Educator of creativity on polish job market--the analysis of professional experiences of psychopedagogy of creativity graduates.
This challenge concerns all members of the European Union, but Poland is still behind in comparison to the most innovative countries of the world (Baczko, 2012; Zadura-Lichota, 2010). The Design and Creativity Index, developed by the EU to estimate the creative potential of countries, places Poland on the third to last position in the entirety of Europe (Hollanders & van Cruysen, 2010 as cited in Bendyk, 2010). Education should train and develop those skills and competencies that the economy and society need to be marketable and innovative. Putting those ideas into practice depends on the teaching curricula and the potential of teachers. This is why the authorities responsible for education in Poland stress the need for innovations in education, especially in methodology and organization (Ministerial ordinance, Ministry of National Education and Sport, April 9th 2002, on the conditions of innovative and experimental activities in public schools and other institutions) and the need to inspire teachers to develop and carry out innovative action (1.1. Art. 33 par. 1 point 4 of The Education System Act of 7 September 1991).
The Creativity Educator
According to our understanding, a creativity educator is not only a teacher performing the process of educating in creativity within the confines of formal education, especially in school environment, but also an educator taking part in this process in the area of informal education. This understanding of educating performance does not only concern children and teenagers, but is also considered to be a part of the lifetime learning process. In the literature concerning creativity educators, the most common considerations focus on practical instructions for teachers. Guidelines mainly involve the rules of teaching creativity and general conceptions of creativity education ("a philosophy" as Amabile says--see Amabile, 1989). The best-known lists of these rules are formulated by Amabile (1989), Nickerson (1999), Torrance (1995a), Sternberg & Grigorenko (2000). These authors underline the importance of students' autonomy and individuality, appreciation of any indication of creative thinking, encouragement to ask questions and to experiment, as well as avoidance of repressive control. It is, however, difficult to find a description that could serve as a model, one that would describe the resources and competencies of creativity educators. A proposition of a preliminary list of such resources has been presented in Table 1. It points towards the necessary attributes of creativity educators, areas of possible activity and their effects. The list has been formulated based on an examination of the research literature. The division of professional competencies has been inspired by an analysis of teachers of especially gifted students described by Polish researchers (Cieslikowska, 2005; Limont, 2005).
The main tasks of creativity educators include recognizing, encouraging and developing pupils' creativity (Joubert, 2001). A creativity educator can support creativity in at least two ways--by modelling creative attitude and behaviours, and by taking direct actions towards pupils' creative potential--stimulating creativity and removing obstacles from pupil's expression. These areas of activity reflect the characteristics of creativity educators. Certain attributes can enable them to accomplish the goals of creativity education as well as to achieve the effects concerning personal development.
A creative personality is very often considered to be one of the most important characteristics of creativity educators and modelling creative attitudes is believed to be one of their most important tasks (Amabile, 1989, 1996; Craft, 2002; Fasko, 2000/2001; Fisher, 2004; Nickerson, 1999; Runco, 2007; Sternberg, 2003; Sternberg & Williams, 1996; Torrance, 1995b). Cognitive and personality attributes, which enable the personal and professional (educational) creativity of creativity educators, and allow them to inspire and model their pupils' creative behaviours, ought to be taken into consideration. Professional knowledge of creativity is also of importance; a teacher's implicit theories of creativity, attitudes and beliefs are often the source of barriers in the process of education in creativity (Andiliou & Murphy, 2010; Beghetto, 2010; Cropley, 2010).
Another group of necessary expertise for creativity educators includes communication and social competence. These attributes concern the characteristics of a creativity educator perceived as a person engaged in the facilitation of the development of pupils' creativity. This facilitation can be achieved by creating a favourable psychosocial climate of pupil-teacher relations, for example through building authentic and empathic relationships with pupils. Researchers often refer to many conceptions concerning the creative climate of an organization, which involve the quality of interpersonal relations. The main prerequisite for effective creativity education is the relationship between the pupils and the teacher (Karwowski, 2009) and the atmosphere of trust and sense of security, which decreases the fear of consequences of making mistakes thus in turn increasing willingness to accept challenges (Cramond, 2005; Torrance, 1995a). Social competence and personality attributes seem to have significantly greater importance in creation of described atmosphere than professional knowledge. These attributes are essential for any teacher and consequently for creativity educators as well.
Educating Creativity Educators--The Psychopedagogy of Creativity
The 5-year master's degree studies called The Psychopedagogy of Creativity (see Karwowski, Gralewski, Lebuda, & Wisniewska, 2007) at The Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education in Warsaw (www.english.aps.edu.pl) is based on a conception of Dobrolowicz (1995). The model described here is very unusual, but other examples have been found and are somewhat similar, notably in Buffalo State College in the USA, the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain and at the University of Malta in Malta. The academic year 2011/2012 was the eleventh year when the graduates of this specialization completed a master's degree; so far 280 professional creativity educators have graduated from this course. Since 2012, due to the introduction of the provisions of The Bologna Process, the programme of course has changed and the Psychopedagogy of Creativity is offered only as a 3-year BA specialty.
According to the conceptions of the programme, graduates are educated in a way that enables them to organize various innovative forms of education in their local environment and to work for institutions that perform that kind of activity. They are prepared to develop children's and adults' creative abilities and attitudes. The knowledge gained about the methodology of education enables them to conduct classes, courses and trainings in creativity at schools and other educational facilities. They ought to be equipped with the skills of creating their own methods, programs and teaching aids, implementing innovations and the ability to diagnose and properly identify different abilities and talents of their pupils. The graduates should know how to effectively promote modern teaching methods among educators and teachers. The students are prepared to identify and creatively solve educational problems. Their psychosocial abilities stimulated during the studies (such as communication and cooperation skills, organizing and conducting task force, as well as stimulating local community) and creative skills enable them to take various professional roles. The curriculum of The Psychopedagogy of Creativity has been divided into three areas determining the syllabi of courses: psychology, pedagogy and trainings, workshops (Table 2).
During the first terms of studies, the students are trained in the Psychology of Creativity, the Psychology of Individual and Personality Differences, the Measuring Creative Abilities and Attitudes. Throughout this section of the course, the students first become acquainted with creativity from the perspective of classic and social psychological perspective and then creativity is analyzed in the context of the 4P paradigm, which embraces categories such as: process, person, product and place. They get to know the characteristics of creative person, individual differences, the creative process and its cognitive components, the role of motivation, emotions and the elements of social and applied psychology of creativity. The students learn about the research directions in this field and get to know psychometric issues connected with measuring it. This ranges from tools based on the tradition of Guilford and Torrance tests, creative personality and attitudes assessments, and the application of qualitative methods, such as observation, interview, biographical methods or product assessment.
The listed classes concerning the field of psychology are the basis of cultivating and refining future educators, however the leading class is the Pedagogy of Creativity, supplemented by others, such as the Alternative Pedagogy, the Pedagogy of Abilities, and also the Sociology of Creativity. During this, students become acquainted with the basic social factors that influence creativity, which includes the sociological stimulators and inhibitors of the creative activity of humans, creative climate, the social perception of creative people, culture development. During pedagogical faction of the course, students gain further knowledge on the topics of the evolution of the educational understanding of creativity, modern educational and psychopedagogical theories, the tradition of Polish social pedagogy and the pedagogy of culture. The students obtain information concerning schools and educational institutions, facilities performing creative education in Poland and in the world, alternative teaching methods and recent reports on pedagogical innovations. The whole program was enriched by courses that provide methodical instructions concerning the conduct of creative classes--the Creative Teaching Methodology, separately for children, youth and adults (supplemented by the Developmental Psychology), where different programs of stimulating abilities, creativity and personality development are discussed. Moreover, there is a sequence of classes concerning modeling social competence, i.e. classes in the Self-presentation, the Pedagogy of Professional Success, and the Social Marketing.
A significant part of the curriculum involves obligatory trainings and workshops. The practical component of the studies begins with the Effective Learning Techniques, including the methods of speed reading, mnemonics, mind-mapping, and the techniques of concentration improvement. Interpersonal Training provides opportunity for group integration and learning about the regularities of group processes through experiencing mutual interactions within the group. The Creative Thinking Stimulation Training begins with the aim of instructing participants who endeavor to realize the barriers in the way of complete implementation of their creative potential, and subsequently to overcome such barriers. This is based on methods of unconventional learning about oneself and others, the expression activities, stimulating the need of creation and belief in one's own abilities. Activating mental operations such as abstracting, transforming, asking questions, deductive and inductive thinking, making associations, creating metaphors; stimulating flexibility, fluency and originality of thinking; and exercising creative imagination aim to train creative abilities. Students get to know not only the specificity of the problem-solving process and its stages, but also gain an overview of the techniques of creative problem-solving, the rules that stimulate thinking and the mechanisms of the functioning of inventive groups, as well as individual differences in applying the individual heuristic rules. The classes consist of various different forms of activities including art, drama, literature, music. As a summary of the training, students design their own creativity training sessions and run some fragments of these with a group, whilst the instructor supervises. Students' participation in creativity trainings and other forms of workshops enables them to gain valuable experience on different levels, such as coaching, interpersonal and intrapersonal.
The Present Study
The present analyses come from a wider longitudinal study (still in progress) "The Barriers and Chances on the Way to Self-Creation". The study's participants were chosen from the group of graduates of the Psychopedagogy of Creativity specialty at the Academy of Special Education in Poland. Its goals are to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the postulates of creativity education by professionally trained creativity educators and identify the key barriers on the way to creative functioning in the social role of a creativity educator, individual strategies of overcoming them. Our aim is to create a thorough multifaceted description of the living space of young creativity educators in the financial and psychological aspects; i.e. life achievements, psychological well-being.
The part of the study reported here was based on the qualitative data from the research. The aim of it was to find to what extent the competence and knowledge acquired during the studies reflect the real creative achievements of the graduates in areas such as: creative activities, life orientations, professional activities (preferred professional activities, the possibilities of activities on the labour market and professional achievements).
The main part of the study included 31 graduates from different years. . Seventeen of them were interviewed and the remaining fourteen created documents that were analysed in the research. Data was collected over the period of 2009-2011. The group included four men and 27 women aged between 24 and 33. Participation in the study was voluntary and the sample was generated snowballing procedure (Babbie, 2005).
Seventeen non-standardized in-depth qualitative interviews (N=17) were conducted, along with the analysis of documents prepared by the participants (N=14)--diary records. We used the triangulation of the data sources and research methods (Denzin, 1989). All participants were informed about the aim and procedure of the study. The interviews included open-ended questions about high-school, plans for education at the time, studies, job, personal life and creativity. The interview was audio recorded (with the respondents' consent) and then transcribed.
The second group of participants were asked to write down their own reflections about the process of their creative development (documents sent on an e-mail account). The data was then analysed using the Atlas.ti software. The analyzing process included open coding of the data (Gibbs, 2011), however, the main categories for coding was based on our previous research, and included: looking for a job, professional activity, job satisfaction, cognitive and personal resources, professional competence.
Apart from people taking part in the study, we monitored the places of employment and job positions (via the Internet, personal contact and phone conversations) of 150 other graduates.
After completion of the analysis, we conducted a validation referring to the opinion of tested participants, as well as of graduates who were not taken into the study.
A Creativity Educator Enters the Labour Market
The graduates of The Psychopedagogy of Creativity, after finishing their studies, were most often looking for employment in education. In addition, those who were indecisive about their future career and those who were planning on working outside the educational sector, eventually begun seeking employment in this area. They found the conditions of employment essential, such as offered job contracts, the salary and the quality of social security arrangements. When comparing these factors, it usually resulted in choosing jobs outside of this sector. A component of graduates had been planning on choosing an artistic profession or a profession according to their interests, which were not related to the field of their academic education, from the beginning of their studies. Those people were motivated by the urge to improve their own creative skills while choosing given speciality.
The Psychopedagogy of Creativity--Employers' Reactions to the New Specialty
While seeking employment, the graduates came across an interest in the name of the study course from potential employers. The term "Psychopedagogy of Creativity" was poorly recognizable in the labour market, especially as the first graduates entered the market (2002-2004). Although the term was unrecognizable, it aroused curiosity among the potential employers and positive associations with creativity, enterprise, innovation and modernity.
These days the name of the specialization, among school principles and owners of educational facilities, is associated with the education of gifted students and stimulation of creativity. Despite the increase in the recognition of the term, the name of the specialization still arouses interest; unfortunately it is accompanied by uncertainty about the competence of its graduates in the area of facilitating creativity skills. The graduates themselves find it an advantage as the name of the specialization is so interesting that it becomes their predominance over the competition in the first stages of recruitment, and the uncertainty about the knowledge acquired during the studies enables the adjustment of their self-presentation to demands of given job offer. During the job interview the graduates can present and focus on those aspect of their education which, in their opinion, are the most fitting for the position they are applying for. This is what one of the participants said:
"I said I had graduated from Psychopedagogy of Creativity as mentioned in my application. Nevertheless, I still had to explain what it was about. So, depending on what company I was applying to, I adjusted the description of the study course. And the truth is that during studies you obtain a wide range of knowledge and after this course, you can really do everything, stay in the academia, teach at schools and colleges, work for advertising agencies, in the media ..."
The employers, especially in private educational facilities, were usually interested in employing the graduates of this specialization. However, they were often offered to conduct only a few hours of classes a week. Most often, they failed at finding employment in psycho-pedagogical counselling, where specialists in typical school diagnosis and pedagogical therapy were needed. However, the participants admitted that this could be related to their low sense of competence in the field of tutoring pupils with domain-relevant abilities.
"After the internship, I was offered the job in the clinic. At the time, I thought I would work in the area of professional training. I could not find anything suitable, so I contacted the clinic, but I did not take their offer because they wanted me to take care of talented kids, mostly mathematicians and musicians. I admitted, that this was not my area of expertise".
The most attractive in the labour market were the graduates of more than one specialization.
Attributes of the Graduates of The Psychopedagogy of Creativity and Their Work
According to the statements of the graduates, we can distinguish two groups of factors most useful in real life, acquired or developed during the studies: personal attributes and professional competence (Figure 1).
Among personal attributes, the graduates paid particular attention to personality skills and maintaining a proactive attitude towards problems. The developments of these features were claimed to have been obtained mainly by training and workshops included in the curriculum of the studies. According to one the participants:
"After the creativity training you become a different person. I myself saw that a grown-up can change. Thanks to all this training I see the world differently, and most of all I see myself differently and I approach tasks differently. I don't give up as fast as others do".
The participants who currently work in the educational sector emphasized that the studies in The Psychopedagogy of Creativity contributed to their methodological preparation to work. They claimed that they were highly appreciated in their work for the skill of conducting classes attractively.
"Me and my friends who attended The Psychopedagogy of Creativity, we stand out. Our courses are always the most popular. Everyone knows that we are experts on surprises, there is not boredom in our courses. We often use the tools that our teachers showed us, but we also have our own ideas".
Alumni are capable of creating the climate conducive to creativity during classes, especially the playful atmosphere and the sense of security. They are also able to surprise their pupils and motivate them to accept challenges and explore certain problems, for example composing stories of a certain origin for a certain purpose, looking for alternative endings in classic school readings and creating social campaigns, which encourage ecologically friendly actions. The graduates considered the knowledge of activation methods to be valuable assistance in their work. They admitted they were still using the materials they had gathered during their studies--task procedures, activities and games used while working with pupils. The participants also mentioned the skill, or even the habit, of evaluating and consequently improving their classes, which was acquired during the studies. The respondents working outside of the educational sector also focused on the importance of particular attributes in the group of professional competences. They claimed in their work they used heuristics to solve problems and found the knowledge of psychology useful for a better understanding of group processes. They valued social skills, which they described as increasing their personal and professional effectiveness.
The Professional Activities of the Graduates of the Psychopedagogy of Creativity
The graduates most often work in the sector of both children's and teenagers' education as well as adults' education. They are coaches, educators, lecturers, teachers and therapists, as well as animators and organizers of educational enterprises. There are two groups of participants who professionally teach. The first one includes the people who specialize in stimulating creative skills and supporting problem solving. The second one consists of people who use the methodology of creative education in their work, although their professions are not directly related to creativity. Some of them took part in organizing various educational projects or initiated, designed and managed the enterprises addressed to children, teenagers and adults themselves. The graduates have conducted several trainings and workshops. These, being addressed to psychologists and teachers, promote the ideas of Psychopedagogy of Creativity. The respondents also took part in international programs supporting the development of creativity, i.e. Odyssey of the mind (www.odysseyofthemind.com) and Destination Imagination (www.idodi.org).
Some graduates have started their own businesses. They offer various classes and courses of their own, ranging from creative thinking trainings to art classes. The research participants who run their own educational facilities often design their own curriculums. They are authors of publications of programs and scenarios concerning the development of creative skills, drama, the methods of effective learning and media education. The main professional roles played by the graduates of Psychopedagogy of Creativity and their work places are presented in Table 3.
The participants working outside of the educational sector are employed in various departments, such as marketing and promotion, public relations or human resources. They organize cultural events, festivals, receptions, and run their own businesses, i.e. beauty salons, e-shops, eateries. Some graduates run family businesses. A part of them work for non-governmental organizations who support people in need of help, i.e. as street educators, workers supporting disabled people and group therapists. They are also employed in companies and organizations that promote various ideas in Poland, such as independent cinema or e-leaning. Other professional activities performed by the graduates of The Psychopedagogy of Creativity include: selecting and testing precious stones, breath healing, organizing and conducting educational workshops for fathers. A minority of this group also includes those who professionally deal with creativity, i.e. the author of fiction books, a ballroom dancer, an interior designer, a newspaper columnist, musicians, photographers, people designing and selling their own jewellery and other ceramic products. The field of creative activity, in which a few graduates of The Psychopedagogy of Creativity are successful is scientific creation. Their achievements in this area particularly involve scientific publications, research projects, awards and scholarships. Their scientific creation in this area mainly concerns the pedagogy and psychology of creativity and media education.
Each professional group of graduates has reported different sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The participants employed in the educational sector list, as the main sources of their satisfaction: working in accordance with their education, the opportunity to use the knowledge and skills acquired during the studies, direct contact with pupils, the sense of usability and impact on real life matters and promoting the idea of education in creativity. The main sources of dissatisfaction to them are: low salary, procedures of career advancement, and the necessity of taking multiple jobs (caused by low salary).
The participants employed outside of the educational sector refer to the main sources of satisfaction as: financial independence and security, the prestige of their position and the opportunity to become an authority. One of main causes of graduates' dissatisfaction is the lack of professional relations to creativity pedagogy and creativity psychology. Some of them openly admit that choosing their career path was conditioned by their financial situation.
The graduates dealing with artistic creativity most value the opportunity to implement their passion and express themselves. However, they are afraid of their professional future and unstable position in the artistic market. They also have, as one of the subjects named it, "the complex of an uneducated artist"--the fear of competition with educated artists. Those who deal with scientific creation find the nature of their tasks the main factor of satisfaction. A key dissatisfaction for them is linked to financial and organizational aspects.
The analysis conducted and reported here indicates that the process of educating creativity teachers has potential, however also shows the obstacles the graduates of the discussed specialization of pedagogical studies need to overcome in their work.
The graduates from The Psychopedagogy of Creativity, working in education and other professional areas stressed that, during their training, they gained versatile, personal and professional resources. Graduates working as teachers and school counsellors mentioned that their courses are popular. However, the chances for employment of The Psychopedagogy of Creativity graduates lie mostly in private education and informal education. It is difficult for them to find jobs in the public education sector, i.e. in schools, where counsellors are also expected to be teachers (what does not often involve students' talent development) and in clinics, which mostly look for therapists and where the need for creativity diagnosticians is scarce. The declarations to support and facilitate the development of talents by the Polish education system were not followed by a creation of jobs or positions, where people skilled in the area of creativity development could work towards achieving these goals. Those graduates who also graduated from specialties known in the Polish education system have greater chances to find a job.
Many problems that the graduates meet have systemic origins. The obstacles also result from the low, even if gradually increasing, interest of the education authorities in Poland in the idea of systemic support of the development of creative skills. The name of the specialization itself, according to the participants, caused many questions from potential employers that do not associate it with any particular pedagogical skills. The graduates of the Psychopedagogy of Creativity also lack resources in the field of tutoring pupils with domain-relevant abilities, which is often the object of interest for the employers of school pedagogues. It is possible that the Polish education system needs a counsellor or a teacher trained to do the job as up until now, but with additional competencies, that would also include supporting creativity (in terms of a given subject or area). On the other hand, the egalitarian and democratic approach towards creative skills, that describes them as a potential available to anyone (to a different degree) and used in a wide array of human activity, may suggest that it is necessary to train educators to facilitate creativity not only in a given area but in general. In our opinion, those questions and doubts reflect the basic discussion about creativity that takes place in the area of psychology--whether creativity abilities should be viewed as domain-specific or general (see Baer, 2010).
The Psychopedagogy of Creativity is an innovative specialty and, as such, it is going through a difficult phase of implementation into an educational practice. There is a need for further research to monitor its effects on the Polish educational system and labor market. Even if graduates have to cope with many obstacles, the presented findings illustrate the potential of the Psychopedagogy of Creativity as a way for training creativity educators. However, this research also suggests we need to consider this process in a wider context. The idea of a creativity educator can be discussed as universal at an international, scientific level but putting it into practice requires taking into account the context of its implementation. Cited conclusions may become an inspiration or a comparative material for initiators and leaders of educational actions of similar spectrum. Nevertheless, one has to note that the described studies have some limitations, particularly related to the inadequacy of autobiographical memory and typical tendency of questioned participants to self-valorization.
Izabela Lebuda, Ewa Wisniewska and Marta Galewska-Kustra
Academy of Special Education, Poland
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Izabela Lebuda, Department of Educational Sciences, Academy of Special Education, Szczesliwicka St., 40, 02-353 Warsaw, Poland. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
This research was supported by a grant from Academy of Special Education (BST 07/06-II).
The authors would like to thank coworkers from Creative Education Lab who were involved in the preparation and implementation of the grant (BST 07/06--II), the research participants and the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments. We gratefully acknowledge the valuable support of the Guest Editors of the Special issue of International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving--Maciej Karwowski and Vlad-Petre Glaveanu.
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Table 1 The Attributes of Creative Educators, the Areas of Their Activities and Potential Effects. Creativity educator The attributes of a creativity educator Cognitive and personality Professional competence of attributes a creativity educator: of a creativity educator: Creative personality and Substantive: knowledge creative attitude of a (general pedagogical and creativity educator psychological knowledge; the knowledge of creativity and it conditioning; methodological knowledge); Didactic (skills concerning planning and performing the complex process of creativity education) Social and communication (skills concerning building relationships and interactions conducive to the development of pupils' creativity) The areas of the education activities of a creative educator Modelling creative attitude Taking intentional educational and behaviours actions towards pupils' creativity Diagnosing and Stimulating identifying pupils' creative creative potential potential (stimulating the development of subjective features related to creativity, removing obstacles to creativity) The possible effects The development of pupils' The development of pupils' creativity; The personal Self- creativity; Educational creation creativity of a creativity (new curriculums, creativity educator; methods, tools of creativity diagnosis and education tools --educational innovations concerning education in creativity and creative education) Table 2 Examples of Courses Offered as Part of the Education of Creativity Curriculum. Leading areas Selected classes around which the content of classes concentrates: Pedagogy Pedagogy of Creativity, Alternative Pedagogy, Pedagogy of Abilities, Creative Teaching Methodology (separately for children, youth and adults), Sociology of Creativity, Pedagogy of Professional Success Psychology Psychology of Creativity, Measuring Creative Abilities and Attitudes, Psychology of Individual Differences, Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology Training Effective learning techniques, Interpersonal Session Training, Creative Thinking Stimulation Classes Training, Methods and Techniques of Creative Problem Solving, Training Construction, Drama, Art workshops, Self-presentation, Social Advertisement and Marketing Table 3 The Professional Roles And Work Places of the Graduates of the Psychopedagogy of Creativity Employed in the Educational Sector Children's education Adults' education Professional roles Coaches Coaches/trainers Teachers/tutors Academic teachers School pedagogues Culture animators Culture educators Training specialists Methodologists The animators of enterprises in local community The authors of children's Professional advisors and teenagers' publications The owners of educational Human Resources workers facilities Therapists (psycho-pedagogical The authors of methodical counselling) publications The executives of non-public educational institutions Work places Creative education centres Foundations, associations, non-governmental organizations Nurseries and kindergartens Colleges and universities Schools (mainly elementary) Coaching companies, training departments Foundations, associations, E-learning companies, non-governmental companies dealing with media organizations education Cultural centres Cultural centres Psycho-pedagogical counselling Professional training and therapy centres institutions Research institutes Research institutes Language schools
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|Author:||Lebuda, Izabela; Wisniewska, Ewa; Galewska-Kustra, Marta|
|Publication:||The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2013|
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