.0###15.0###-###10.0###15.0###-###10.0###15

Soybean oil###11.7###14###15.3###2.0###4.6###5.7###-###1.3###2.5

DL-methionine###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8

L-lysine###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8

Mineral mixture1###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0

Vitamin mixture2###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0

CaCO3###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.5###10.0###10.0

Phytase enzyme###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5

Multi-enzyme###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5

Dicalcium phosphate###0.5###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###8.0###7.0###7.0

Nutrient analysis

ME (kcal/kg diet)###3005###3005###3005###3005###3005###3005###3005###3005###3005

Crude protein (%)###20.54###20.54###20.54###20.54###20.54###20.54###20.55###20.54###20.54

Crude fiber (%)###3.06###3.18###3.25###3.06###3.19###3.25###3.07###3.19###3.25

Calcium (%)###0.64###0.63###0.63###0.64###0.63###0.63###0.68###0.63###0.63

Tryptophan SID3 (%)###0.40###0.39###0.39###0.40###0.39###0.39###0.40###0.39###0.39

Available phosphorus (%)###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.26###0.24###0.24

Linoleic acid (%)###1.79###1.87###1.92###1.34###1.44###1.48###1.24###1.28###1.33

Lysine SID (%)###1.21###1.20###1.19###1.21###1.20###1.20###1.21###1.20###1.20

Methionine SID (%)###0.54###0.53###0.53###0.54###0.53###0.53###0.54###0.53###0.53

Cysteine (%)###0.63###0.62###0.62###0.63###0.62###0.62###0.63###0.62###0.62

Sodium (%)###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04

reen tea powder (treatments 2 and 3 respectively); diets containing 1.5% of fish oil combined with) 1.0 or 1.5% of green tea powder (treatments 4 5 and 6 respectively); diets containing 2.0% of fish oil combined with 0 1.0 or 1.5% of green tea powder (treatments 7 8 and 9 respectively). Before starting the trial all pens feeders and water bottles were cleaned with a disinfectant solution of 0.1% Despadak(R). Furthermore the whole facilities were also thoroughly cleaned. Rearing conditions such as temperature relative humidity cross-ventilation as well as lighting program stocking density were followed according to standard conditions and the Ross 308 broiler management guide.

At the age of 42 days after 4 h of fasting for complete evacuation of the gut one bird from each replicate was selected. Care was taken to choose the most representative birds based on the body weight (BW) compared to the mean body weight in each group. These broilers were used for measuring carcass yield and distribution of meat as well as gastrointestinal tract characteristics.

Data were analyzed controlled for normality by Shapiro-Wilk test. The treatments were analyzed using univariate ANOVA and post hoc contrast testing with the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Moreover the mixed linear model with the factors fish oil and tea powder levels and Scheffe's contrast testing were used (SPSS 1997). Results were reported as mean and standard error of the means (SEM). Significance implies Pless than 0.05 unless otherwise stated.

Table III.- Ingredients and nutrient analysis of diets fed to broiler chickens during the finisher period (29-42 days of age).

Ingredient (g/kg as fed###Dietary treatments

asis)###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8###9

Corn###656.2###646.7###641.8###649.5###639.8###635.0###644.1###637.6###632.7

Soybean meal###302.7###299.7###298.4###303.9###301.1###299.7###305.0###301.5###300.2

Fish oil###-###-###-###15.0###15.0###15.0###20.0###20.0###20.0

Green tea powder###-###10.0###15.0###-###10.0###15.0###-###10.0###15.0

Soybean oil###14.5###17.0###18.2###5.0###7.5###8.7###2.8###4.3###5.5

DL-methionine###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8###1.8

L-lysine###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8###0.8

Mineral mixture1###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0

Vitamin mixture2###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0###3.0

CaCO3###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.0###10.5###10.0###10.0

Phytase enzyme###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5

Multi-enzyme###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5###0.5

Dicalcium phosphate###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###7.0###8.0###7.0###7.0

Nutrient analysis

ME (kcal/kg diet)###3050###3050###3050###3050###3050###3050###3050###3050###3050

Crude protein (%)###19.39###19.39###19.39###19.39###19.39###19.39###19.39###19.39###19.39

Crude fiber (%)###2.86###2.99###3.05###2.86###2.99###3.05###2.87###2.99###3.05

Calcium (%)###0.63###0.62###0.62###0.63###0.62###0.62###0.67###0.62###0.62

Tryptophan SID3 (%)###0.39###0.38###0.38###0.38###0.38###0.38###0.38###0.38###0.38

Available phosphorus (%)###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.24###0.23###0.26###0.24###0.23

Linoleic acid (%)###1.95###2.04###2.09###1.51###1.61###1.65###1.40###1.46###1.50

Lysine SID (%)###1.12###1.11###1.11###1.13###1.12###1.11###1.13###1.12###1.11

Methionine SID (%)###0.52###0.52###0.51###0.52###0.52###0.51###0.52###0.52###0.51

Cysteine (%)###0.60###0.59###0.59###0.60###0.59###0.59###0.60###0.50###0.59

Sodium (%)###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04###0.04

1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The effects of dietary fish oil and green tea powder and their combination on final BW carcass characteristics and intestinal traits of broiler chickens are presented in Tables IV-VI. During the whole feeding period the final BW of broilers did not vary significantly (P greater than 0.05) among dietary groups. According to the data on Tables IV-VI some carcass traits were significantly (P less than 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments. The growth responses achieved by broilers from all dietary groups complied with the standards. However feeding a combination of fish oil and green tea powder resulted in lower abdominal fat and neck percentages in birds as well as in higher heart and jejunum percentages. In this study diet supplementation with fish oil and green tea powder particularly combining the two ingredients determined an improvement in abdominal fat deposition of broiler carcass.

The favorable result on this of trait could be explained by the positive impact of these feed additives on the reduced passage rate of the digesta through the gastrointestinal trait allowing for better nutrient absorption and utilization (Latshaw 2008) resulting thus in a more efficient use of nutrients from diet.

In a previous study Crespo and Esteve- Garcia (2000) stated that reduction of abdominal fat in broilers fed a diet supplemented with oils seems to be a consequence of higher lipid oxidation although the higher synthesis of endogenous fatty

Table IV.- Performance traits (% on BW) of broiler chickens fed the experimental diets.

Treatment###BW###Carcass yield###Breast yield###Drumstick yield###Abdominal fat

###(g at 42 days)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)

Fish oil (% in diet)###0###2529###80.3###27.1###31.1###1.61b

###1.5###2442###83.6###26.2###30.2###1.73b

###2.0###2625###82.4###27.1###30.1###1.62b

###SEM###72.39###5.26###0.87###0.66###0.10

Green tea powder (% in diet)###0###2597###82.5###26.6###30.9###1.73b

###1.0###2432###80.9###26.1###31.3###1.80b

###1.5###2567###83.0###27.5###30.1###1.46a

###SEM###7522###4.21###0.79###0.62###0.12

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (0)###2621###82.6###26.5###32.0###1.63b

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (1.0)###2383###79.2###26.0###30.4###2.19c

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (1.5)###2584###79.1###28.7###30.8###1.11a

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (0)###2527###83.8###26.5###29.9###1.61b

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (1.0)###2366###79.9###25.7###31.8###1.60b

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (1.5)###2433###87.2###26.5###28.7###1.99b

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (0)###2643###81.0###27.6###30.7###1.97b

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (1.0)###2547###83.6###26.7###31.7###1.60b

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (1.5)###2685###82.7###27.2###30.6###1.30a

###SEM###91.25###9.12###1.49###1.14###0.18

Table V.- Organs and cuts yield (% on BW) of broiler chickens fed the experimental diets.

Treatment###Gizzard yield###Heart yield###Neck yield###Kidneys yield###Pancreas yield

###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(%)

Fish oil (% in diet)###0###2.67###0.58b###3.03b###0.68###0.29

###1.5###2.63###0.61a###3.24b###0.65###0.31

###2.0###2.32###0.50b###3.25b###0.62###0.28

###SEM###0.18###0.02###0.11###0.06###0.02

Green tea powder (% in diet)###0###2.38###0.56b###3.18b###0.64###0.27

###1.0###2.63###0.55b###3.19b###0.65###0.31

###1.5###2.61###0.58a###3.14b###0.66###0.31

###SEM###0.13###0.03###0.12###0.05###0.03

###2.63###0.59a###3.27b###0.71###0.29

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (0)###2.63###0.59a###3.27b###0.71###0.29

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (1.0)###2.99###0.55b###2.99a###0.66###0.30

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (1.5)###2.38###0.58a###2.84a###0.66###0.29

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (0)###2.28###0.61a###2.98a###0.62###0.27

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (1.0)###2.42###0.56b###3.40b###0.58###0.31

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (1.5)###3.17###0.64a###3.33b###0.75###0.35

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (0)###22.3###0.47b###3.30b###0.58###0.24

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (1.0)###2.47###0.53b###3.18b###0.71###0.31

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (1.5)###2.28###0.51b###3.27b###0.58###0.30

###SEM###0.31###0.04###0.18###0.09###0.03

Table VI.- Intestinal traits yield (% on BW) of broiler chickens fed the experimental diets.

Treatment###Duodenum (%)###Jejunum (%)###Ileum (%)###Colon (%)###Cecum (%)

Fish oil (% in diet)###0###1.64###4.38a###0.51###0.13###0.34

###1.5###1.19###3.81b###0.54###0.12###0.32

###2.0###0.97###3.37b###0.60###0.11###0.31

###SEM###0.38###0.46###0.06###0.01###0.02

Green tea powder (% in diet)###0###1.50###3.35b###0.50###0.12###0.30

###1.0###1.10###3.72b###0.56###0.12###0.35

###1.5###1.22###4.49a###0.58###0.13###0.32

###SEM###0.37###0.41###0.05###0.01###0.03

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (0)###1.73###3.76b###0.42###0.13###0.31

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (1.0)###1.02###3.96b###0.56###0.13###0.43

Fish oil (0)-Green tea (1.5)###1.17###4.42a###0.55###0.14###0.27

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (0)###0.83###3.21b###0.43###0.13###0.31

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (1.0)###1.16###4.10b###0.59###0.13###0.32

Fish oil (1.5)-Green tea (1.5)###1.57###4.12b###0.58###0.12###0.32

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (0)###0.95###3.09b###0.66###0.10###0.26

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (1.0)###1.05###3.12b###0.53###0.10###0.29

Fish oil (2.0)-Green tea (1.5)###0.93###3.97b###0.60###0.12###0.37

###SEM###0.53###0.69###0.09###0.01###0.04

acids. Among fat sources available for poultry feeding it has been recognized that fish oil is an valuable combination of essential fatty acids unsaturated fatty acids that can improve broiler growth traits and also linolenic acid can be converted to longer chain -3 fatty acids that is an important factor in poultry feeding as health promoter (Bezard et al. 1994).

Data analyzed except those related to the organs and gut traits were normally distributed. No treatment effect was found on body weight (Fig. 1) carcass yield head yield breast and drumstick yields except abdominal fat weight (Fig. 2) that was significantly affected by treatment (P less than 0.05). In fact adding 1.5% of green tea powder to the diet was found to significantly decrease (P less than 0.05) the abdominal fat yield in broiler chickens whereas supplementing fish oil appeared to increase the carcass abdominal fat but this increase was not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). However there was a significant interaction (P less than 0.05) on abdominal fat growth between 1.5% of green tea powder and 2% of fish oil in diet. The green tea powder could reduce the 47 g of abdominal fat induced by 2% of dietary fish oil to 27 g on average.

The findings of the present study indicated that the jejunum yield of broilers was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher when the diet contained a combination of fish oil and green tea powder (Table VI). This increase in small intestine trait disagrees with the previous report of Ahmad et al. (2006) who reported that the length of intestinal tract was reduced in birds fed a diet supplemented with oil or fat.

In conclusion results from the current trial suggested that the dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil and green tea powder may support carcass parameters in broilers. In particular it seems that that dietary green tea powder may possess some positive effect on abdominal fat deposition in broilers carcass. However further research is needed to assess the effects of these supplements as a feed resource for poultry production.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This manuscript was part of the MSc thesis of first author at Islamic Azad University Rasht Branch Rasht Iran. We are grateful to the Islamic Azad University Rasht Branch Rasht Iran for support. We also are grateful to Prof. Dr. RenACopyright Van Den Hoven of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna for the assistance.

REFERENCES

AHMAD F. MAHMOOD S. ZIA-UR-REHMAN ASHRAF M. ALAM M. AND MUZAFFAR A. 2006. Effect of feeding management on energy protein intake and carcass characteristics of broilers during summer. Int. J. agric. Biol. 8: 546-549.

BEZARD J. BLOND J.P. BERNARD A. AND CLOUET P. 1994. The metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 34: 539-568.

CRESPO N. AND ESTEVE-GARCIA E. 2002. Nutrient and fatty acid deposition in broilers fed different fatty acid profiles. Poult. Sci. 81: 1533-1542.

EBRAHIMI A. QOTBI A.A.A. SEIDAVI A. LAUDADIO V. AND TUFARELLI V. 2014. Effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel on broiler chickens growth performance. Archiv. Tierz. 56: 11-17.

HOSSAIN M.E. SEOK Y.K. AND CHUL J.Y. 2012.

Dietary supplementation of green tea by-products on growth performance meat quality blood parameters and immunity in finishing pigs. J. Med. Plant Res. 6: 24582467.

KHAN S.H. 2014. The use of green tea (Camellia sinensis) as a phytogenic substance in poultry diets: review article. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 81: 1-8.

LATSHAW J.D. 2008. Daily energy intake of broiler chickens is altered by proximate nutrient content and form of the diet. Poult. Sci. 87: 89-95.

LAUDADIO V. DAMBROSIO A. NORMANNO G. KHAN R.U. NAZ S. ROWGHANI E. AND TUFARELLI V. 2012. Effect of reducing dietary protein level on performance responses and some microbiological aspects of broiler chickens under summer environmental conditions. Avian Biol. Res. 5: 88-92

LAUDADIO V. TUFARELLI V. DARIO M. D'EMILIO F.P. AND VICENTI A. 2009. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of female turkeys as affected by feeding programs. Poult. Sci. 88: 805-810. MANSOUB N.H. 2011. Effect of fish oil fed a low-protein diet on performance carcass characterizes and blood indices in broiler chicks. Ann. Biol. Res. J. 2: 113-120. MOUMENI T. 2001. Herbal extracts Farhad Reza Publication 382.

PERUMALLA A.V.S. AND HETTIARACHCHY N.S. 2011. Green tea and grape seed extracts potential applications in food safety and quality review. Food Res. Int. 44: 827839.

POORGHASEMI M. SEIDAVI A. QOTBI A.A.A. LAUDADIO V. AND TUFARELLI V. 2013. Influence of dietary fat source on growth performance responses and carcass traits of broiler chicks. Asian- Austral. J. Anim. Sci. 26: 705-710.

SPSS 1997. SPSS Base 7.5 for Windows. SPSS Chicago IL USA. TOGHYANI M. TOGHYANI M. GHEISARI A. CHALAMKARI G. AND MOHAMMADREZAEI M. 2010. Growth performance serum biochemistry and blood hematology of broiler chicks fed different levels of black seed (Nigella sativa) and peppermint (Mentha piperita). Livest. Sci. 129: 173178.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 31, 2014
Words:4451
Previous Article:Evaluation of Three Different Insect Pathogenic Fungi for the Control of Dysdercus koenigii and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis.
Next Article:A Remedial Approach for Naja naja karachiensis Envenomation: Enzymatic Assay for Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Extracts of Local Plants of...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |