Effect of By-pass Fat Supplementation on the Performance of Sahiwal Dairy Cows.
Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of by-pass fat supplementation on milk production, composition and weight gain in Sahiwal cows. Twelve dairy cows of same parity, stage of lactation, milk production level and body weight (285-360 kg) were randomly allotted to four treatments (T0, T1, T2 and T3) in such a way that each group had three animals under Completely Randomized Design. The animals received 250, 350 and 450 g of bypass fat supplementation in T1, T2 and T3 whilst animals in T0 served as control group. All animals were maintained under similar managemental conditions. The data of milk production (daily/individually), milk composition and body weight were recorded weekly. Results revealed that milk production and composition differed significantly (p<0.05) in all groups. The highest milk yield was found in T2 (10.45+-0.53 kg) and the lowest (6.93+-0.53 kg) in control group that was without by-pass fat supplementation.
The T2 and T3 differed non-significantly (p<0.05) for milk yield and composition. Bypass fat did not affect the body weight gain significantly (p<0.05) in all groups. The milk cost showed significant differences in all treatments. The lowest cost (Pak Rs. 32.20+-2.37) was shown in T2 and the highest (Pak Rs.46.14+-2.37) in T3 group. It is concluded that 250 g was the optimum amount of bypass fat supplementation to produce milk economically with high fat percentage. (c) 2017 Friends Science Publishers.
Keywords: Bypass fat; Milk production; Milk composition; Body weight; Dairy animal
Livestock farming is an integral part of the prevailing agricultural system in Pakistan. A deficiency gap of 4.16 and 21.3 million tons of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), respectively has been reported by Sarwar (2006). During early lactation, the energy necessary to replenish body reserves and maintain high milk production is higher than the available energy from daily feeding (Goff and Horst, 1997) which may lead to mobilization of body fat to coop the deficiency. High milk producing animals during early production face negative energy balance leading to metabolic pressure and sub-optimal yield of milk (Drackley, 1999). By-pass fat increases fat corrected milk (FCM) and its proportion in milk composition (Rodriguez et al., 1997). The FCM and milk fat proportion is enhanced without disturbing the digestibility of other supplements; and it avoids the degradation of supplements and bio-hydrogenation in rumen leading to increase energy density of the ration (Elliott et al., 1996).
The higher milk yield and fat content is direct benefit to farmers (Parnerkar et al., 2010). The rumen fermentation process is not affected by bypass fat but it provides additional energy to the animals for more milk production after being absorbed in the small intestine (Bobe et al., 2007). It also supports production of unsaturated fatty acid in the milk which is easily digestible for patients with heart disease (Garg et al., 2008). Calcium (Ca) salts of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are more effective as bypass fat for lactating animals as extra energy source (Palmquist, 1991). The previous work was done on inert fat supplementation in Holstein Friesian cows found decreased DMI and increased milk yield (Relling and Reynolds, 2007; Naik, 2013) but little work has been reported in indigenous dairy animals with different levels of supplementation.
Therefore, this study was planned to investigate the effect of supplementation of different levels of bypass fat on the production of milk, composition and weight gain.
Materials and Methods
Experimental Design and Arrangement of Animals
The trial was conducted at the Livestock Experiment Station of Directorate of Farms, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Twelve Sahiwal dairy cows of same parity, lactation stage and milk production level were randomly allotted to four treatments (T0, T1, T2 and T3) in such a way that each group had 03 animals. All the precautionary measures were taken to control the seasonal diseases and parasitic infestation. The experimental animals were managed in individual stalls under uniform climatic conditions.
Feeding Management and Treatments
Green fodder was offered ad libitum (at least 10% refusal) twice a day. Fresh water was available round the clock. Compound feed was offered @ 3kg twice a day including the fat supplement. An energy supplement with calcium salt of long chain fatty acids for dairy animals was used as bypass fat. The bypass fat was supplemented in group T1 @ 250 g day-1 animal-1, group T2 @ 350 g day-1 animal-1 and in group T3 @ 450 g day-1 animal-1. Animals of group T0 were taken as control (without bypass fat). The composition of different treatment rations is given in Table 1.
Sample Collection and Analysis
Approximate analysis of the compound feed along with supplement was done using techniques described by AOAC 2005 (Table 1). The data of daily milk production of both milking (morning+evening) for individual animal were recorded. The weekly milk samples of individual animals were collected and used for milk analysis in Dairy Lab. of Institute of Dairy Sciences. Milk fat and protein was determined by Gerber (Aggarrwala and Sharma, 1961), and Kjeldahl methods (Davide, 1977), respectively. Total solids (TS) and solid not fat (SNF) were calculated according to Fleischmann's formula. The experimental animals were weighed weekly basis to check change in weight.
Data generated for milk production and milk composition for protein, fat, solid not fat (SNF) and total solid (TS) and body weight for seven weeks were analyzed statistically under completely Randomized Design using computer software MINITAB (2000, version 17.0) and the significance of means was compared using the Tukey's test to draw the valid conclusion at certain significance level.
Milk Production and Composition
Analysis of the data for milk production on by-pass fat supplementation revealed that milk production differed significantly (p<0.05). The highest milk production (10.45+-0.53 kg) was observed in T2 and the lowest values (6.93+-0.53) were found in treatment T0 (Table 2). The milk production in T2 where supplementation was given @ 350 g animal-1, differed significantly with all other treatments except T1. The control group and T3 group differed non-significantly (Table 2). Animals in T2 gave 3.52 kg more milk than control and 1.49 and 2.82 kg more milk than T1 and T3, respectively. The animals in T2 on an average produced 50% more milk than control group.
The milk composition also differed significantly (p<0.05) in all treatments. The highest fat % was observed in T3 (4.49+-0.02) and the lowest (4.03+-0.02) was found in control group. T2 and T3 group differed non-significantly (p<0.05). In group T2 where animals showed the highest milk yield, 4.26+-0.02% fat was found and it was non-significant with highest fat producing group.
The solids not fat (SNF) percentage also showed the similar pattern. The T2 and T3 showed non-significant differences for SNF. Protein and Total solids showed non-significant differences.
The cost per kg milk produced in different groups varied significantly (Table 3). The highest cost (Rs. 46.14+-2.37) was revealed in group T3 whilst the lowest was found in animals on T2 where 350 g supplement was offered. The highest feeding cost was observed in group 4 (Rs. 356.00) and lowest in control group (Rs. 280.00). The milk cost between T2 and T1 did not differ significantly.
Body Weight Gain
The data on body gain revealed that on an average body weight ranged from 45.03+-2.19 to 48.28+-2.19 (kg) during the experimental period (Table 3) and did not differ significantly (p<0.05).
Average milk production (kg) animal-1 day-1 with by-pass fat supplementation was significantly (P0.05) change in group T3 (450 g day-1 animal-1). It might have improved their energy demand with supplementation of by-pass fat. The animals on T0 showed significantly lower milk yield as compared to T2 and T1, it might be due to that animals were maintained only on basal ration. The animals maintained on T3 (450 g day-1 animal-1) also showed a non-significant difference in milk yield as compared to T0 it may be concluded that milk yield on higher level of by-pass fat supplementation (>350 g day-1 animal-1) depressed the milk yield. A probable cause of this trend might be disturbed energy: protein ratio.
The higher level of by-pass fat supplementation might have affected the nutrients intake with increased level of by-pass fat intake in T3. The results of the present study are in line with Barley and Baghel (2009) who reported that the milk production and fat was increased in dairy animals by supplementation of bypass fat. Garg and Mehta (1998) also revealed that without disturbing the dry matter intake, the milk yield was significantly increased by the feeding of by-pass fat. Significant improvements in milk production were observed in lactating cows by the supplementation of by-pass fat (Purushothaman et al., 2008). Dhiman et al. (1995) reported that by-pass fat preserves the nutrients degradation and bio-hydrogenation in rumen with improved energy density of the ration supporting the animals to meet energy demand and fatty acid needs to express their milk production potential.
Table 1: Approximate analysis of the compound feed offered to animals in various treatments
Table 2: Effect of by-pass fat on milk yield and composition on Sahiwal cows
Parameter (%)###Group 1###Group 2###Group 3###Group 4
Average Milk yield (kg day-1)###6.93+-0.53b###8.96+-0.53ab###10.45+-0.53a###7.63+-0.53b
Average Fat (%)###4.03+-0.02c###4.14+-0.02bc###4.26+-0.02ab###4.49+-0.02a
Average Protein (%)###3.56+-0.32###3.70+-0.32###3.75+-0.32###3.61+-0.32
Average SNF (%)###7.61+-0.03b###7.76+-0.03b###8.21+-0.03a###8.29+-0.03a
Average Total solids (%)###12.60+-0.31###13.42+-0.31###13.81+-0.31###14.01+-0.31
Average Weight gain (kg)###48.28+-2.19###48.09+-2.19###45.03+-15.8###45.15+-15.8
Table 3: Effect of by-pass fat on milk cost at different levels of supplementation and weight gain
Parameter###Group 1###Group 2###Group 3###Group 4
Feed cost Rs./day###280.00###320.00###336.00###356.00
Milk yield (kg day-1)###6.03+-0.53b###8.96+-0.053ab###10.45+-0.53a###7.63+-0.53b
Milk Value (Rs.)###541+-42.8b###716+-42.8ab###836.+-0.53a###610+-0.53b
Milk cost (Rs./kg)###41.53+-2.37###36.7+-2.37ab###32.20+-2.37b###46.14+-2.37a
Average Wt. gain (kg)###48.28+-2.19###48.90+-2.19###45.03+-2.19###45.15+-2.19
Milk fat was improved significantly with the bypass fat supplementation in all the groups. The group T3 (4.49+-0.02) showed most significant results than all other treatments. In group T3 there was 10.24% increase in fat from T0 but 5.90 and 5.12% increase from T1 and T2, respectively. All the results of increasing fat percentage in milk of dairy cows may be due to the supplementation of bypass fat in the ration of dairy animals. However, the effect of bypass fat supplementation on milk fat percentage depends on the profile and level of calcium salt of long chain fatty acids (Chouinard et al., 1998; Sklan et al., 1991). However, in some studies non-significant effect was also reported (Naik et al., 2009). The Protein content had shown non-significant (P>0.05) results by the supplementation of bypass fat. It was decreased with the supplementation of by-pass fat, might be due to increase in milk quantity and fat percentage content.
Loss in milk protein % had been associated to the dilution of milk protein, as higher milk volume produced might not be coordinated with uptake of amino acids by the mammary gland (DePeters and Cantt, 1992). Solids not fat (SNF) percentage had shown non-significant (P>0.05) results in all the treatments. It had already been reported that SNF content of milk is not altered (Naik et al., 2009; Tyagi et al., 2009; Thakur and Shelke, 2010; Sirohi et al., 2010) or improved (Wadhwa et al., 2012). The total SNF production is enhanced due to increase in milk yield (Naik et al., 2009). The study had shown non-significant weight gain among all groups. The present finding has been supported by work of Purushothaman et al. (2008) and Wadhwa et al. (2012).
The results of present study indicated that bypass fat can be used successfully in indigenous dairy animals with significant increase in milk and fat yield. The high amount of supplementation will not increase yield and fat% accordingly and will increase milk cost per unit.
The authors are very thankful to "MJ Foods and Dairies" for providing "MJ Synerlac" (bypass fat) and also for financial support to carry out this study.
Aggarrwala, A.C. and R.M. Sharma, 1961. A Laboratory Manual of Milk Inspection. Asia Publishing House, India
AOAC, 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC, USA
Barley, G.G. and R.P.S. Baghel, 2009. Effect of bypass fat supplementation on milk yield, fat content and serum triglyceride levels of Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bull., 28: 173-175
Bobe, G., S. Zimmerman, E.G. Hammond, A.E. Freeman, P.A. Porter, C.M. Luhman and D.C. Beitz, 2007. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acids compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 2596-2603
Chouinard, P.Y., V. Girard and G.J. Brisson, 1998. Fatty acid profile and physical properties of milk fat from cows fed calcium salts of fatty acids with varying un-saturation. J. Dairy Sci., 81: 471-481
Davide, C.L., 1977. Laboratory Guide in Dairy Chemistry Practically. FAO Reg. Dairy Develop. and Training Center for Asia and Pacific. Dairy Training and Res. Inst. Philippines. University of Philippines, Los Bamos College, Langnene, The Philippines
DePeters, E.J. and J.P. Cant, 1992. Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: A review. J. Dairy Sci., 75: 2043-2070
Dhiman, T.R., K.V. Zanten and L.D. Satter, 1995. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid composition of cow's milk. J. Sci. Food Agric., 69: 101-107
Drackley, J.K., 1999. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period; the final frontier. J. Dairy Sci., 82: 2259-2273
Elliott, J.P., J.K. Drackley and D.J. Weigel, 1996. Digestibility and effects of hydrogenatedpalm fatty acid distillate in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 79: 1031-1039.
Garg, M.R. and A.K. Mehta, 1998. Effect of feeding by-pass fat on feed intake, milk production and body condition of Holstein Friesian cows. Ind. J. Anim. Nutr., 15: 242-245
Garg, M.R., P.L. Sherasia, B.M. Bhanderi, S.K. Gulati and T.W. Scott, 2008. Effect of feeding bypass fat supplement on milk production and characteristics of butter fat. Ind. J. Dairy Sci., 61: 56-61
Goff, J.P. and R.L. Horst, 1997. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 1260-1268
Naik, P.K., 2013. Bypass fat in dairy ration-A review. Anim. Nutr. Feed Technol., 13: 147-163
Naik, P.K., Saijpaul, S., Sirohi, A.S. and Raquib, M. 2009. Lactation response of cross bred dairy cows fed indigenously prepared rumen protected fat - A field trial. Ind. J. Anim. Sci., 79:1045-1049.
Palmquist, D.L., 1991. Influence of source and amount of dietary fat on digestibility in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 1354-1360
Parnerkar, S., D. Kumar, S.S. Shankhpal and H. Thube, 2010. Effect of feeding bypass fat to lactating buffaloes during early lactation. 7th Biennial Anim. Nutr. Asso. Conf., Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India
Purushothaman, S., A. Kumar and D.P. Tiwari, 2008. Effect of feeding calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids on performance of lactating crossbred cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 13: 376-385
Relling, A.E. and C.K. Reynolds, 2007. Feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation decreases intake and increases plasma concentrations of gut peptides in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 1506-1515
Rodriguez, L.A., C.C. Stallings, J.H. Herbein and M.L. McGilliard, 1997. Effect of degradability of dietary protein and fat on ruminal, blood, and milk components of Jersey and Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 353-363
Sarwar, M., 2006. Investment Opportunities in Livestock Feed Industry. National Conference on Investment Opportunities in Livestock Sectors. Agric. Found. Pakistan. 4-6 April, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
Sirohi, S.K., K. Walli and R. Mohanta, 2010. Supplementation effect of bypass fat on production performance of lactating crossbred cows. Ind. J. Anim. Sci., 80: 733-736
Sklan, D., U. Moallem and Y. Folman, 1991. Effect of feeding calcium soaps of fatty acids on production and reproductive responses in high producing lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 510-517
Thakur, S.S. and S.K. Shelke, 2010. Effect of supplementing bypass fat prepared from soybean acid oil on milk yield and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffaloes. Ind. J. Anim. Sci., 80: 354-357
Tyagi, N., S.S. Thakur and S.K. Shelke, 2009. Effect of feeding bypass fat supplement on milk yield, its composition and nutrient utilization in crossbred cows. Ind. J. Anim. Nutr., 26: 1-8
Wadhwa, M., R.S. Grewal, M.P.S. Bakshi and P.S. Brar, 2012. Effect of supplementing bypass fat on the performance of high yielding crossbred cows. Ind. J. Anim. Sci., 82: 200-203
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Mobeen, Adnan; Riaz, M.; Yaqoob, M.U.|
|Publication:||International Journal of Agriculture and Biology|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2017|
|Previous Article:||Influence of Diurnal Temperature Range on the Development of Fiber Cells in Flax (Linum usitatissimum).|
|Next Article:||Use of RAPD Markers in Comparison with Agro-morphological Traits for Estimation of Diversity among Chickpea Genotypes.|