Printer Friendly

Effect of Citric Acid and Phytase on Growth Performance and Mineralization of Labeo rohita Juveniles Fed Soybean Meal Based Diet.

Byline: Syed Zakir Hussain Shah, Muhammad Afzal, Aneesa Akmal, Mahroze Fatima and Syed Makhdoom Hussain

Abstract

Present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase, citric acid and their interaction on growth, muscle proximate composition and mineralization of whole body and bones in Labeo rohita juveniles. For this trial, 405 juveniles were used in a 32 factorial arrangement (0, 1.5 and 3% citric acid and 0, 750 and 1000 FTU/kg phytase) under completely randomized design. Triplicate groups of 15 fish per experimental units were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Fish fed citric acid and phytase supplemented diet showed improved (pless than 0.05) growth and body proximate of L. rohita either supplemented individually or mutually. Citric acid addition caused a significant (pless than 0.05) increment in the minerals deposition in the whole body and bones of juveniles. Similarly, phytase supplementation also improved (pless than 0.05) the mineralization in juveniles.

Furthermore, a significant (pless than 0.05) interaction between both the supplements was observed to improve the minerals contents in the body and bones of fish. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that citric acid and phytase are very effective supplements to increase the bioavailability of minerals from soybean meal based diet. The regeneration frequencies ranged from 40 to 75% using immature embryos, compared to 55 to 80% from mature embryos of all elite lines of maize under study.

Keywords: Citric acid; Fish; Phytase; Bone mineralization

Introduction

Fishmeal is considered a healthier source of nutrients as it has appropriate amount of essential fatty acids and amino acids. Besides this, it is highly palatable and also provides highly digestible energy (Tacon, 1993). Several factors hinder the use of fishmeal for sustainable farming like the rising demand, unpredictable availability, high cost, static level of production and restricted supply. These elements make it pre-requisite to seek for novel alternative sources of proteins of plants and animals origin. Plant origin ingredients make a major part of feed for fishes like carps including Labeo rohita (Higgs et al., 1995; New and Wijkstrom, 2002; Baruah, 2004). However, major drawback in the use of plant proteins are certain factors, such as phytate, which reduce the bioavailability of nutrients to fish (Francis et al., 2001).

Phytate is present in all legumes, cereals, nuts and oil seeds and has about 60 90% of total phosphorus as phosphate present in plants (Raboy, 2003). Phytate has also strong capability to reduce the bioavailability of other minerals to fish by its direct or indirect interaction. Being negatively charged, phytate makes complexes with many cations like calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc (Leiner, 1994).

Indirectly, Ca-phytate complexes enhance the co-precipitate formation of zinc and many other trace minerals by the process of chelation, rendering them unavailable to fish (O'Dell, 1962). It prevents the assimilation of starch and proteins in the digestive tract as it has affinity to bind with them (Noureddini and Dang, 2008). Hence, presence of phytate is the main predicament to use the plant protein sources in fish feed formulation as it limited the availability of minerals. Furthermore, phytate bounded undigested phosphorus is excreted through feaces in the ponds. Microorganisms degrade the phytate-P complex which leads to the algal blooms and consequently lead to deficiency of oxygen in water (Kaur et al., 2007).

Phytases are phosphatases which yield free inorganic phosphorus as intermediates by sequentially cleaving the groups of orthophosphate from the inositol ring of phytate (Li et al., 1997). Now a days, these phytases are being supplemented in the diet of fish to hydrolyze the phytate. Improved mineralization in response to phytase supplementation have been reported in yellow catfish (Zhu et al., 2014), African catfish (Nwanna et al., 2005), Nile tilapia (Liebert and Portz, 2005) sea baas (Naret, 2013) and Salmo salar (Denstadli et al., 2007).

Another approach which is being applied in fish nutrition to break the phytate is the supplementation of organic acids to the diet. Supplementary organic acids cause low intestinal pH, which enhances the solubility of phytate-minerals complexes resulting in improved absorption of released minerals (Jongbloed, 1987). Besides having impact on pH, organic acids act as chelating agents and bind numerous cations, which lead to enhanced absorption of minerals in intestine (Ravindran and Kornegay, 1993). Among these organic acids, citric acid (CA), due to its unique flavor and high buffering capacity, has been extensively used for diet acidification (Hossain et al., 2007). Its efficacy to dephosphorylate the phytate in vitro has also been reported (Zyla et al., 1995). Citric acid supplementation resulted in improved P contents in the scute of Huso huso fed on plant meal based diet (Khajepour and Hosseini, 2011; 2012).

Baruah et al. (2005) also reported improved bone mineralization in L. rohita juveniles by supplementing citric acid in soybean meal based diet.

Since citric acid lowers the gastric pH, its supplementation can also favor the action of phytase as it works optimally at pH 5.0-5.5 and 2.5 (Simons et al., 1990). In addition, dietary acidification may lower the gastric emptying speed (Mayer, 1994) which provides more time for nutrient absorption and also enhances the action of phytase. Improved bone P contents of common carp as a result of phytase and citric acid interaction has been reported by Phromkunthong et al. (2010). Hence, it is hypothesized that supplementation of citric acid and phytase simultaneously may cause synergistic effects to improve growth performance, body proximate composition and mineralization.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of Experimental Diets

Present experiment was designed to investigate the main and interaction effects of citric acid and phytase on growth performance, body proximate composition minerals utilization in L. rohita juveniles. Nine isonitrogenous (28.40), isocaloric (3.85) and isolipidic (7.52) experimental diets were prepared having 12% fishmeal and 56% soybean meal as protein source. Fish oil was added as lipid and energy source. Citric acid was added at the level of 0, 1.5 and 3% while phytase was included at 0, 750 and 1000 FTU/kg level in the experimental diets in 32 factorial arrangement under completely randomized design in triplicates (Table 1).

For the formulation of experimental diets, dry ingredients were grounded and screened (0.05 mm) in cereal grinding machine (FFC-45, JIMO, China). Citric acid, minerals mixture, vitamin premix and fish oil were added to ground ingredients and mixed electrically. Appropriate amount of water was added to make dough which was further processed to make pellets (3 mm) through hand pelletizer. Pellets were sprayed with three concentrations of liquid phytase (Phyzme(r)xP 10000 FTU/g, Damisco Animal Nutrition. Fin-65 101 Vaasa Finland), such that 1 mL liquid phytase solution (2 g powder phytse/1 L water) had 20 FTU in it (Robinson et al., 2002). Pellets were blow dried up to 10% moisture, sealed in vacuum packed bags and stored at -20C throughout the feeding trial. Proximate composition of diet is also given in Table 1.

Standard methods of AOAC (1995) were adopted for determination of proximate composition of ingredients, diets and whole body; moisture by drying sample at 105C to a constant weight, crude protein by determination of N on micro Kjeldahl apparatus after acid digestion and Nx6.25 formula, crude fat by ether extraction through soxtec HT2 1045 system, while adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter (Parr Instrument Co., Moline. USA) was used for estimation of gross energy of samples.

Experimental Fish and Feeding Trial

Healthy juveniles of L. rohita (average weight 6.930.30) were obtained from Government Fish Seed Hatchery, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Before initiation of feeding trial, fish were bathed in 5 g/L NaCl solution and allowed to acclimatize in V shaped experimental tanks. During acclamation fish were provided basal diet once a day with continuous aeration. Fifteen fish were randomly stocked in each triplicate of tanks for feeding trial. Filtered fresh water and continuous aeration was provided to each experimental tank for optimum amount of dissolved oxygen (5.8-7.3 mg/L) for fish culture. Water temperature and pH were set at 24.9 28.7C and 7.4 8.6, respectively throughout feeding experiment. Fish were fed twice daily up to apparent satiation 6 days a week and uneaten diet was siphoned after 2 h of feeding. Feeding experiment lasted for 8 weeks.

Sampling and Chemical Analysis

At the termination of feeding experiment, fish were starved for 24 h, dipped in 3000 mg/L solution of clove oil for 40-60 s to anesthetize (Khajepour et al., 2012) and sacrificed by a sharp blow on head. Five fish from each replicate was minced and dried at 60C for whole body proximate and minerals analysis. For bone minerals analysis 5 whole fish were boiled for 20 min in water until the flesh was easily stripped off from bones. Soft tissues were separated from vertebrae by slight brushing. Vertebrae were then rinsed with distilled water and oven dried at 110oC for 2 h, defatted for seven hours with anhydrous ethyl ether, pulverised in mortar and pestle, again dried and finally weighed. Minerals estimation was processed by acid digestion following AOAC, (1995).

Samples (whole body and bones) were digested in 2:1 boiling nitric acid and perchloric acid mixture. After appropriate dilution Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe contents were estimated on atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Hitachi Polarized Zeeman AAS, Z-8200, Japan) while Na and K were estimated on flame photometer (Jenway PFP-7, UK). After molybdate reagent oxidation, P was estimated with the help of UV-VIS spectrophotometer (U-2001, Hitachi) at 750 nm absorbance.

Statistical Analysis

All data was subjected to two way analysis of variance. When significant differences occurred, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test for comparison of means at 5% significance level was applied (Snedecor and Conhran, 1991). All statistical analyses were done using CoStat computer package (Version 6.303, PMB 320, Monterey, CA, 93940 USA).

Results

Growth Performance

Growth performance of L. rohita fingerlings in response to dietary phytase and citric acid supplementation is shown in Table 2. Supplemental phytase significantly (pless than 0.05) increased the final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), weight gain percent (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) with maximum gain at 1000 FTU/kg phytase level. These growth parameters were also improved (pless than 0.05) by the addition of citric acid in the diet. Moreover, the interaction of phytase and citric acid exerted positive (pless than 0.05) effect on the performance of juveniles.

Whole Body Proximate

Effects of dietary addition of phytase, citric acid and their interaction on proximate body composition of fingerlings are summarized in Table 3. Improved (pless than 0.05) dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash contents were observed in diets supplemented with phytase and citric acid as compare to control group. Also, positive interaction (pless than 0.05) between phytase and citric acid was found for these nutritional attributes.

Whole Body Mineralization

Minerals contents of whole body of rohu were found significantly (pless than 0.05) affected by citric acid and phytase supplementations (Table 4). Different levels of phytase behaved differently and maximum minerals deposition in the juvenile's body was recorded at its highest level (1000 FTU/kg) of supplementation. Citric acid supplementation also significantly (pless than 0.05) enhanced the whole body mineralization of juveniles. Furthermore, both of the supplements interacted with each other significantly and maximum deposition of these minerals was observed at 3% citric acid and 1000 FTU/kg phytase level. However, this synergism was not recorded for P, Mg and Zn.

Bones Mineralization

Data of main effects of phytase and citric acid and their interaction is shown in Table 5. Main effect data of phytase supplementation showed improved (pless than 0.05) minerals contents in bones of juveniles. Similarly, citric acid addition also caused variations in the bone minerals contents of fish. Maximum mineral deposition in bones was recorded in 3% citric acid containing diet as compare to other acidified diets. Nevertheless, analysis of variance showed a non-significant interaction between citric acid and phytase for bone mineralization except Cu.

Discussion

In this study, supplementation of dietary phytase had resulted in enhanced (pless than 0.05) growth performance of fingerlings. This increased growth response may be attributed to increased availability of nutrients and minerals due to enzymatic breakdown of phytate-nutrient complexes. Increased growth in our study is confirmatory to the observations made for various fish species including rohu (Hussain et al., 2011), common carp (Phromkunthong et al., 2010) gibel carp (Liu et al., 2012) and tilapia (Trichet et al., 2014).

Citric acid supplementation, in the present study, also resulted in enhanced growth performance of fingerlings in soybean meal based diet. Citric acid may lowered the intestinal pH, which favors the phytate-nutrient complex solubility and nutrients absorption from gastrointestinal tract resulting in improved growth performance of fish (Cross et al., 1990). Similarly, addition of lower levels of citric acid (1-3 g/kg) had also resulted in increased weight gain in tilapia (Ng et al., 2009; Koh et al., 2014).

Results of the present study demonstrated synergistic effect between phytase and citric acid for improving growth performance of fingerlings. Present positive synergistic interaction between these two supplements to improve growth performance is in accordance to Baruah et al. (2005; 2007b) for same fish species. Citric acid may have provided the optimum conditions to the phytase by lowering the intestinal pH, which led to positive interaction among both supplements.

In the present study, addition of phytase in diets resulted in significant (pless than 0.05) improvement in whole body dry matter, crude protein and crude ash while crude fat contents of L. rohita fingerlings were reduced. This may be due to phytate hydrolyzing tendency of dietary phytase, which may release the chelated nutrients into the digestive tract of fish (Tudkaew et al., 2008). In contrast to our findings, non-significant effect of phytase on dry matter contents of Atlantic salmon (Carter and Sajjadi, 2011) has been reported. In agreement to our results, Sardar et al. (2007) reported positive effect of phytase treatment on whole body crude protein contents of Cyprinus carpio. A significant decrease in crude fat and increase in crude ash contents of Salmo salar against phytase supplementation was observed by Denstadli et al. (2007).

Table 1: Ingredient composition of experimental diets

Citric acid (%)###0###1.5###3

Phytase (FTU/kg)###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###0###750###1000

Ingredients (%)###Diet 1###Diet 2###Diet 3###Diet 4###Diet 5###Diet 6###Diet 7###Diet 8###Diet 9

Soybean meal###56###56###56###56###56###56###56###56###56

Fish meal###12###12###12###12###12###12###12###12###12

Rice polish###12###12###12###12###12###12###12###12###12

Wheat flour###10###10###10###10###10###10###10###10###10

Fish oil###6###6###6###6###6###6###6###6###6

Vitamin premix###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1

Mineral mixture###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1

Ascorbic acid###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1

Chromic oxide###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1

Total###100###100###100###100###100###100###100###100###100

Proximate composition

Dry matter (%)###93.03###93.27###93.36###93.2###93.25###93.54###93.31###93.48###93.67

Crude protein (%)###28.5###28.35###28.75###28.3###28.19###27.9###28.58###28.75###28.25

Crude fat (%)###7.57###7.43###7.57###7.51###7.54###7.53###7.54###7.21###7.79

Gross energy (kcal/g)###3.91###3.85###3.87###3.87###3.83###3.74###3.82###3.95###3.83

Table 2: Citric acid, phytase and their interaction with growth performance of L. rohita juveniles fed soybean meal based diet

Citric acid (%)###0###1.5###3###PSE###Analysis of Variance

Test Diets###T1###T2###T3###T4###T5###T6###T7###T8###T9###Citric acid###Phytase###Citric acid x Phytase

Initial Weight (g)###13.36###13.56###13.56###13.62###13.22###13.42###13.21###13.6###13.6

Final Weight (g)###19.65c###20.89bc###21.55bc###21.21bc###23.53b###24.53ab###22.13bc###25.2ab###26.68a###1.58###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Weight Gain (g)###6.29f###7.33e###7.99de###7.59e###10.31c###11.11bc###8.93d###11.6b###13.08a###0.54###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Weight Gain %###47.05h###54.05g###58.89f###55.71g###78.01d###82.81c###67.58e###85.29b###96.19a###1.11###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Specific Growth Rate###0.43h###0.48g###0.52f###0.49g###0.64d###0.67c###0.57e###0.69b###0.75a###0.01###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Table 3: Citric acid, phytase and their interaction with whole body proximate of L. rohita juveniles fed soybean meal based diet

Citric acid (%)###0###1.5###3

Phytase (FTU/kg)###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###Analysis of Variance

Test Diets###T1###T2###T3###T4###T5###T6###T7###T8###T9###PSE###Citric acid###Phytase###Citric acid x Phytase

Dry Matter (g/kg)###277.05h 292.75g###296.45e###296.15f###308.5c###304.9d###298.55e###312.7b###316.5a###1.00###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Crude Protein (g/kg) 192.55d 202.65c###204.3c###205.2c###211.5b###214.1b###204.85c###215.6ab###217.9a###1.25###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Crude Fat (g/kg)###67.05a 55.5b###52.35c###53.9bc###46.8d###46.35d###54.3bc###43.5e###42.6f###0.94###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Crude Ash (g/kg)###44.6h###50.85g###55.45e###55.6e###59.95d###62.55c###52.95f###64.45b###66.5a###0.81###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

In the present study, citric acid appeared to improve the whole body proximate due to its phytate hydrolyzing capabilities. Hossain et al. (2007) reported increased crude protein contents, while reduced crude fat, crude ash and moisture contents in the fish body in organic acid supplemented red sea bream.

A significant interaction between phytase and citric acid was observed, in the present study, for dry matter and crude ash of L. rohita. Supplementation of citric acid might decrease the pH of gastro-intestinal tract (Erdman, 1979) as well as reduced the rate of gastric emptying (Mayer, 1994), both of these actions provided more favorable environment for phytase to act.

Whole body and bone mineralization, in this experiment, was enhanced (pless than0.05) in fish fed the phytase treated diet. Improved mineralization in the present study might be due to phytate hydrolysis resulting in release of bound minerals, which led to increased body and bone mineral contents. Similar to present results, increased (pless than0.05) P contents in whole body of Atlantic salmon (Carter and Sajjadi, 2011) and Cypriuns carpio (Sardar et al., 2007) were also observed in response to phytase supplementation. Liu et al. (2014) reported improved whole body Mg and Zn contents in fish fed diet having phytase supplementation. Improved P, Ca, Mg and Zn contents were observed in the bones of Salmo salar (Denstadli et al. 2007) and red sea bream (Laining et al., 2012) having phytase treated diets.

In the present study, citric acid addition also resulted in enhanced whole body and bone mineralization of rohu juveniles which indicates the hydrolysis of phytate. Similar to our study increased (pless than0.05) whole body P, Ca, K, Cu, Mn and Fe contents were observed in Pagrus major fed on 3% citric acid supplemented diet (Laining et al., 2012).

Table 4: Citric acid, phytase and their interaction with whole body mineralization of L. rohita juveniles fed soybean meal based diet

Citric acid (%)###0###1.5###3

Phytase (FTU/kg)###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###Analysis of Variance

Test Diets###T1###T2###T3###T4###T5###T6###T7###T8###T9###PSE###Citric acid###Phytase###Citric acid x Phytase

P (%)###0.95f###1.60e###1.65e###1.70de###2.55c###2.75b###1.80d###2.60c###2.95a###0.06###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Ca (%)###0.88c###0.96b###0.95b###0.96b###1.55a###1.85a###0.99b###1.65a###1.80a###0.02###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Mg (%)###0.85g###1.55f###1.75de###1.70e###2.40c###2.45c###1.85d###2.65b###2.90a###0.06###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Na (mg/kg)###3.30f###3.85e###3.85e###4.05de###5.50c###5.65c###4.20d###5.95b###6.40a###0.11###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

K (mg/kg)###4.40f###4.75e###5.05d###5.00d###6.45c###6.75b###4.95d###6.80b###7.20a###0.08###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Mn (ug/g)###5.90h###6.35g###6.90e###6.65f###8.40d###8.70c###6.85e###9.10b###9.35a###0.08###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Fe (ug/g)###28.00f###34.00e###37.50d###37.00d###52.00c###55.00b###36.5d###56.5b###62.50a###0.86###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Cu (ug/g)###2.20e###2.80d###3.10c###2.65d###4.05b###4.35a###2.70d###4.40a###4.50a###0.11###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pless than0.05

Zn (ug/g)###13.01f###19.5e###19.5e###21.31d###26.5c###29.5b###22.11d###30.12a###31.5a###1.22###pless than0.05###pless than0.05###pgreater than0.05

Table 5: Citric acid, phytase and their interaction with bones mineralization of L. rohita juveniles fed soybean meal based diet

Citric acid (%)###0###1.5###3

Phytase (FTU/kg)###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###0###750###1000###Analysis of Variance

Test Diets###T1###T2###T3###T4###T5###T6###T7###T8###T9###PSE###Citric acid###Phytase###Citric acid x Phytase

P (%)###13.30b###13.85ab###13.95ab###13.85ab###14.60a###14.85a###13.60ab###14.70a###14.85a###0.07###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

Ca (%)###18.85g###23.10f###25.70e###24.05f###27.45cd###26.40de###28.70c###31.05b###34.20a###0.64###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

Mg (%)###0.51e###0.64d###0.66cd###0.69c###0.84b###0.89a###0.46f###0.86ab###0.91a###0.02###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

Na (mg/kg)###2.20e###2.40de###2.95c###2.50d###3.45b###3.50b###3.05c###4.00a###4.10a###0.12###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

K (mg/kg)###0.21f###0.35e###0.35e###0.40d###0.41d###0.43c###0.46b###0.55a###0.56a###0.61###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pless than0.05

Mn (ug/g)###38.50d###44.05c###43.50c###43.05c###45.70b###47.15a###44.00c###48.00a###47.90a###0.52###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

Fe (ug/g)###24.0f###26.95de###28.15cd###26.25e###29.30bc###30.00b###28.35cd###31.85a###33.0a###0.64###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

Cu (ug/g)###14.05e###14.75de###14.90de###15.00d###18.10c###17.50c###14.20de###19.05b###19.95a###0.4###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pless than0.05

Zn (ug/g)###135.10g###140.00f###141.50ef###142.60e###151.45bc###150.65c###144.20d###152.55ab###153.75a###0.71###pless than0.05###pless than0.05 pgreater than0.05

Pandey and Satoh (2008) recorded improved P, Ca and Zn contents in the bones of rainbow trout fed diet supplemented with citric acid.

Addition of citric acid in phytase treated diets resulted in enhanced whole body and bone mineralization of rohu juveniles synergistically.

Citric acid might had provided optimum conditions to phytase, which lead to significant interaction among both the supplements. Other studies also reported significant interaction between citric acid and phytase to enhance the concentrations of P, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in the body (Baruah et al. 2007a) and Ca, P, K and Mn contents in bones of L. rohita juveniles.

Conclusion

Phytase and citric acid positively affected the growth performance, meat quality and body mineralization in rohu fingerlings. Moreover, both the supplements interacted significantly with each other for these parameters.

References

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edition. AOAC, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, USA

Baruah, K., 2004. Effect of dietary microbial phytase and acidifier on the bioavailability of nutrients in the diet of Labeo rohita fingerlings. M. F. Sc. Dissertation, Central Institute of Education, Mumbai, India

Baruah, K., A.K. Pal, N.P. Sahu, D. Debnath and S. Yengkokpam, 2007a. Interactions of dietary microbial phytase, citric acid and crude protein level on mineral utilization by rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), juveniles. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 38: 238-249

Baruah, K., A.K. Pal, N.P. Sahu, K.K. Jain, S.C. Mukherjee and D. Debnath, 2005. Dietary protein level, microbial phytase, citric acid and their interactions on bone mineralization of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juveniles. Aquacult. Res., 36: 803-812

Baruah, K., N.P. Sahu, A.K. Pal, K.K. Jain, D. Debnath and S.C. Mukherjee, 2007b. Dietary microbial phytase and citric acid synergistically enhances nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juveniles at sub-optimal protein level. Aquacult. Res., 38: 109-120

Carter, C.G. and M. Sajjadi, 2011. Low fishmeal diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., using soy protein concentrate treated with graded levels of phytase. Aquacult. Int., 19: 431-444

Cross, H.S., H. Debiec and M. Peterlik, 1990. Mechanism and regulation of intestinalphosphateabsorption.Miner.Electrolyte. Metab., 16: 115-124

Denstadli, V., T. Storebakken, B. Svihus and A. Skrede, 2007. A comparison of online phytase pre-treatment of vegetable feed ingredients and phytase coating in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared in cold water. Aquaculture, 269: 414-426

Erdman, J.W. Jr., 1979. Oilseed phytates: Nutritional implications. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 56: 736-741

Francis, G., H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker, 2001. Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture, 199: 197-227

Higgs, D.A., B.S. Dosanjh, A.F. Prendergast, R.M. Beams, R.W. Hardy, W. Riley and D. Deacon, 1995. Use of rapeseed/canola protein products in finfish diets. In: Nutrition and Utilization of Technology in Aquaculture, pp: 130-156. D.J. Sessa (ed.). AOCS Press, Champaign, USA

Hossain, M.A., A. Pandey and S. Satoh, 2007. Effects of organic acids on growth and phosphorus utilization in red sea bream Pagrus major. Fish. Sci., 73: 1309-1317

Hussain, S.M., M. Afzal, S.A. Rana, A. Javid and M. Iqbal, 2011. Effect of phytase supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed on corn gluten meal-based diets. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 13: 916-922

Jongbloed, A.W, 1987. Phosphorus in the feeding of pigs. Effects of diet on absorption and retention of phosphorus by growing pigs. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands

Kaur, P., G. Kunze and T. Satyanarayana, 2007. Yeast Phytases: Present Scenario and Future Perspectives. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 27: 93-109

Khajepour, F. and S.A. Hosseini, 2011. Effect of dietary citric acid supplementation and partial replacement of dietary fish meal with soybean meal on calcium and phosphorus of muscle, scute and serum of Beluga, Huso huso. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10: 14652-14655

Khajepour, F. and S.A. Hosseini, 2012. Calcium and phosphorus status in juvenile Beluga (Huso huso) fed citric acid-supplemented diets. Aquacult. Res., 43: 407-411

Khajepour, F., S.A. Hosseini and M.R. Imanpour, 2012. Dietary crude protein, citric acid and microbial phytase and their interacts to influence growth performance, muscle proximate composition and hematocrit of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, juveniles. World J. Zool., 7: 118-122

Koh, C.B., N. Romano, A.S. Zahrah and W.K. Ng, 2014. Effects of a dietary organic acids blend and oxytetracycline on the growth, nutrient utilization and total cultivable gut microbiota of the red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., and resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae. Aquacult. Res., 47: 357-369

Laining, A., M. Ishikawa, S. Koshio, Lideman and S. Yokoyama, 2012. Dietry inorganic phosphorus or microbial phytase supplementation improves growth, nutrient utilization and phosphorus mineralization of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major, fed soybean-based diets. Aquacult. Nutr., 18: 502-511

Leiner, I.E., 1994. Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci., 34: 31-67

Li, J., C.E. Hegeman, R.W. Hanlon, G.H. Lacy, D.M. Denbow and E.A. Grabau, 1997. Secretion of active recombinant phytase from soybean cell-suspension cultures. Plant Physiol., 114: 1-9

Liebert, F. and L. Portz, 2005. Nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed plant based low phosphorus diets supplemented with graded levels of different sources of microbial phytase. Aquaculture, 248: 111-119

Liu, L., Y. Zhou, J. Wu, W. Zhang, K. Abbas, L.X. Fang and Y. Luo, 2014. Supplemental graded level of neutral phytase using pretreatment and spraying methods in the diet of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Aquacult. Res., 45: 1932-1941

Liu, L.W., J. Su and Y. Luo, 2012. Effect of partial replacement of dietary mono-calcium phosphate with neutral phytase on growth performance and phosphorus digestibility in gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Aquacult. Res., 45: 1404-1413

Mayer, E.A., 1994. The physiology of gastric storage and emptying. In: Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Vol. 1. Johnson, L.R. (ed.). Raven Press, New York, USA

Naret, E.S.G., 2013. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Int. J. Bioflux., 6: 453-463

New, M.B. and U.N. Wijkstrom, 2002. Use of Fishmeal and Fish oil in Aqua feeds: Further Thoughts on the Fishmeal Trap, FAO Fish Circ. No. 975. FAO, Rome, Italy

Ng, W.K., C.B. Koh, K. Sudesh and A.S. Zahrah, 2009. Effects of dietary organic acids on growth, nutrient digestibility and gut microora of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., and subsequent survival during a challenge test with Streptococcus agalactiae. Aquacult. Res., 40: 1490-1500

Noureddini, H. and J. Dang, 2008. Degradation of phytase in Distillers' grains and gluten feed by Aspergillus niger phytase. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 159: 11-23

Nwanna, L.C., O.A. Fagbenro and A.O. Adeyo, 2005. Effects of different treatments of dietary soybean meal and phytase on the growth and mineral deposition in African catsh Clarias gariepinus. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4: 980-987

O'Dell, B.L., 1962. Mineral availability and metal binding constituents of the diet. Proceedings of the Cornell Nutrition Conference of Feed Manufacturers, pp: 77-82. Ithaca, New York, USA

Pandey, A. and S. Satoh, 2008. Effects of organic acids on growth and phosphorus utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish. Sci., 74: 867-874

Phromkunthong, W., N. Nuntapong and J. Gabaudan, 2010. Interaction of phytase RONOZYME(r) P(L) and citric acid on the utilization of phosphorus by common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 32: 547-554

Raboy, V., 2003. Myo-Inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate. Phytochemistry, 64: 1033-1043

Ravindran, V. and E.T. Kornegay, 1993. Acidification of weaner pig diet: a review. J. Sci. Food Agric., 62: 313-322

Robinson, E.H., M.H. Li and B.B. Manning, 2002. Comparison microbial phytase and dicalcium phosphate for growth and bone mineralization of pond-raised channel cat fish, (Ictalurus punctatus). J. Appl. Aquacult., 12: 81-88

Sardar, P., H.S. Randhawa, M. Abid and S.K. Prabhakar, 2007. Effect of dietry microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, body compositions and haemato-biochemical profiles of Cyprinus carpio (L.) fingerlings fed soyprotein-based diet. Aquacult. Nutr., 13: 444-456

Simons, P.C.M., H.A.J. Versteegh, A.W. Jongbloed, P.A. Kemme, P. Slump, K.D. Bos, W.G.E. Wolters, R.F. Beudeker and G.J. Verschoor, 1990. Improvement of phosphorus availability by microbial phytase in broiler sand pigs. Brit. J. Nutr., 64: 525-540

Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Conhran, 1991. Statistical Methods, 8th edition, p: 503. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. USA

Tacon, A.G.J., 1993. Feed Ingredients for Warm Water Fish: Fishmeal and other Processed Feedstuffs, p: 64. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 856, Rome, Italy

Trichet, V.V., J. Vielma, J. Dias, P. Rema, E. Santigosa, T. Wahli and K. Vogel, 2014. The efficacy of a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed in aspergillus oryzae on the performance and phosphorus utilization of cold- and warm-water fish: rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,

and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 45: 367-379

Tudkaew, J., J. Gabaudan and W. Phromkunthong, 2008. The supplementation of phytase RONOZYME(r) P on the growth and the utilization of phosphorus by sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 30: 17-24

Zhu, Y., X. Qiu, Q. Ding, M. Duan and C. Wang, 2014. Combined effects of dietary phytase and organic acid on growth and phosphorus utilization of juvenile yellow catsh Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Aquaculture, 430: 1-8

Zyla, K., D.R. Ledoux, A. Garcia and T.L. Veum, 1995. An in vitro procedure for studying enzymatic phosphorylation of phytate in maize-soybean feeds for turkey poults. Brit. J. Nutr., 74: 3-17
COPYRIGHT 2016 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Shah, Syed Zakir Hussain; Afzal, Muhammad; Akmal, Aneesa; Fatima, Mahroze; Hussain, Syed Makhdoom
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Feb 29, 2016
Words:5566
Previous Article:Application of Raw and Composted Recycled Paper Mill Sludge on the Growth of Khaya senegalensis and their Effects on Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metals.
Next Article:DNA Methylation in Rehmannia glutinosa Roots Suffering from Replanting Disease.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters